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New Hampshire, 


()!•' MANY OF ITS 

Pioneers and Piiominent Men. 




J. W. LEWIS & CO. 

188 2. 


Copyright, 1882, J. W. Lewis & Co. 


The province of the historian is to gatiier tlie threads of the past, ere they eUide forever his 
grasp, and weave tiieni into a harmonious welj, to which tiie art preservative may give immor- 
tality. Therefore he wiio would roseue from fast-gatliering oblivion the deeds of a community, 
and send them on to futurity in :ui imperishable record, siiould deliver "a plain, unvarnished 


" Nothing extenuate, 
Nor set down nii-jlit in mnlico." 

In such a spirit have tiie compilers of the following pages approached the work of detailing 
the history of the territory embodied herein, and trust they have been fairly faithful to the task 

It has been their honest endeavor to trace the history of the development of this section from 
that period when it was in the undisputed possession of the led man to the present, and to place 
before the reader an authentic narrative of its rise and [jrogress to the prominent position it now 
occupies among the counties of New England. 

That such an undertaking is attended with no little diiliculty and vexation none will deny. 
The aged jiioneer relates events of the early settlements, while his neighbor sketches the same 
events with totally dilFerent outlines. Man's memory is ever at fault, while time j)aints a differ- 
ent picture upon every mind. With these the historian has to contend; and while it has been 
our aim to compile tin accurate history, were it devoid of all inaccuracies, that j)erfeetion would 
have-been attained which the writer had not the faintest conception of, and which Lord Macaulay 
once said never could be reached. 

From colonial and other documents in the State archives, froiy county, town, and village 
records, family manuscripts, printed publications, and innumerable private sources of information, 
we have endeavored to produce a history which should prove accurate, instructive, and in every 
respect worthy of the counties represented. How well we have succeeded in our task a generous 
public, jealous of its reputation and honor, of its traditions and memories, of its defeats and 
triumphs, must now be the judge. 

We desire to acknowledge our sincere thanks to the editorial fraternity generally for much 
.valuable information, which has greatly lessened our labor in the j)reparation of this work ; to 
each and every one who has assisted us in the compilation, and would cheerfully make personal 
mentiou of each, but it is impracticable, as the number roaches nearly a thousand. 
Philadelphia, Nov. 10, 1882. 

D. H. H. 



QEOORArnicAi. am) Dkscrii-tive I 

Civil List _ 1 


Military List. 

Second, Third, Fuurtli, Firili, Sixth, SeTenIb, Eightli, Kliitli, and Tomb 

Eeglnicnta , 3 

Military History. — ( Vuniiniied.) 
Klevrntb, Tbirteeutb, Fuurtoenlb, Finornlb, Sixtoeiith, and Eigh- 
teenth RegimentD 8 

Bkscii and Bar. 
AtklDflon — Cliester — Deerfidd—Dcrry—Kpplng— Exeter — Greonlaiid- 
idorry — Np 

Hampton — Kingston — Londo 
Salem— Scahrook— Windham ... 

narket — North wood — 


Portsmouth. — ( Coiiiinued.) 

Mannere and Social Life— Temperance — Use of Tobacco — Social Cus- 

I toma — Clnirch Pew» nud Customs — Observance of Sunday — Cost of 

LlTiog— Early Lawe— The Isles of SbuaU 66 


I PORTSMOITII. — (Collliliuetl.) 

The Nary-Tard— The "Falkland"— The " Itangcr"— The "America" 
—The Ministry of Rogers— Tbo Hiilf-Way Covenant— A New Par- 
ish 71 


The County Farm— Inlt-nial Improvfmoiils — Railrnmls: The Enstom— 
The Portimoutli and Dover— The Tortinioulb, Great Falls and Con- 
way — Tbo Concord and Portjimoutb — Soco and Portsmouth — The 
Noitbiia and Rochester — The Portauioutb and Rochester — The Boston 
and Maine — The Dover and Winnipiseogco — The Mancboeter and 
Lawrence 39 



Motives of the Colonl^tta — Early Voyagere — John Smith — The Piscataqua 

— Tbomsou's Settlement at Little Harbor — Mason and Lacouia 

Patent 41 

PoRTSMOt.'TII. — (t'oiKiniierf.) 
The Church of England — Early Rectors and Govornora— Anecdotes of 
Mather — Settled Conclusions — The Laconia Company — Death of Ma- 
son — Aliaiidonment of the Settlement by bis Widow— Under tbo Juris- 
diction of Massachusetts— Claim of Mason's Heirs — Ricbanl GliNion 
— PulpitSu|>pl{es — The name PorU^moutii — Pews and Seating — Early 
Laws aud Rulers 44 


PoUTSHOUTII. — (CoHtiuued.) 

The Mason Claims — Theological Movemontji — Early Clergymen — Cran- 
fleld and Moodey — Imprisonment of Moodey — Dr. Moodey's Interest 
in Harvard College— His Dealb 62 


PonTSMOUTii. — {Coiilhitied.) 
Separation of the Town of New Castle- The Parisli— Litliobolia— Prom- 
inence of New Castle- Prominent Inhabitants— The Sheafe Family— 
The Jaffrey House 61 J 

PORTSMOITII. — (Colllilllied.) 

Re-establisbment of E|>iscopacy— Rev. Arlbnr Brown- Dr. Bancroft — 
Dr. Burroughs— Rulei-e until the Revolution- Benning Wentworib— 
Sir John Wentworib— Prill. ii>al Names in tbo Eurl.v Setllemeul— 
I Henry Sberburn^uhn Piikering— Samuel Wentworib— Sir William 
Pepperell— The Siege of Lotlisblirg— Cliam[}erriowne — Succeeding 
Ministers of llie Old South Parish— Emei-son— A Chnrcli at Ibc Plains 
—Absence of the Spirit of Pemecullon— Wilcbcnilt- A New Church 
-Sbnrtlelf— Clerical A necdotee— Revival under Wbitefleld— Strong— 
Jonathan EilwanU— Ministers of the North Parisb— Tlio Universal- 
lal Parisli— Various Events— Visit of Wiubiiigton— Gonclusiuu.... 76 


PoRT.SMOfTII. — (Culllilllicd.) 

Military Record 89 


PouTsltoiJTII. — (Ciinliiiucd.) 

Churches— Banks — Press — Societies, etc. — Biographical Sketches.... 92 

Early History— Ecclesiastical History— Educational— Atklnaon Acad- 
emy — lodividuals who have entered Learned Professions 117 


Atklvscs. — (Cunliniied.) 

Lawyora— Physicians— Sketi'hes of Inclividuals— Longovity— Miscolla- 
U00U8 — Military Becorii — Representatives 122 


Geograiibical—Topograiibical— First Settlers— Eccleeiastical— First Con- 
gregatiouul Clinrcb — Methodist Episcopal Church — Civil and Military 
History— Petition for Incorporation— "Westchester"— TlieO|iiiiisition 
-The Town Incorporated— The First Town-Moiling— Moderators- 
Town Clerks- Bepresoutatives- Military Histories- Bioginphicul 
Sketches i26 



Geographical— Topographii:al—Enrly Inhabitants— Docnmontary Ilis- 
tory-Meeting-House—Ecclesiaslical History— Congregational Church 
— Baptist Church — Military History — Biographical Sketches 129 



Geographical— Topographical— Names of Early Settlei-s— Bounds of the 
Town— First Town-Meeting— Officers Elected— Documentary History 
—Ecclesiastical History— Free-Will Baptiat Churcli— Methodist Epis- 
copal Church— Educational— Early Eoads— College Graduates— Mili- 
tary History 137 


Geographical — Topographical — Proprietoi-s — Early Votes — Petition for 
Grant of the Town-Names of Petitionei-s-The Royal Charter— Names 
of Original Grantees — Early Families — Pioneer Mills — Pioneer Schools 
— College Graduates — Physicians — Attorneys — Ecclesiastical History 
—The Presbyterian Church— The Congregational Churcli— Baptist 
Church— The Methodist Episcopal Church 142 

Chesteh. — (Cuiilinned.) 
CivU and Milihvnj. — Incorporation of the Town — Original Bounds — Mod- 
erators — Clerks — Representatives — Military History — The Heroes of 
Three Wars— War of the Revolution— 1812— War of the Rebel- 
lion — Biographical Sketches 149 

Geography — Topography — Petition for Parish — Documentary History — 
Ecclesiastical History — Methodist Episcopal Church — Free-WlU Bap- 
tist Church — Dniversalist Church— Congregational Church — Military 
History — Biographical Sketches 161 

Geographical — Topographical — Petition for Palish Incorporation — First 
Town-Meeting— Officers Elected — The Revolution — Ecclesiastical — 
Congregational Church— Baptist Church — The Deerfield Academy — 
Attorneys — Physicians — Early Families— Delegates to Provincial Con- 
gress — Representatives and Town Clerks, 1789 to 1882 — Biographical 
Sketches 164 


Derry. ' 
Geographical — The Pinkerton Academy — .^dams Female Academy — 
Banks — Post-OlRces and Postmasters— Derry Fair — Masonry — Derry 
East Village— Derry Village— Derry Depot— Kit Manufactory— Tlie 
Milk Business— Mexican War— War of the Rebellion— Londonderry 
Celebration— Nutfield Grange, No. 37- Press— Town Hall— First Li- 
brary—Taylor Library— Telegraph— Grand Army— Odd Fellowship- 
Public Bequests— Telephone-Population and Valuation 168 

Dekrv. — ( Continued.) 
First Meetiug-House — Methodist Meeting-House — First Congregational 
Church— Ministers of the East Parish — Methodist Church and Min- 
isters — Ministei-sof the First Congregational Church — Baptist Society 
at Derry Depot — Military Record — Biographical Sketches 177 

East Kingston. 
Early History, etc.— First Settlers— Climate — Education— Temperance 
— Geological 184 


East Kingston. — (Continued.) 

Distinguished Men — Eminent Women 189 

East Kingston. — (Cuntiiined.) 
Ecclesiastical History — Congregationalists — Methodists — Baptists — 
Adventists — Free-Will Baptists— Universalists-The Christiana— Cath- 
olics — Representatives — Political — Military Record — Biographical 
Sketches 191 


Geographical — Topographical — Petition for a Parish — Petition of the 
Inhabitants of Epping for Men to protect them, 1747 — Petition in ref- 
erence to Highway — War of the Revolution — The Lottery Bridge 
—Petition for the Commission of William Plumer as Justice of the 
Peace— Pollsof 1783— Incorporation of the Town— First Town-Meeting 
-Officers Elected— Ear-Marks— War of the Revolution- Votes of the 
Town — Epping in 1804— Industrial Pursuits — Masonic, etc. — List of 
Representatives from 1775-1882 — Military Record — Soldiers of the 
War of the Rebellion.. 204 


Efpi>'G. — ( Continued.) 

EcclesiasUcaL — The Congregational Church — The Methodist Episcopal 

Church— The Bedding Camp-Meeting Association— Society of Friends 

— Universalist Societv 


Ep^isg.— (Continued.) 
JIfwfeHaiieoiM.— Native Ministei-s— Physicians— Public Officials— Attor- 
neys — College Graduates — Railroads— Banks — Population— Origin of 
the Name of the Town — Biographical Sketches 224 

Geographical— Topographical — The First Settlement — John Wheel- 
wright and Others— Names of Pioneers — The Exeter *' Combination" 
of 1634— Wheelwright's Resilience- Exposure of Exeter to Indian 
Hostilities— Edward Cranfield's Despotism — Exeter's Resistance to 
Government Taxation- The " Maat-Head" Troubles 243 


Exeter. — ( Continued.) 

War of the devolution. — Resolutions of 1774 — Lords North and Bute 

burned in Etfigy — Exeter in the first armed resistance to British 

Authority— Bursting of the War Cloud— Exeter in Arms— The First 

Company 246 

Exeter. — [Continued.) 
Exeter in 1776.— Topography of the Village — Industries— Shipping — 
General View of the Village— Exeter the Capital of the Province and 
■State— Adoption there of the First Written Constitution of the Revo- 
lutionary Period— The Powder-House — The "Provincial" Jail— The 
Court-House — The Meeling-House— Prominent Residents— The Bev- 
olntion — Early Merchants 248 


Exeter. — (Continued.) 

Antinomian Incidents.— The Outbreak of 1786- Release of the Indian 

Murderers, Bowen and Morrill — Arrival of George Wliitefield — First 

Reading of the Declaration of Independence — Washington's Visit — 

The Hoax of 1798 — Annexation to Massachusetts 260 


Exeter. — ( Continued.) 

Ecclesiastical 264 


Exeter.— (Co)i(muerf.) 

The Publishing Interest 274 

Exeter. — (Continued.) 
Phillips' Exeter Academy — Robinson's Female Seminary — Banks- 
Manufacturing — Military Record — Representatives — Biographical 
Sketches 278 




Geographical — Topographical — Early History — iDcorporatiOD — Military 

Record— Biographical Sketchw „ 29« 


Greknland. ' 

Geographical— Topographical — Pvtiliou fur Pririlegefl — PetittoD for a 

Township — Documentary History — Other Petitions — Taverns — War of 

the ReToliitloD — Action of the Towns— Annexatioo to Hanacha- 

setts 299 


Green'I.AN'D. — (Conjinued.) 

Ciril History- Ecclesiastical— Junkins Council— Americun Legion of 

Honor— Wlnnlcnl Ixxlge, No. 92, A. F. and A. M.— Brackett Academy 

— Bepresentatlves— Sliiitary Record- Biographical Sketches. 302 

GosroBT 312 



Qeogrnphical— Top«>graphlcal — Petition for l^nrlsh — Names of Early Set- 
tiera— The Fiml Setllomonta— Congregational Church— Military Rec- 
ord—Biographical Sketches 313 



Geographical— Topographical— Fltvt Settlement — The " Bound House** 

—Names of Early Setllem-Incideuts - 317 


Hamiton.— {C"H»inu«/.) 

Quakeni— The First Mill— The Meeting-IIouse— Wolves— Watch.Houee 

—Purity of the Ballot-" llnnsomlng" the Chun-h— Forts- Garrisons 

— Ringing the Bell — The Causeway — Witchcraft — Persecution of the 

Quakere 321 


HamI'TOX (ConliimrJ.) 

First Vote concerulng British Oppression — Tea Act Resolves— Provincial 
Cougreas—Guanl— Committee of Safety— Soldlen' Bounties— List of 
Revolutionary Soldiers — Soldiera of the Rehellion 322 


Hampton. — ( Cuniinuitl.) 

Ecclesiastical — Physicians — Incorporatiou — Original Territorial Limits 

—Representatives from 1639 to 1883— Town Clerks— Biographical 

Sketches 328 

Hamito.v Falls. 
Geographical— Tu|)ogmphicaI— List of Early Inhahitants — Petition of 
Hampton Falls for a Fair— Grant of a Fair, 1734— Other Petitions- 
Council of 1737 333 


Hampton Falls.— (Co.,(,-,iuei/.) 

Streams and Falls 3.'!4 


Hampton Falls. — ( Cuiitimuil.) 

Churches — Rockingham Academy — Wearo Monument — Representatives 

— Military Record — Biographical Sketches 337 



Early History— Churches — Church Societies 352 


I Kexsisgtox. — ( Cuiiiiniied.) 

Physicians — Educational — Currency — Slaves — Population — Senators — 
Repreeentalivee — Military History — Temperance — Biographical 
Sketches 357 


I Geographical — Tofiographical- Original Charter — Occupations- Ecdesi- 
asticid— History- The Epidemic 366 

KisosTON. — {Conl!nuetl.) 
Educational — Ecclesiastical — Granteee — Profc«8ional Men, etc. — Repre- 
sentatives from 1708 to 1883 — Military Record — Biographical 
Sketches 373 


i Newcastle. 

I Geographical— Topographical— First Settlement— (ireat Island— The 

^ Fort of 1660— Fort William and >l»iy— Fort Coustltulion- Remiuis- 

I cencee— Promiuenl Men— The Wonlworlli- .Military Record 388 



Geographical— Topographical— Si'tlloment— Indian Traiibles— The Mas- 

•acre of " nio<Hly Point"— Civil History— Congregational Chureh— 

Military Record— Biographical Sketches 302 



Geographical — Topographical — Geological— Manufactures — Churches — 

Banks— Biographical— Representatives — Physicians — Attorneys — 

goldlan War of tlio Rebellion— Biographical Sketch 395 

Ge»griitiliirnl—lo|Kjgraphical— Petition for Erection of Town— Revolu- 
tionary Soldiers— Prominent Numoa 403 

North Hampton. 
GiHigraphical — Toiiographlral — Settlement — Garrison-House — Indian 
Depredations— Petition for Parish Privileges — Organization of Parish 
—"The North Hill Parish"— Incorporation— Petition to be Released 
from Parish Bate*— Eccleslostical History— Slllltary Record— Bio- 
graphical Skelchea 40G 



Geographical — Topographical— Kiirly Settlements — Names of Pioneers 
-Incorporation— First Town-Meeting- Oflicers Eli-cled- The Revo- 
lution — The Association Test — Kcctesiastical History — Cole's North- 
wood Academy — Villnges and Hamlets — Physicians — Early Fami- 
lies 426 


North woo II. — {('oiitiiiiinl,) 

Revolulionorj- Soldiers— War of 1812— War of the Rebellion— Town 

Clerks 1T73-1883— Representatives 1794-188;)— Biographical Sketch. 



Geographical- Topographical- Petition for Grant of Town— Name- 

Royal Grant— Original Proprietors— The S 
dians — Revolutionary — Attorneys — Physic 

vey — Ecclesiiistlcal- 
18— Eariy Families... 




Geographical — Topographical — Petitions — Early Settlers — Ecclesiastical 

History — Representatives — Military Record — Biographical Sketch. 




(geographical — Topographical — Purchase of Town — Survey — Settlement 

— Nantes of Pioneers — Incoi-poration — First Town-Meeting — Officers 

Klected — Documentaiy History — Early Families — Physicians 443 


Raymond. — (Continued.) 

Ecclesiastical History— Educational 448 

Raymond. — {Coullnued.) 
Civil History— Military Record — College Graduates — Population— Bio- 
graphical Sketch 451 



Geographical — Topographical — First Settlement — First Grant — Names 

of Pioneers— The First Deed— Indian Depredations- Witchcraft— 

" Breaktast Hill" — Incidents — Educational — Ecclesiastical History — 

Petitions 455 



Merchants — Justices — Physicians — Town Hall — Military — War of the 

Revolution — Military Record — Biograpiiical Sketches 463 



Geographical — Topographical — Early History — Settling a Minister — The 

Meetiug.House — The Burying-Ground — Civil History 469 


Salem. — (Cuntiimed.) 

Ecclesiastical History — Schools— Associations — Manufactures — Military 

Record 474 


Salem.— {eoH(/ii(ie((.) 
Civil History — Biographical Sketches 480 



Geographical — Topographical — Early Settlements — Petition for Town 

Privileges — Incorporation — Names of Early Settlers — Ministers — 

Churches — Railroad 484 



Geographical — Topographical — First Settlements — Indian Depredations 

— Prominent Citizens — Dearborn Academy — Churches — Civil History 

— Incorporation — Financial Condition ofTown — Military Record... 485 


Seabrook. — ( Continued.) 

Ecclesiastical History — Military Record — Biographical Sketches 487 


South Hampton. 

Geographical — Topographical — Incorporation — Charter — Documentary 

History— Petitions — Signers to the Association Test — Representatives 

from 1775 to 1883— Military Record 515 


South Hampton. — (Continued.) 

Ecclesiastical History — Biographical Sketch 519 

SoiTTH Newmarket. 

Settlement— Indian Wara 525 

SoDTH Newmarket. — ( Cuntinned.) 
Incorporation — Roads and Stages — Ship-building anrl Commerce — Man- 
ufacturing 529 


South Newmarket. — ( Continued.) 

Military History 632 


South Newm.arket. — (Continwd.) 

Ecclesiastical History — Biographical Sketches 536 

CHAPTER Lxxxrr. 

Geographical — Petition for Charter — Documentary History — Civil His- 
tory — Church History — Postmasters — Representatives— Military Rec- 
ord— War of the Rebellion- Physicians — Garrison — Biographical 
Sketches 642 

Geographical — Topographical — Causes for Settlement — First Settlement 
— First Settlers — Petitions and Incorporation — First Town-Meeting — 
Last French and Indian War — Members of Constitutional Conven- 
tions and Representatives, 1775-1882 — War History 553 

Windham.— ( Continued.) 
Ecclesiastical History — Libraries— Schools — "Williams* Academy — Au- 
thors, Books, etc. — Bissell's — Biographies of Early Settlers — Biographi- 
cal Sketch 668 

Londonderry. 1719 — 1827. . 
Geographical — Name — Cause of Emigration — Emigration— Settlement — 
First Families — First Land Laid out — First Crops — Allotment of 
Lands — Incorporation — Encroachers — Locatiou of Proprietors — Dis- 
memberment of the Town — Kartliquake — Records — Fisheries — Indian 
Histories — Garrisons — Mills — Highways — Animals — Revolution — As- 
sociation Test — Tories— Taverns— Stores — Currency — Schools — Spotted 
Fever, 1812— War 1812-15— Emigrations— Literature 565 


Londoxderkt. — ( Continued.) 1827-1882. 

Post-Olfices and Postmasters — Mammoth Road — Libraries — Cemeteries 

— Rebellion, 1861-65 — Societies — Business — Churches — Ministers — 

Biographical Sketches 577 


Geographical and Descriiitive — Organization 587 


Civil List 587 

Bench and Bar 687 


Strafford Disthict Medical Societv 606 



Geographical — Topographical— Charter — Original Proprietors — Rates, 
1742— Revolutionary History— Early Settlers 007 


Bahrington. — {('oiitiiiiicil.) 

Kcclesiastical History — Eminent Men — Civil History — Military Record 

—Biographical Sketches CIO 

Geographical — Geological — Documentary History — First Settlements — 
Indian History — Incorporation — Maj.-Geu. John Sullivan — Ecclesi- 
astical History 616 

Geographical — Topographical — First Settlements — Prominent Citizens 
— Early Merchants — Farniington Dock — Civil History — First Town- 
Meeting — Officers Elected — Documentary History — Ear-Marks — Ec- 
clesiastical History — Farniington Village — The Farmmgton News — 
Societies — Fire Department — Physicians— Shoe Interest — Banks — 
Incorporation — Representatives, 179*J to 1882 — Military Record — Bio- 
graphical Sketches 620 

Geographical — Early History — Prominent Me 

-Topographical — M ill- 

tary Record.. 


Geographical — Topographical — Organization — Documentary History — 
Petition for Parish — First Parish-Meeting — Otficers Elected— Eccle- 
siastical History — Military Record — Biographical Sketches 641 


Geographical — Settlement and Early Settlers— Incorporation — Topo- 
graphical — Middleton Corners 644 



Geographical— Topographical— Early History— Early Settlers— Corpo- 
rate Seal — Town Officers — Traditions— School History — Religious Mat- 
ters — Temperance — Secret Societies— Alms Farm — Mills, Manufac- 
tories, etc. — Military Record — Rebellion, 1861-65 — Population, etc. — 
Biographical Sketches C44 

New Dlruam. 
Geographical — Documentary History — Ecclesiastical History — Bio- 
graphical Sketch 658 



Geographical— Early History— Incorporation— Salmon Falls— Railroads 
—"Sligo" — Population- Highways — Agriculture — Various Kurnis 
— Prosperity- Old Wentworth House— Old I'ike House— Manufactnr- 
ing— Lawyers- Physicians 660 


ROLLINSFORD. — ( foll(l'l/l(. (/.) 

Biographical Notices 664 


Rol.H.NSFORD. — (Cotitinued.) 

Ecclesiastical History — Educational — Civil List — Town Clerks— Repre- 
sentatives — Masonic— Odd-Fellows— Banks — G. A. R. — Old Soldiers — 
Military Record, 1861-6.'; 668 



Geographical— Topographical— First Settlements— Indian Depredations 
— Documentary History — War of the Revolution — Incorporation of 
Parish — Petitioners — Incorpoiation of Town — Petitioners — Incorpora- 
tion of Rollinsford- Somersworth " Army" of I74C 680 


Somersworth. — {('oiituined.) 

The Manufacturing Intcn 


Somersworth. — {Contiimed.) 

Churches — Societies — Banks — Cemetery— Library— The Pre&i — Civil 
History— Moderators, 17.38-1883— Representatives, 1738-1883— Mili- 
tary Record— Biographical Sketches 686 



Geographical — Topographical— Early History — Manufacturing Inter- 
ests^Prominent Families — Ecclesiastical and Educational — Civil List 
— Bow Lake Building Association — Military Record — Biographical 
Sketches 701 

Geographical- Topographical — Incorporation -Royal Charter — The 
Town Names — First Meeting of Proprietors — First Clerks and Select- 
men— Survey— Drawing the Lots— Tlie Pioneer Settler— Other Early 
Settlements — Subsequent Division of Lands — " Norway Plains" — Close 
of the Proprietors' Reign — Last Meeting — Town Assumes Control of 
ASairs 719 


Rochester — {Continued) 
Indian History.— The First Garrison-Houses- Indian War— First Biittle 
— John Richards — Jonathan Door — Danger of Abandonment of the 
Settlement- Petition for Soldiers- The Old Iron Cannon— Maj. Davis 
Defends the Town— Attack by Indians— Killing of Mrs. Hodgdon— 
Peace— The British Press-Gang "21 

Rochester. — (Continned.) 
War of the Revolution. — .\ctivity of Rochester — Town C^ 
respondence — Nicholas Austin — Fi 
Men and Volunteers— List of Conti 

ittee of Cor- 
Enlistments- List of Minute- 
tal Soldiers — Prominent Men. 

RoCHE.STER. — (Cunlinucil.) 
Churches — Distinguished Men — Population — Banks — Physicians — So- 
cieties — Mannfactures- Schools — Post-Offices — The Press — The Social 
Library^Representatives — Town Clerks — Military Record, 1861-65 — 
Biographical Sketches 727 



Settlement of Edward Hilton — Under Capt. Thomas Wiggin — Capt. John 

Undcrhill and the Ministers 758 




DoTER.— ((7»n(!Hl(erf.) 

Dover. — ( Continued.) 

Tlie C'onjbination — Names and Genealogy of the Signers of the Combi- 

Progress fror 


nation — Annexation to Massachusetts— Names and Boundaries — Early 



Dover. — ( Continued.) 

Lnmher Business— Grants 781 

Dover. — (Continued.) 
Tlie 5Ianufucturing Interest— The Lower Falls and their Mills. 



Dover. — {Continur,!.) 

Indian Wa 

. 785 


Dover.— (Cn„t!„Hcd.) 

Tax-Payers in 1793 797 

Dover.— ( Continued.) 

Town and Citv OfBc 

Dover. — (Continued.) 
.and Bepresentatives 821 


DOYER.— [Continued.) 

Ecclesiastical History. 


ch and Indian W» 

DovKR. — (Continued.) 


DoVKR.— (C'oll(//IUP(/.) 

The Press— Schools 837 


-Banks, etc 842 

Societies — Physiclii 

The Revolulionarv War 

DoYF.R.— (Continued.) 
The War of 1861-6.5— Military Record— Biographical Sketches... 

Dover.— ( Continued.) 

.. 863 



Adama, Rev. John F 306 

Atkinson, Wm. King 888 

Bachelder Family 331 

Ball, Capt. G. T 310 

Barker, David, Jr 603 

Barker, Ezra 54S 

Barker, Gilman 200 

Barker, Hiram 630 

Barker, Josiah H 330 

Barton, Chas. 4.i3 

Bartlett, Enoch 29 

Bartlett, Ichabod 22 

Bartlett, James 001 

Bartlett, Joseph 20 

Bassett, Dr. Thos 380 

Batchelder, Emery 350 

Batchelder, James 420 

Batchelder, John T 349 

Batchelder, Moses 349 

Beede, Daniel 298 

Beede, Horatio between 298, 299 

Bell, Chas. Henry .35 

Bell, James 32 

Bell, Louis 601 

Bell, Samuel Dana 26 

Bell, Samuel 26 

Berry, Nathan 311 

Betton, Silas 38 

Betton, Thornton 28 

Bracewell, John 875 

Brackett, John L 306 

Brewster, Charles W 114 

Brown, Rev. Arthur 76- 

Brown, Capt. Jos 366 

Brown, Levi 424 

Brown, Rufus 201 

Brown, Hon. Warren 344 

Brown Family 201 

Brown, Elisha R 880 

Brown, Dr. James F 159 

Brown, Capt. Simon 420 

Buffuni, David H 699 

Buiieigh, George W , 604 

Burleigh, Jno. A 604 

Burleigh, M.C 695 

Bnrley, Jonathan : 402 

Burley, J.C 237 

Burnham, H. B 239 

Burroughs, Dr. Charles 77 

Butler, Josiah 27 

Carlisle, Jacob 293 

Cater, Ephraim 615 

Caverly, Robert B 716 

Chandler, Isaac 699 

Chapman, Rev. J. A. M 307 

Chase, Amos C 381 

Chase, Charles K 755 

Chrislie, Daniel M .'. 590 

Cilley, Horatio Gates 27 

Claggett, William 21 

Claggett. Wyseman 19 

Clapham, Charles 588 

Clark. Joseph 602 

Clark, Hon. Reed P 581 

Cloutman, John F 629 

Coburn, F. W 659 

Coggswell, Francis 598 

Cogswell, Dr. William 123 

Collins, Moses Norris 34 

Conner, Jewett 292 

Converse, Joshua 679 

Copeland, William J 605 

Copp, Amasa 602 

Copji, David, Jr 588 


Croaby, Oliver 589 

Cuslmmn, Samuel 24 

Cutter, Chnrles W 22 

CiittB, Edward 21 

Dnniels, A. H,... .....* 015 

Davis, Frederick H 27 

DftvlB, Georiie W :i09 

Dearborn, Hou. J. J 1G7 

Dearborn. John. 328 

Dearborn, Nathaniel 38 

Denieritt, Joseph L 6:^7 

Denieritt, Mark G37 

Dennett, Charles 757 

Dickey, David W 38 

Dodge, George D 348 

Dodge, George H 348 

Drake Genealogy 425 

Duroll, Daniel M 589 

Duston, Obiidiah 482 

Eastman, Dr. J. C 31(i 

Eastman, Nehomiah 601 

Eastman, Iloyal e04 

Edwards, Jonathan 85 

Ela, Richard 601 

Eldredge, Marcellus 113 

Eldridge, Melburn F 33 

Elkins, David H 351 

Elkins, John 164 

Ehvyn, John Laugdon '. 103 

Eniorson, Joseph 638 

Emerson, Luther 483 

Emerson, John 81 

Emery, Noah. 30 

Evans, John C 624 

Furrar, Timothy, Jr 33 

Fariington, James 747 

FellowH, Jeremiah 31 

FosB, A. W 714 

FoKS, Charles A 614 

Fogg, M. V. B 240 

Fogg, John H 329 

Fogg, Sherburne 240 

Foluum, John Lewis 236 

Fulsom, Thomas 235 

Freeman, Asa 590 

Freeman, Peyton Randolph 21 

French, Daniel 25 

French, Ebenezer 38 

French, John 365 

French, Rev. Jonathan 415 

Frencii, John F : 421 

French, Jonathan 163 

Frencli, Peter 374 

French, Robert S 297 

Frost, Pepperell 424 

Garvin, William R 680 

Gibson, Richard 49 

Gilman, Samuel Taylor 32 

Goodricli, Charles B 22 

Goodwin, D. L 386 

Goodwin, Ichabod 101 

Gordon, Hon. Nathaniel 291 

Gove, Edw. L 514 

Gove, John H 347 

Grant, Charles C 128 

Grant, Gilbert A 37 

Greenfiehi, Charles 756 

Gregg, David Aiken 28 

Gregg, Joseph A 28 

Guppey, Joseph D 885 

Hackett, William Honry Touug 23 

Hale, John P 592 

Hale, John P 602 

Hall, Daniel 873 

Hanson, D 745 

Hanson, Timothy 638 

Hardy, Aaron P 584 

Harvey, D. L 236 

Hatch, Albert Ruyler 23 

Hatch, Charles W 3o5 

Hutch, Samuel A 306 

Haven, Alfred Woodward 114 

Haven, Nathaniel A., Jr 21 

Hayes, Charles W 643 

Hayes Family, The 632 

Hersey, Jacob , 54u 

Hilliard, Francis 363 

Hobbs, Dr. Moses L 417 

Hobbs, John F 419 

Hobbs, J. W. F 417 

Hodgdon, Moses 589 

Hoitt, Alfred 859 

Holt, Rev. Edwin 308 

Houghton, Josiah 27 

Howe, Phinejis 27 

Hoyt, James 394 

Humphreys, Daniel 20 

Huutoon, Nathaniel 37 

Janvrin, Joshua 514 

Janvrin, Jefferson 346 

Jenuess, B. W 712 

Jenness, Jos Disco 469 

Jewell, John W 71:; 

Jones, Friink 108 

Jones, Jeremiah 639 

Jordan, Ichabod G 604 

Judkins, Joseph 384 

Kelly, John '. 32 

Kelly, John 25 

Kelly, Nathaniel K 442 

Kent, Amos 2o 

Kent, James M , 160 

Kent, John Horace no 

Kenr, Moodey 27 

Kimball, David io7 

Kimball, Richard 592 

Knowles, Deacon Levi 433 

Ladd, Alva W^ 234 

Ladd, Daniel W 231 

Lamson, George 32 

Lane, Col. Isaac I6O 

Lane, Capt. Levi E 347 

Langdon, John 100 

Lawrence, Jotlmm 31 

Lawrence, Samuel , 243 

Leighton, Levi W., Sr 637 

Leighton, Levi W., Jr 637 

Livermure, Arthur ^d 

Livermore, Edward St. Loe 20 

Livermore, Matthew 19 

Livermore, Samuel jg 

Long, Commodore J. (' 286 

Lord, 0. H ogy 

Lougee, Isaac W 743 

Mack, Robert Clark 533 

Manter, Francis 535 

Manter, Samuel ggg 

BJarston Family 331 

Marston Family, The 404 

Marston, Gilman j 34 

Mareton, W. A f^Q^ 

Martin, Noith §55 

Mason, Jeremiah « 20 

McDuflfee, Franklin 741 

MiDuffpe, John 743 

McGaw, Isaac ;jjj 

McMurphy, James 09 

Mclcher, Samuel 352 

Mellen, Henry sgg 

Merrill, Jeremiah L 289 

Mei'rrll, Jesse 27 

Mitciiell, Stephen ^oi 


Moody, Isaac P 

Moorn, E. B 

Morrill, Charles E 

Morrill, Jonathan 

Morrill, Samuel 

Morrisou, Leonard A 

Morton, William H 

Moses, John F 

Moulton, Capt. Benjamin 

Murphy, Charles M 

Neal, Moses L 

Nichols, Nicholas 

Norris, Rev. Samuel 

Noyes, Hon. John W 

Nule, Alonzo 

Nute, Lewis W 

Nutter, William W : 

Odell.Capt J. E 

Odlin, Woodbridge 

Osgood, Hiram 

Page, Moses between 386, 

Page, Rev, Jesse 

Paul, Amos 

Paul, Moses 

Parker, Amos A 

Parker, Dr. David T 

Parker, Kev. E. L 

Parker, Edw. Pinkerton 

Parker, Frederick 

Parker, H.K 

Parker, Nathaniel , 

Parker, William, Jr 

Parker, William 

Parsons, Edward 

Patten, William Coleord 

Patterson, Hon. George W 

Peabody, Nathaniel 

Peabody, Rev. Stephen 

Peabody, Oliver 

Peabody, Oliver W. B 

Peaslee, Lulher D 

Peavy, George 


Peirce, Andrew 

Peirce, Joshua Winslow 

Perkins, B. R 

Perkins, Solomon J 

Perry man, Nicholas 

Philbrick, Hon. E. B 

Pickering, E. A 

Pickering, John 

Pickering, William 

Pike, John Henry 

Pillsbury, David 

Pillsbury, Cul. William S 

Pinkerton, J. M 

Plumer, George W 

Plumer, William 

Plumer, William, Jr 

Plumer, Joseph 

Poor, Benjamin 

Porter, John, Jr 

Porter, John 

Porter, John 

Porter, Joseph T 

Pray, T. J. W 

Prentice, John -♦• 

Prescott, Benjamin F 

Prescott, Samuel 

Prescott, True M 

(Juinn, Patrick 

Quint, Alonzo H 

RawBon, John 

Reid, George 

Reynolds, T.O 

ichardson, Jeremiah D 


Richardson, John A 601 

Richardson, William M 38 

Roberts, Aniasa 698 

Roberts, Hiram R Ii74 

Robie Family '. 352 

Roby, Jeremiah H 423 

Rollins, Augustus 678 

Rollins, Daniel G 693 

Rollins, E.H 674 

Rollins Family, The 651 

Rollins, Paul 394 

Rowe, Robert 1.14 

Rundlett, James L 242 

Sanborn, Caleb T 352 

Sanborn, James M 199 

Sanborn, John 198 

Sanborn, Joseph T .345 

Savory, Jonathan .' 684 

Sawyer, Charles II 862 

Sawyer, Ezra A. J 168 

Sawyer, Jonathan 860 

Sawyer, Thomas E 592 

Sawyer, Luther D 598 

Scwall, Jonathan Mitchell 19 

Shackford, Charles B 600 

Sherburne, John Samuel 19 

Shuitleff,Rev. Wm 83 

Sinieg, William 104 

Small, William B 37 

Smith, Elienezer 600 

Smith, Deacon Ebenezer 715 

Smith, Francis Peter 36 

Smith, Jeremiah 31 

Smith, John U 698 

Smith, William 32 

Slmlding, George B 8S3 

Stackpole, Lorenzo 680 

Slackpole, P. A 878 

t^tanyan, John Edward 36 

St. Clair, Ira 27 

Stearns, Rev. Josiah H 228 

Steele, David 602 

Steele, David, Jr _ 27 

Steele, Jonathan 000 

Stevens, Samuel Hubbard .' 33 

Steveus, Solon 31 

Stickney, Hon. William Weir 34 

Story, Abraham B 38 

Story, Charles 19 

Sturtevant, John T 748 

Sullivan, George 30 

Sullivan, John 32 

Sullivan, John 600 

Talpey. Charles W 632 

Tarllon, S. H .541 

TebbelB, Noah 603 

Tebbets, Samuel 689 

Tenney, William 37 

Tewksbury, Isaac 317 

Thorn, James 28 

TibI.etts, Daniel 643 

Tilton, Joseph 31 

Toppan, Edmund 36 

Torr, John F 756 

True, Ezelciel 763 

Tuck, Amos 3S 

Tuck Family. The 303 

Tucke, Eben Franklin 34 

Twombly, N. C 715 

Varney, A. H 541 

Varney, Job 638 

Varney, John R 6118 

Wiidleigh, Daniel 3S5 

Wadleigh, Joseph B 385 

Wallace, Ebuuezer G 750 

Wallace, Edwin 751 


Wiinc-ii, Omii.mi B 758 

Wiare, .lohn M SIS 

Wobster, Dnniel 20 

Wooka, George • 309 

Weeks, Itufiis W 312 

Weeks, William 31U 

Wells, John Sullivan 33 

Wells, Natlmniel 603 

Wentworlh, Bart 673 

Weiilworlb, Benning 77 

Weiitwor til, George T 598 

Weiitworth, John 77 

Weiilworth, Joliri,Jr 587 

Hentworlh, Sir John 77 

Weiitworlli,Topiian 603 

Wheeler, J. W 482 


Whipple, Oliver 30 

While, John H 592 

WhitehoiiBe, Judge George L 628 

Whittier, John 298 

Wiggiii Kamily, The 548 

Wiggin, Josiah B 552 

Winkley, Daniel 707 

Wood, Alva 34 

Woofibury, Levi 22 

Woodman, Charles 589 

Woodman, Charles W 597 

Woodman, Jeremiah H 602 

Woodman, John S 603 

York, Daniel G 3ii4 

Young, Andrew II 872 

Young, Charles E 580 


A.lauLs, J. F between 306, c 

Biill, George T " 310,5 

Barker, Ezra facing I 

Barkel-, Oilman " 5 

Barker, Hiram " ( 

Biirker, Josiah H " t 

Barton, Charles C " 4 

Bassett, Thomiis " i 

Batchelder, Charles J " S 

Batchelder, Emery " I 

Batchelder, James ** A 

Batchelder, John T between 348, :i 

Batchelder, Mary A., Residence of. facing 2 

Batchelder, Moses between 348, ;: 

Beede, Daniel facing 5 

Beede, Horatio between 298, 5 

Bell, Charles H facing 

Berry, Nathan between 310, S 

Bracewell, John facing S 

Brackett, John L " S 

Brown, James F " 1 

Brown, Joseph " 2 

Brown, Levi " 4 

Brown, Eufus " 2 

Brown, Samuel E " 2 

Brown, Simon, Jr " 4 

Brown, Warren " 3 

Brown, Hon. Warren, Residence of. " 3 

Buflnm, D. H " 

Burleigh, G. W " G 

Burleigh, M. C " C 

Burley, J. C •' 2 

Burley, Jonathan " 4 

Burnham, 11. B between 238,2 

Carlisle, Jacob " 292,2 

Cater, Ephraim " G14, 

Cavelly, Robert B facing 7 

I'liaitdler, Isaac " 7 

Chapman, J. A. M between 306, 3 

Chase, Amos C facing 3 

<'liase, Charles K '* 7 

Chri.stie, Daniel M " S 

Clark, Reed P ■' 6 

Clontmau, J. F " 6 

('loutnian, J. F., Residence of. " G 

Coburn, F. W " G 

Conner, Jewett between 292,2 

Converge, Joshua " 078, 6 

Daniels, A. H •' G14, G 

Davis, George W " 301!, 3 

Dearborn, J. J facing I 

Deal born, John " ;t 

Dearborn, Lydia, Residence of. '* 3 


Demerilt, Joseph h between 636,637 

Demeritt, Mark " 638,639 

Dennett, Charles facing 767 

Dodge, George D " 348 

Duston, Obadiali 483 

Eastman, J. C facing 316 

Eatou, Oliver between 350,351 

Eldrcdge, M facing 113 

Elkins, David H between 350, 351 

Elkins, John facing 164 

Elwyn,John L " 103 

Emerson, Joseph between 638, 639 

Evans, John C facing 524 

Farrington, James - " 747 

Foiig, John H " 329 

Fogg, M. V " 240 

Fofig, Sherburne.. " 241 

Folsom, John L between 236,237 

Folsom, Thomas facing 235 

Fuss, A. W " 714 

Foss, Cliarles A " 614 

Fiencli, John a between 364, 365 

French, Jonathan facing 415 

French, Jonathan " 163 

Frecich, Peter 374 

French, Robert S facing 297 

Frost, Pepperell ** 424 

Garvin, W. R between 680,681 

Goodwin, Daniel L facing 386 

Goodwin, Ichabod " 101 

Gordon, Nathaniel " 291 

Gordon, Nathaniel, Residence of. " 262 

Gove,EdwardL " 514 

Gove, John H between 346, 347 

Giant, Charles C facing 128 

Greenfield, Charles between 756, 787 

Guppey, Joseph D facing 886 

Hale, John P " 592 

Hall, Daniel » " 873 

Hanson, D " 745 

Hanson, Timothy " 6;I9 

Hardy, Aaron P between 584,585 

Harvey, D. L " 230,267 

Hatch, Charles W facing 305 

Hatch, Samuel A " 306 

Haven, A. W " 114 

Hayes, Cliallos W " 642 

Hayes, Martin L " 633 

Hersey, Jacob " 540 

Hersey, Jacob, residence of '* 532 

Hilliard, Francis " 3G2 

Hobbs,J. W. F " 417 

Hobbs, J. W. F., residence of. " 408 


HoWis.Jolm F facing 419 

HobliB, Dr. Moses L " 416 

Hobbs, Dr. Moses L., residence of " 412 

Hoitt, Alfred " 860 

Holt, Kdwin " 308 

Hoyt,. lames " 394 

Janvriu, Jefferson " 346 

Janvriu, Joshua " 515 

Jeiiness, B. \V " 712 

JennPB.'f, J. Disco " 469 

Jewell, John W " 713 

Jones, Frank " 108 

Jones, Frank, Residence of. between 42, 4:J 

Jndkins, Joseph facing 384 

Kelly, Nalhiiniel K '• 442 

Kent, J. Horace " 110 

Kent, J. M " 160 

Kimbiill, David " 107 

Knowles, Levi " 432 

Ladd, .MexaiiderH " 66 

Ladd, Alva W " 2.34 

Ladd, Daniel W " 232 

Lane, Isaac " IGl 

Lane, Levi E between 346, 347 

Langdon, John facing 100 

Lawrence, Samuel " 243 

Leigliton, L.-vi W., Sr between 636. 637 

Leighton, Levi \V.,Jr " 636,637 

Long, J. C facing 286 

Lord, Oliver H •' 69S 

Lougee, Isaac W " 748 

Manter, Francis between 584, 585 

Manter, Samuel... " 586, 5-7 

Map (outline) of Rockingham County frontispiece 

Map (outline) of Strafford County facing 587 

Marston, David '• 331 

Martin, Noah , " 858 

McDnffee, Frank " 741 

McDnflee.Jidir •' 743 

MelchiM, Samuel " 3.'i2 

Meriill, Jereniiali L " 290 

Morrill, Cliarles E " 203 

Morrill, Jo[iathan " 136 

Morrill, Samuel *' 135 

Morrison, L.A .'. " 564 

Morton, \V. H between 678, 679 

Moses, John F facing 29.j 

Moulton, Benjamin between 304, 305 

Murphy, Charles M facing 877 

Nichols, Frederick G '■ 387 

Norris, Kov. Samuel between 538, .')39 

Noyes, John W facing 1.58 

Noyes, J. W., Residence of 

Nute, Alonzo 

Nute, Lewis W 

Natter, William W 

Odell, James E 

Odell, James E., Residence of, 

Odliu, Woodbridge 

Page, Je^8e 

Page, Moses between 386, 387 

Parker, D. T ' facing 036 

Parker, E. L " 180 

Parker, H. It " 884 

Patterson, George W " 582 

PanI, Amos " .538 

Paul. Moses " .859 

Peaslee, L. D:. 
Peiice, Andrev 
Peirce, J. W... 


, T. W... 

Perkins, li. R between 292, 293 

Perkins, Solomon J " 292,293 

Philbrick, Emmons B facing 468 

Pickering, Edwin A between 310, 311 

Pike, Jobu H " 238,239 


Pillsbnry, W. S facing 182 

Piukerton, J. M " 170 

Piumer, George W " 230 

Plnmer, Joseph " 657 

Plnmer, William " 28 

Piumer, William, Jr " 29 

Poor, Benjamin " 454 

Poor, Benjamin, iiesidence of *' 450 

Porter, J, T " 204 

Pray, T.J. W " 879 

Prescott, B. F " 227 

Prescott, T. M between 350, 351 

(Juinn, Patrick " .538,539 

Quint, Alonzo H facing 881 

Reynolds, Thomas O " 383 

Richordson, J. D between 758,7.59 

Roberts, Hiram R facing C74 

Roby, .lercmiah H " 422 

Rollins, Augustus " 678 

Uollin8,D.G " 693 

Rollins, E. H " 675 

Rollins, James W : " 651 

Itollins, Lydia, Residence of " 302 

llowe, Robert - " 134 

Kundlet, James L " 242 

Sanborn, J. M " 199 

Sanborn, John " 198 

Sanborn, Joseph T " 345 

Savory, Jonathan " 584 

Sawyer, C. H " 862 

Sawyer, E.A.J " 168 

Sawyer, J " 861 

Simes, Wm " 104 

Smith, Ebenezer " 716 

Smith, Jeremiah " 31 

Spalding, George B ** 883 

Stackpole. Lorenzo between 680, 681 

Stackpole, P. A facing 878 

Stearns, J. H " 228 

Siickney, William W " 34 

Sturtevant, John D " 749 

Talpiy, Charles W " 632 

Tarlton, Samuel H 642 

Tewksbury, Isaac facing 317 

Tewksbury, Isaac, Homestead of " 314 

Tibbetis, Daniel " G43 

Torr, John V between 756, 7.)7 

True, Ezekiel facing 7.'i3 

Tuck, Henry C between 364, 305 

[ Tuck, Joimthan facing 303 

Twombly, N.C " 715 

I Varney, A. II " 641 

Varney, Job between 636,637 

j Vorney, John R facing 698 

I Wadleigh, Daniel " 385 

I Wadleigh, Joseph B 385 

Wjillace. Ebenezer G facing 760 

j Wallace, Edwin " 751 

j Wallingford, Z. S " 869 

j Warren, O. B between 768, 7.')9 

Weave, John M facing 513 

j Webster, Daniel " 20 

I Weeks, George between 308, 309 

Weeks, RulusW facing 312 

I Weeks, Willium between 310, 311 

I Wentworth, Bart facing 673 

j Wheeler, J. W " 482 

Whilehouse, George L " 628 

I Wliittier, John between 298,299 

' Wiggin, Caleb lacing 549 

1 Wiggin, Josiah B " 552 

j Winchester, E. H., Residence of. " 56 

1 Winkley, Daniel 708 

York, Daniel G between .104, 365 

j Young, Andrew H facing 872 

Young, Charles E between 586, 587 








Rockingham County lies in the southeastern part 
of New Hampshire, and is bounded as follows: On 
the north by Strafford County ; on the east by the 
Atlantic Ocean ; on the south by Essex County, 
Mass.; and on the west by Hillsborough and Merri- 
mac Counties, N. H. 

Rockingham is the only county in this State that 
borders on the Atlantic, its coast being about seven- 
teen miles in extent. 

Incorporation.— It was incorporated March 19, 
1771, and named in honor of Charles AVatson Went- 
worth, Marquis of Rockingham, by Governor Benuing 

There are thirty-eight towns in the county, of which 
two were incorporated in the reign of Charles I., one 
in the reign of Charles II., two in the reign of Wil- 
liam and Mary, two in the reign of Que^n Anne, 
George I. seven, George II. thirteen, George III. 
eight, and three by New Ham|)shire. 

The present civil sub-divisions are as follows : At- 
kinson, Auburn, Brentwood, Candia, Chester, Dan- 
ville, Deerfield, Derry, East Kingston, Epping, 
Exeter, Freemont, Gosport, Greenland, Hampstead, 
Hampton, Hampton Falls, Kensington, Kingston, 
Londonderry, New Castle, Newin5;ton, New Market, 
Newton, North Hampton, Northwood, Nottingham, 
Plaistow, Portsmouth, Raymond, Rye, Salem, San- 
down, Seabrook, South Hampton, South Newmarket, 
Stratham, and Windham. 

Rockingham is a shire county, courts being held 
alternately at Exeter and Portsmouth. 

The principal rivers are the Piscataqua, Lam])rey, 
Squamscot, Pantuckaway, and Spiggot. Tlie princi- 
pal elevations are Pantuckaway Mountain in Deer- 
field and Nottingham, and Saddleback in Deerfield 
and Northwood. 



The following is a list of the judges of the highest 
judicial court of New Hampshire, which by various 
changes of the laws has been known at different pe- 
riods as the "Superior," the "Supreme Judicial," 
and the " Supreme Court," and at present bears the 
last of these designations : 


Nathaniel Weare, Robert Wadleigh, and Joseph Smith, 1694-99; Winiam 
Partridge, 1696; Kingsley Hall, Shadrack Walton, and Richard Hil- 
ton, 1098-09; John Hinckes, 1690-1705; Peter Coffin, 1699-1 712; John 
Gerrish, 1099-1714; John Plaisted, 17U(J-17; William Vaughn, 17u8 
-15; Mark Himkiug, 1712-27; Samuel Penhallow, 1714-26; George 
Jeftrey, 1717-31; Thomas Packer, 1717-172-; John Frost, 172:1-30; 
Peter Weare, 1723-30; Nathaniel Weare, 1730-:i8 ; Andrew Wigj;in, 
1729-SU; Heury Sherburne, 1731-42; Nicholas Oilman, 1731-:i9; 
Benjamin Gambling, 1734-37; Thomas Millet, 1740-42; Kills Hnske, 
174l.i-50; Samuel Gilnmn, 1740-47; George Jeffrey, 1742-49; Jotham 
Odiorue, 1742-47 ; Thomas Wallingford, 1748-71 , Mesheck Weare, 
1748-82; Joseph Blanchard, 1749-63; Theodore Atkinson, 1754-76; 
Leverett Hubbard, 1763-S4 ; William Parker, 1771-76; Matthew 
Thornton, 1776-82; John Wentworth, 1770-81; Samuel Livermore, 
1782-90; Woodbury Langdon, 1782-83; Josiah Bartlctt, 1782-90; 
William Whipple, 1783-85; John Dudley, 178.')-97 ; Woodbury Lang- 
don, 1786-90; John Pickering, 1790-95; Simeon Olcolt, 179i;-1802; 
Timothy Farrar, 1791-1S03; Ebonezor Thompson, 1795-90; Daniel 
Newcomb, 1796-98; Edward St. Loo Livermore, 1797-99; Payne 
Wingate, 1798-1809 ; Arthur Livermore, 1799-1816 ; Jeremiah Smith, 
1802-9; Wm. K. Atkinson, 1803-5; Richard Evans, l«i9-13; Jona- 
than Steele, 1810-12; Clifton Claggelt, 1812-13; Caleb Ellis, 1813- 
16; William M. Richardson, 1816-38; Samuel Bell, 1816-19; Levi 
Woodbury, 1817-23; Samuel Green, 1814-10; John Harris, I823-:i3; 
Joel Parkor. Ib;i3-18; Nathaniel G. Upham, 1833-42; Leonard Wil- 
CO.X, 1838-42; John J. Gilchrist, 1840-55; Andrew S. Woods, 1842 
-55 ; C. J., 18.55. ' ' 

Ira Allen Eastman, Gilmanton, J., Aug. 31, 1849, to Aug. 17, 1855. 

Samuel Dana Be'l, Manchester, J., .\ug. 31, 1849, to Aug. 17, 1855. 

Ira Perley, Couconl, J., Juno 28, 1850, to Oct. 1, 1852. 

Ira Perley, Concord, C. J., July 20, 1S5S, to Oct. 1, 1859, and from .^ug. 1, 
1864, to Oct. 1, 1864. 

Ira Allen Eastman, Concord, J., July 20, 1865, to Dec. 1, 1859. 

.\sa Fowler, Concord, J., July 20, 1855, to Feb. 23, 18«I. 

George Yeaton Sawyer, Nashua, J., July 20, 1855, to Nov. I, 1859. 

Samuel Dana Bell, JIanchesler, J., July 20, 1855, to Sept. 23, 1859; C. J. 
Sept. 23, 1859, to Aug. I, 1864. 



Jonathan Everett SargeTit, Wentworth, J., July 5, 1869, to March 17, 

1873; C. J., March 17, 1873, to Aug. 18, 1874. 
Henry A. Bellows, Concord, J., Sept. 23, 1859, to Oct. 1, 1809; C. J., Oct. 

1, 1869, to March 11. 1873. 
Charles Doe, Rullinsford, J., Sept. 23, 1859, to Aug. 14, 1874. 
George W. Nesmith. Franklin, J., Dec. 3, 1859, to Oct. 31, 1870. 
William Henry Bartlett, Concord, J., Feb, 23, 18G1, to Sept. 24, 1867. 
Jeremiah Smith, Dover, J., Oct. 19, 1867, to Jan. 26, 1874. 
William L. Foster, Concord, J., Oct. 1, 1869, to Aug. 14, 1874. 
William S. Ladd, Lancaster, J., Oct. 31, 1870, to Aug. 14, 1874. 
Ellery A. Hibberd, Laconia, J., March 17, 187:), to Aug. 18, 1874. 
Isaac William Smith, Manchester, J., Feb. 10, 1874, to Aug. 18, 1874. 
Edmund L. Cushing, Charlestown, C. J., Aug. 18, 1874, to July 22, 1876. 
William S. Ladd, Lancaster, J., Aug. 14, 1874, to July 22, 1876. 
Isaaw- W. Smith, Manchester, J., Aug. IS, 1874, to July 22, 1870. 
Charles Doe, Rollinsford, C. J., July 2i, 187G. 
Clinton W. Stanley, Manchester, J., July 22, 1S76. 
William L. Foster, Concord, J., July 22, 1876, to 1881. 
Aaron W. Sawyei;, Nashua, J., July 22. 1876, to June 18, 1877. 
George A Bingham, Littleton, J., July 22, 1876, to 1880. 
William U. H. Allen, Claremont, J., July 22, 1876. 
Isaac W. Smith, Manchester, J., July 22, 1876. 
Lewis W. Clark, Manchester, J., Aug. 13, 1878. 
Isaac N. Blodgett, Franklin, J,, 1880. 
Alonzo P. Carpenter, Bath, J., 1881. 

Charles F. Gove, Nashua, January, 1843. to December, 1847. 
Koah Tibbetts, Rochester, Jan\Hiry, 1843, to September, 1844. 
Ira A. Eastman, Gilmanton, September, 1844, to 1849. 
Leonard Wilcox, Oxford, Decembej-, 1847, to l.'<48. 
Samuel D. Bell, Manchester, June, 1848, to 1849. 
George Y. Sawyer, Nashua, Septembei', 1851, to August, 1854. 
Charles R. Morrison, Haverhill, September, 1851, to August, 1855. 
Josiah Minot, Concord, September, 1852, to March, 1855. 
Charles W. Woodman, Dover, August, 1854, to August, 1865. 
Edmund L. Cushing, Charlestown, March, 1855, to .August, 1855. 


Until 1680, Exeter and Kingston were annexed to 
the old county of Norfolk, and their courts were 
holden at Salisbury, Mass. Of course the justices of 
the Norfolk court are not included in the following 
list, although some of them may have been from the 
towns now in Eockingham County. Until 1680 the 
Common Pleas, a county court, was held by some 
one or more of the Council and by persons in the 
province appointed for this purpose as judges. The 
names of the latter only are given in the list. The 
counselors who attended at different times were 
Thomas Danforth, Humphrey Atherton, Capt. Tyng, 
Maj. Lusher, Capt. Pike, Maj. Hathorne, Daniel 
Gookin, Mr. Symonds, Fr. Willoughby, Maj.-Gen. 
Leverett, Mr. Stoughton, Maj. Thomas Clark, Maj. 
Willard, Worshipful and Joseph Dudley. 

The following is a list of the justices : 

Thomas Wiggin, lt59-63 ; Bryan Pendleton, 1059-65 ; Valentine Hill, 
1059; Richard Waldron, 1659-82; Edward Hilton, 1601-64; Richard 
Cutt, 1063-65; John Cutt, 1665-73; Elias Stileman, 1662-82; Job 
Clement, 1670-82; Peter Coffin, 1070-74; Richard Marlya, 1676- 
83; Thomas Daniel, 1676-82; William Vaughau, 1680-86; John 
Oilman, 1680-82; Samuel Daltou, 1680-81; Christopher Hussey, 
1080-82; Walter Barefoote, 1083-87; Nathaniel Fryer, 1683-95 ; 
Thomas Packer, 1683-96; George Jeffrey, 1695; S. Walton, 1695; 
John Tuttle, 1695; Richard Waldron, 1702-6; Henry Dow, 1096- 
1707; John Woodman, 1702-6; Theodore Atkinson, 1702-18; 
Winthrop Hilton, 1706-10; George Vanghan, 1707-15; F. Dud- 
ley, 1707-13 ; John Wentworth, 1713-18 ; Richard Gerrish, 1717 ; 
James Davis, 1717-29 ; Jotham Odiiirne, 1719-30; Joshua Pierce, 
1729-30; Nicholas Gilman, 1729-30; Richard Waldron, 1730-42; 
Paul Gerrish, 1730-42; E. Dennett, 1731^1; Nathaniel Rogers, 
17.37-42; Richard Wibird, 1741-42; Theodore Atkinson, 1742- 

54; Joshua Pierce, 1742-54; Daniel Warner, 1742-45; William 
Moore, 1742-48; John Ncwmarch, 1748-65; John Wentworth, 
1764-73; Clement March, 1754-75; Peter Livius, 1765-72; John 
Phillips, 1771-75; Christopher Toppan, 1774-75; Nathaniel Fol- 
som, 1776-90; John Langdon, 1776-77; John Dudley, 1776-85; 
Josiah. Bartlett, 1776-82; Timothy Walker, 1777-1809; Samuel- 
Hale, 1778-85; John Calfe, 1783-1808; Abiel Foster, 1784-89; 
William Parker, 1790-1807; Thomas Bartlett, 1790-1805; Levi 
Barth-tt, 1808-13 ; Richard Jeuness, 1809-13; Daniel Gookin, 1809- 
13; Timothy Farrar. 1813-16; Oliver Peabody, 1813-10; Samuel 
Hale, 1813-10; D. M. Dnrell, 1816-20; Levi Bartlett, 1810-17; 
George W. Prescott, 1817-18 ; John Harvey, 1818-20 ; Hall Burgen, 
1818-20; Arthur Livermore, 1824-33; Timothy Farrow, Jr., 1824^ 
33; Josiah Butler, 1824-33; Bradbury Bartlett, 1832; Dudley 
Freese, 1832-42; Charles F. Gove, 1843; Noah Tibbetts, 1843-44; 
James Pickering, 1843-53; James H. Butler, 1852-55; John Scam- 
mon, 1853-55. 

Jonathan Kittridge, Canaan, C. J., Aug. 18, 1855, to Aug. 1, 1859. 

J. Everett Sargent, Wentworth, J., Aug. 18, 1855, to Aug. 1, 1859. 

Henry F. French, Exeter, J., Aug. 18, 1855, to Aug. 1, 1859. 

William L. Foster, Concord, C. J., Aug. 14, 1874, to July 22, 1870. 
Edward D. Rand, Lisbon, J , Aug. 14, 1874, to July 22, 1876 
Clinton W. Stanley, Manchester, J., Aug. 14, 1874, to July 22, 1876. 


The list of sheriffs prior to 1741 is necessarily in- 
complete. The following list is from 1683 to 1883, 
covering a period of two hundred years: 

Richard Jose, 1083; Thomas Phips; Theodore Atkinson, 1729 ; Richard 
Wibird,1732; Eleazer Russell, 1733; Thomiw Packer, 1741-71 ; John 
Parker, 1771-91 ; George Reed,1791-ls.05; Oliver Peabody, 1805-10; 
Josiah Butler, 1810-13: Silas Betlen, 1813-18; Clement Sturer, 
1818-23; John Bell, 182:(-2S; Clement Storer, 1828-3(1; Benjamin 
Jenness, 18)0-35; Joseph Towle, 1835-40; Samuel Marshull. 1840- 
45; Stephen W. Dearborn, 1845; Nathan H. Leavitt, 1850; Kufus 
Dow, 1855; John S. Brown, 1855; Joseph B. Adams, 1860; Joseph 
P. Morse, 1865; Caleb Moultoii, 1870 ; Samuel Rowe, 1871 ; James 
W. Odlin, 1872; Samuel Rowe, 1874; J. Horace Kent, 1870-83. 


For many years after the settlement of the province 
the county court was the court of probate ; an appeal 
lying to the court of assessments. Subsequently the 
Governors of the province exercised the powers of 
judges of probate either personally or by substitute. 
In 1693, Lieutenant-Governor Usher acted as judge 
of probate, as did Lieutenant-Governor Partridge in 
1699. Prior to 1703, Thomas Packer and Nathaniel 
Fryer had at different times appeared as judges of 
probate. After 1703 no Governor appears to have 
acted directly in that capacity. 

The fWlowing is the list from 1693 to 1883 : 

Thomas Packer, 1693-97 ; Nathaniel Fryer, 1697-99 ; Joseph Smith, 1703- 
8; Richard Waldron, 1708-30; Benjamin Gambling, 1737; Richard 
Waldron, 1737-42 ; Ajldrew Wiggin, 1742-50 ; Richard Wibird, 1755- 
95; John Wentworth, 1705-73; John Sherburne, 1773-76; Phillips 
White, 1776-90; Oliver Peabody, 1790-93 ; Samuel Penney, 1793-80; 
Jeremiah Smith, 1800-2 ; Nathaniel Rogers, 1802-15 ; Daniel Gookin, 
1815-26; John Harvey, 1826-38; John Sullivan, 1838-48; Ira St. 
Clair, 1848-57; William W. Stickney, 1857-72; Joseph F. Wiggin, 
1872-76; Thomas Leavitt, 1876-83. 


The following is a list of registers of probate from 
1693 to 1883: 

William Bedford, 1 693-97 ; Francis Tucker, 1697-99 ; Charles Story, 1699- 
1710; Richard Gerrish, 1716-17 ; Richard Gambling, 1718-30; Rich- 
ard Waldron, 1730-31 ; John Penhallow, 1731-35; William Parker, 
1735-81 ; William Parker, 1781-1813 ; John J. Parker, 1813-31 ; John 
Kelly, 1831-32; David A. Gregg, 1842^7; J. Hamilton Shapley, 


1847-5-2; William B. Moitlll, 185'2-57; S. Dana Wiiigate, 185V-65 ; 
ThonuiB Leavitt, 1805-76 ; Woudbury M. Durgin, 1876-83. 

George Smyth, 1647-53; Renald Fernald, 1664-56; Henry Slier- 
bune, 1657 -.'>9; Elias Slilunian, 1659-82; Richard Chamberlain, 
1682-87; Julin Pickering, 1690-92; Henry Penny, 1692-93; Thomas 
Davis, 1693; William Bedford, 1693-96; William Vaughan, 1697- 
1702; Samuel Penhall.iw, 1702-6; William Vaughan, 1705-17; 
Samuel Peuhallow, 1719-22; Mark Hnnkiug, 1722-28; Joshua 
Pierce, 1729-12; Daniel Pierce, 1743-73; Samnel Brooks, 1776- 
1801; Josiah Adams, 1801-9; Seth Waiker, 1809-34; Francis D. 
Randall, 1834-40; John Woodbury, 1S40-45; Josiah B. Wig- 
gin, 1845; David Murray, 1846-5U; Josiah B. Wiggin, 1850-51; 
Nathaniel O. Gilman, 1851-52; J. Hamilton Shapley, 1852-54; 
Thomas Smith, 1854-55 ; William H. Hills, 1855-57 ; Tliomas Smith, 
1857-58; Benjamin D. Leighton, 1858-60; .\lonzo J. Fogg, 1860-63; 
Hiram Smart, Jr., 1863-65; William H. Belknap, 1865-72 ; George 
W. Weston, 1872. 

Theodore Atkinson, 17fO; Clement Hughes, 1717; John Penhallow, 
1729-37; Benjamin Gambling, 1737-44; George JeBVey, 1744-66; 
George King, 1767-80; Samuel Sherburne, 1780-81; Nathaniel 
Adams, 1781-1829; Peter Chadwick, 1829-37; Ira B. Hoitt, 1837-53; 
Albert H. Hoyt, 1853-56; Charles G. Connor, 1856. 

Henry Penny, 1700-8 ; Benjamin Gambling, 1709 ; Richard Gerrish, 1718 ; 
Theodore Atkinson, 1720; Henry Sherburne, 1729; Hunking Went- 
worth, 1742; Isaac Rindge, 1770; Noah Emery, 1776-1816; Josiah 
Butler, 1816-17 ; Peter Chadwick, 1817-34; Ira B. Hoitt.i 1834. 

Oliver Peabody, 1789-91; E. St. L. Livermore, 1791-93; John Hale, 
1793-96; Arthur Livermore, 1796-98; William Plummer, 1798- 
1802; George Sullivan, 1802-6; Charles Walker, 1806-8; Daniel 
French, 1S08-12; Samuel Green, 1812-19; Ichabod Bartlett, 1819- 
21; Jonathan Steele. 1821-23; Samuel D. Bell, 1823-28; John Sul- 
livan, 1828-38; Henry F. French, 1838-49 ; Albert R. Hatch, 1849- 
66; Charles H. Bell, 1856-66; William B. Small, 1866-72; John S. 
H. Frlnk, 1872-76 ; William B. Small, 1876-79 ; Walter C. Harriman, 



The Second Regiment— The Third Regiment— The Fourth Regiment— 
The Fifth Regiment— Tlie Sixth Regiment— The Seventh Regiment 
—The Eighth Regiment— The Ninth Regiment- The Tenth Regi- 

The lightning liad scarcely flivshed the intelligence 
to the expectiint North that Maj. Anderson and his 
gallant band had surrendered as prisoners of war to the 
Southern Confederacy, ere the patriotic soils of Rock- 
ingham and Strati'ord were rallying to the support of 
their imperiled country. Men and money were 
promptly raised, and the record of these counties 
during the whole struggle is one in which their citi- 
zens may justly feel a patriotic pride? 

The Second Regiment was recruited under the first 
call for seventy-live thousand troops. The men were 
enlisted for three months, but before the organization 
of the regiment was completed the call came for three 

1 Same as clerk of Superior Court. 

hundred thousand three-years' troops, and a large ma- 
jority of the men re-enlisted for the full term. The 
regiment went into camp at Portsmouth, with Thomas 
P. Pierce, Esq., of Manchester, as colonel. Upon the 
re-enlistment of the meu as three-years' troops, Col. 
Pierce resigned, and Hon. Gilman Marston, of E.xeter, 
was appointed colonel, with Frank S. Fiske, of Keene, 
as lieutenant-colonel, and Josiah Stevens, Jr., of Con- 
cord, as major. 

The regiment left Portsmouth June 20, 1861, and 
arrived at Washington on the 23d, and went into 
camp on Seventh Street. While here the regiment 
was brigaded with the First and Second Rhode Island, 
the Seventy-first New York, and the Second Rhode 
Island Battery, the whole under command of Gen. A. 
E. Burnside. 

July 16th the regiment started on its first campaign, 
and received its baptism of fire on the disastrous 
battle-field of Bull Run. Here Col. Marston was 
wounded in the shoulder by a rifle-ball. In this san- 
guinary struggle the Second fought nobly, and was 
acknowledged to be one of the best regiments on the 
field. Its loss was seven killed, fifty-six wounded, 
and forty-six prisoners. Of the latter, however, many 
doubtless died on the field. 

Early in August the camp was removed to Bladens- 
burg, and the Second formed the first of a brigade to 
be commanded by Gen. Hooker. 

We next find the regiment on the Peninsula, and 
in the battle of Williamsburg, where it lost eighteen 
killed, sixty-six wounded, and twenty-three missijig. 
It soon after participated in the battles of Fair Oaks, 
Mechanicsville, and Gaines' Mill. 

At the close of the Peninsula campaign, in which 
the Second had ever borne an active part, the regi- 
ment returned to Alexandria, and was immediately 
ordered to Warrenton Junction to reinforce Gen. 
Pope. ■> 

The second battle of Bull Run soon followed, and 
here the gallant Second added fresh laurels to those 
already won on many a hard-contested field. The 
regiment entered the battle with three hundred and 
thirty-two. Of these sixteen were killed, eighty -seven 
wounded, and twenty-nine missing. Ten out of twen- 
ty-one commissioned officers were killed or wounded. 

Passing over many details in the history of the regi- 
ment, our record comes to the 1st of July, 1863, and 
the ever memorable battle of Getty.sburg. In this 
terrible contest, which has gone down iu history as one 
of the most sanguinary struggles of the war, the 
Second New Hampshire played an important part 
and suffered greater loss than in any of the numerous 
fights in which it was engaged. 

The carnage of those July days is too well known 
to need especial mention in this connection. The 
thin and decimated ranks of the Second at the close 
of the contest showed only too well the fierceness of 
the struggle. Before the battle twenty-four officers 
and three hundred and thirty men had responded to 


roll-call. Of this number nineteen had been shot 
dead, one hundred and thirty-si^ wounded, and thirty- 
eight missing. That battle clothed many a home in 
mourning in the old " Granite State." All the field- 
officers were wounded; Capts. Metcalf and Roberts 
were killed, and Lieuts. Ballard, Dascomb, Vickery, 
and Patch died of their wounds. Capt. Hubbard was 
mortally wounded, and was found within the enemy's 
lines, where he had fceen buried by brother Masons. 
Lieuts. Perkins and Converse each lost an arm, and 
eight other officers were wounded. Maj. Sayles was 
also wounded. The total loss of the regiment was 
one hundred and ninety-three out of three hundred 
and fifty-four. 

We next find this battle-scarred regiment in the 
memorable battle of Cold Harbor, where it lost sev- 
enty either killed or wounded. This was the last 
battle of the original Second New Hampshire, and it 
was fierce and bloody enough to fitly crown three 
years of active service. 

Dec. 19, 1865, the regiment was mustered out of 
the service, and on the *23d reached Concord. On the 
25th a reception was given the battle-scarred organi- 
zation, speeches being made by Governor Smyth, ex- 
Governor Gilmore, Adjt.-Gen. Nath. Head, Col. Herr- 
nian, and Col. Peter Sanborn. On Tuesday, the 26th, 
the regiment was paid ofl", and the Second New 
Hampshire passed into history. 

The Second furnished many officers for other com- 
mands, and as many of these as could be learned are 
here given : 

s promoteii to brig.-gen., 
umumndH during the war 

nd served with dis- 

Col. Gilumn Mai-ston 

tinction in varioii 
Adjt. S. G. Langley was afterwards conmiissioned liout.-col. of the 

Tenth N. H. 
Sergt. C. H. Lawrence, after adjt. of the regiment, was commissioned 

capt. and asst. adjt.-gen., and afterwards brevet maj. 
Q.m. Godfi*e.v was appointed capt. and asst. q.m., pro. lieut.H;ol., and 

served as cliief q.m. of the Centre Grand Division. 
Q.m.-Sergt. F. W. Perliins was made q.m. of tlie regiment, and pro. to 

capt., lield various positions witli rault of lieut.-col. 
Cnm.-Sergt., afterwards Q.m., James A. C!ook, was pro. to capt. and com- 

mibSJiry of subsistence. 
Corp. Thomas E. Barker, capt. in 12th, also 1ieut..col. and col. 
Capt. T. A. Uaiker, pro. to liellt.-col. 14th. 
2d Lieut. H. B. Titus, maj., lieut.-col., and col. of 9th. 
Capt. S. G. Griffin, Ueut.-col. and col. of 6th ; pro. brig, and brevet maj.- 

Capt. Hiram Bollins, maj. and brevet lieut.-col. Vet. Res. Corps. 
2d Lieut. .\. B. Thompson, capt. ISth U. S. I. 
2d Lieut. W. H. Prescott, capt. 16th C. S. I. 
Capt. W. 0. Sides was trans, to Vet. Ees. Corps with same rank. 
2d Lieut., afterwards Capt., S. 0. Burnhaui, Vet. Res. Corps, rank 1st 

2d Lieut. Charles Holmes, pro. capt. 17th U. S. I. 
Asst. Surg. Buuton, asst. surg. and surg. of the 17th. 
2d Lieut. E. C. Adams, capt. 1st U. S. V. 
2d Lieut. John 11. Lord, capt. in Hancock's corps. 
Ist Lieut., afterwards Capt., E. W. Farr, miy. of the 11th. 
1st Lieut Hiram K. Ladd, became Ist Meat 18th. 
C. A. Burnham, asst. surg. 3d. 
0. M. Head, adjt. 8th. 
John Sullivan, asst. surg. 13th. 
Jos. E. Jamison, asst. surg. 15th. 
W. W. Wilkins, pro. to asst. surg. 
John C. W. Moore, asst. surg. 11th. 
Sergt. Charles S. Cooper, adjt. 75th U. S. C. T. 

Sergt. W. A. Crafts, 2d lieut., capt., maj., lieut.-col., and col. of 5th. 

Sergt. r. M. Rhodes, &ipt. 14th. 

Corp. Charles F. Goodwin, 2d lieut. 6th. 

Corp. and Sergt. J. W. Clark, 1st liout. ami adjt. ISth Maine. 

Charles Wilkins, 2d lieut. U. S. A. 

Sergt. Edwin Young, 2d lieut. 1st U. S. V. 

Corp. H. F. Gerrish, 1st lieut. 37th U. S. C. T., served a.s q.m. on division 

and corps staff, capt, and asst. q.m. and brevet maj , and served aa 

chief q.m. District of Northeastern Virginia. 
Sergt. A B. Farmer, 1st lieut. and capt. 18th. 
Sergt. Charles O. Howard, Ist lieut. 107th U. S. C. T. 
Sergt. L. B. Adley, 1st lieut. 22d U. S. C. T. 
Corp. E. F. Jackman, 1st lieut. tJ. S. C. T. 
Corp J. B. Reed, capt. 25th U. S. C. T., and mstj. 
Charles M. Chaos, capt. 108th U. S. C. T. 
W. H. Mi.-s, 1st lieut. 361h U. S. C. T. 
Corp. W. H. Rourke, 2d lieut. 36tli U. S. C. T. 
\V. H. Kurd, Ist lieut., capt., and maj. U. S. C. T. 
Sergt. W. K. Bancroft, 1st lieut. 1st U. S V. 
Sergt. H. Hilliard, capt. 17th 
John Ha.vues, asst. surg. lOtli. 
Sergt. Tliomas E. Marshall, let lieut. 1st U. S. V. 
Capt. John F. Holman. 1st liiut. Vet. Res. Corps. 

Besides the above the following served on various 
stafl" details : 

Capts. Hubbard, Young, J. N. Patterson, G. E. Sides, Carter, Le Gro, 
Locke, Bean, Buhanon, Lieuts. Titus, Wilkinson, Durgin, Frazer 
Maj. Converse, Surg. Merron, and Adjt. Plalsted. 

Besides these many served on staff duty in depart' 
ments, to which they were afterwards promoted, who 
are not mentioned here. 

The Second saw severe service, and its history is a 
record of many of the hardest fought battles of the 

The Third Regiment. — The Third Regiment was 
the second reiriineiit raised in the State under the 
call for three-years' troops. It was organized in 1861, 
and mustered into the United States service between 
the 22d and 26th of August, by Maj. Seth Eastman, 
of the regular army. It rendezvoused at Camj) Berry, 

The regimental officers were as follows : Colonel, 
Hawkes Fearing, Jr. He however resigned, and 
Enoch Q. Fellows was appointed his successor. 

Lieutenant-Colonel, John H. Jackson. 

Major, John Bedell. 

Adjutant, Alfred J. Hill. 

Quartermaster, Arthur S. Nesraeth. 

Surgeon, Albert A. Moulton. 

Assistant Surgeon, B. F. Eaton. 

Chaplain, Henry Hill. 

The regiment consisted of one thousand and forty- 
aevei) officers and men, raised throughout the State 
generally, Rockingham County furnishing a few, but 
no entire company. September 3d the regiment left 
the Granite Hills and proceeded to Long Island, 
where they went into camp. Here they remained 
until September 14th, when they were ordered to 
Washington, an'd went into camp near the Congres- 
sional burying-ground. On the 4th of October the 
regiment moved to Annapolis, Md., and on the 18th of 
the same month embarked on board Gen. Sherman's 
flag-ship " Atlantic" for Fortress Monroe, where they 
arrived on the 20th, and the 4th of the following 



month found them at Port Royal. On the 9th the 
regiment landed and went into camp in a cotton-field. 
From this time until the close of its term of service 
the history of this regiment is a history of many of 
the severest hattles of the war. It participated in the 
following engagements: Port Royal, Nov. 7, 1861 ; 
Elha Island, March 7, 1862 ; Bluft'ton, March 16, 1862 ; 
Jehosse, April 10, 14, and 17, 1862; James Island, 
June 8, 1862; Secessionville, June 16, 1862; Poco- 
taligo, Oct. 22, 1862; May River, Jan. 7, 186.3; Stone 
Inlet, April 7, 1863; Morris Island, July 10, 1863; 
Fort Wagner, July 18, 1863; siege of Wagner, July 
18 to Sept. 7, 1863 ; siege of Sumter, Sept. 7, 1863, 
to March 1, 1864; Pilatka, April 3, 1864; Chester 
Station, May 9, 1864 ; Drury's Bluff, May 13 to 16, 
1864; Bermuda Hundred, May 18, 1864; Wier Bot- 
tom Church, June 2, 1864 ; Petersburg, June 9, 1864; 
Hatcher's Run, June 16, 1864; Fiussell's Mills, Aug. 
16,1864; siege of Petersburg, Aug. 16, 1864; New 
Market Heights, Sept. 29, 1 864 ; demonstration towards 
Richmond, Sept. 29 and Oct. 1, 1864; New Market 
Road, Oct. 7, 1864; Darbytown Road, Oct. 13, 1864; 
Charles City Road, Oct. 27, 1864 ; Fort Fisjier, Jan. 
15, 1865; Sugar-Loaf Hill, Feb. 11, 1865; Wilming- 
ton, Smith's Creek, and Northeast Ferry. 

During its term of service the regiment had on its 
rolls eighteen hundred and eighteen men. One hun- 
dred and ninety were killed in battle or died of 
wounds, one hundred and thirty-seven died of disease. 
Mustereil out July 20, 1865. 

The Fourth Regiment— This regiment was mus- 
tered into the service Sept. 18, 1861, with Thomas J. 
Wliipple, of Laconia, as colonel ; Louis Bell, of Farm- 
ington, lieutenant-colonel ; and Jeremiah D. Drew, of 
Salem, as major. Com])any A was enlisted at Dover, 
Company F at Great Falls, and Company H at Salem. 
Col. Whipple resigned in 1862, and May 16, 1862, 
Lieut.-Col. Bell was commissioned colonel, and was 
killed at Fort Fisher, Jan. 15, 1865. Jeremiah D. 
Drew, of Salem, was commissioned lieutenant-colonel 
Dec. 1, 1863. Charles W. Sawyer, of Dover, was 
made major in 1863, and died of wounds June 22, 
1864. George F. Towle, of Portsmouth, was com- 
missioned major Jan. 3, 1865. Henry F. Wiggin, of 
Dover, was commissioned adjutant Sept. 12, 1864. 

The Fourth left Manchester for Washington on 
the 27th of September, under command of Col. 
AVhipple, and on Monday, the 30th, they arrived at 
the Federal capital, and encamped on the Bladensburg 
road about a mile and a half from the city, where 
they were armed with Belgian rifles, and at once put 
to drilling. 

Here the regiment remained until October 9th, 
when it proceeded to Annapolis, and after ten days' so- 
journ atthat place they embarked on board the steamer 
" Baltic," and on the morning of the 7th of Novem- 
ber landed at Hilton Head. Here the regiment re- 
mained about three months. 

Early in January, 1862, the chaplain, M. W. Willis, 

was discharged on account of ill health. On the 
21st of the same month the Fourth with other regi- 
ments sailed from Hilton Head on an expedition 
down the coast. The Fourth embarked on the 
steamer " Delaware," and on the 26th came to an 
anchorage in Warsaw Sound, Ga. The troops were 
landed on Warsaw Island, a marshy, unhealthy spot, 
and remained on shore and on board awaiting the 
arrival of the navy until the 28th of February, when 
the expedition started again, and the next day ar- 
rived within twelve miles of Fernandina, Fla. Sun- 
day, the 2d of March, it was learned that the rebels 
had evacuated the-place, and Fernandina and Bruns- 
wick were occupied by our troops, and the Fourth 
was encamped in the town. 

Companies E and F, under Capt. Towle, were left 
as provost-guard at Fernandina. 

We next find the regiment in the battle of Poco- 
taligo, where it lost three killed and twenty-five 
wounded. The expedition, of which this battle 
seemed to be the culminating point, having failed, 
the regiment went into winter-quarters at Beaufort, 
S. C. April 4th the regiment embarked for Hilton 
Head, and on the 29th encamped on Morris Island, 
within two miles of the enemy's works. 

On the night of the 17th of June, Company B of 
the Fourth commenced the first works in the last 
long siege of Charleston. One man was killed by a 
piece of shell. For twenty-one nights and nearly as 
many days the regiment constructed masked batteries, 
working in silence, no one being allowed to speak 
above a whisper. On the morning of the 8th of July 
the work was completed. Forty-four guns and mor- 
tars were in position, the magazines filled, and the 
embrasures cleared. Severe labor and want of sleep 
had so exhausted the men that they were obliged to 
relinquish the completion of the works they had so 
faithfully commenced to fresh troops drilled for the The Fourth joined Gen. Terry's com- 
mand, and participated in a diversion upon James. 
Island. On the morning of the 10th the batteries 
opened simultaneously upon the enemy, who were 
taken completely by surprise. A rebel oflicer, while 
surveying our pickets through a glass, suddenly ex- 
claimed, " By , the Yanks have mounted a gun 

over there !" At that moment forty-four " peace- 
makers" rained iron around him. The chivalrous 
Southerner doubtless left for safer quarters, as he 
lived to tell the story. The advance was halted by 
the guns of Fort Wagner, and after two desperate 
and bloody charges it was determined to take that 
formidable work by regular approaches. On the same 
day the Fourth Regiment returned from James 
Island, and a lodgment having been effected by our 
forces on Morris Island, the Fourth was selected for 
its coolness in working under fire to report to Maj. 
Brooks, of Gen. Gillmoro's staff, and in charge of 
siege-works, for engineer duty. 

The regiment subsequently participated in the bat- 


ties of Drury's Bluff, Cold Harbor, the battle of the 
Mine, and its last memorable battle, which has gone 
down in history as the attack of Fort Fisher. 

The second expedition against Fort Fisher was com- 
manded by Gen. Terry, while Gen. Ames, with forces 
selected from his old division, was to do the hard 
fighting. The regiments chosen were among the best 
in the army, of large experience and unchallenged 
bravery, prepared for the work by such battles and as- 
saults as Wagner, Morris Island, Drury's Bluff, Cold 
Harbor, and the battle of the Mine. Every man of the 
Fourth capable of doing duty was brought into the 
ranks, and the regiment was commanded by Capt. 
John H. Roberts. It embarked on the good steamer 
" Baltic," a sad remnant of the full regiment which had 
filled the spacious saloons and cabins of the same ves- 
sel on the expedition to Port Royal. Once more the 
transports floated before the long line of sandy 
mounds known as Fort Fisher. On Friday, the 13th 
of January, 1865, the fleet moved into line and opened 
fire. The troops were landed througli a heavy surf 
on a hard beach, about five miles north of the fort. 
Gen. Paine's division and Gen. Abbott's brigade were 
sent to prevent an advance from the enemy above. 
Gen. Ames formed his division across the narrow 
tongue of land which separates Cape Fear River from 
the ocean, and nujved forward about two miles toward 
the fort, where he threw up a hasty line of works and 
made a careful reconnoissance. The bombardment, 
scarcely paralleled in history, which paved Fort 
Fisher with iron, continued without cessation till, 
three o'clock on the afternoon of the 15th. The time 
bad now come when it was to be decided whether this, 
perhaps the strongest of the rebel works, on which the 
wealth of England and the best engineering skill of 
West Point had been expended, could be taken ; 
and this little veteran division, consisting of men 
from New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, and 
Indiana, led by Gen. Ames, had this momentous 
question intrusted to their hands. Well may the 
cheeks of that little band blanch and their teeth set 
firmly together as slowly they move over the sand- 
hills, with their eyes fixed upon the deadly work be- 
fore them. A force of marines at first charged the 
sea-face of the fort, and were repulsed after a gallant 
fight. Just at the instant when the rebel garrison 
were crowding to the sea-face exultant with their 
victory, and pouring their fire into the retreating 
marines. Gen. Curtis' brigade dashed forward upon 
the angle near Cape Fear River, closely followed by 
Pennypacker's and Bell's brigades. The movement 
was successful. Tliegate and one mound were gained, 
though the road to the former lay over a broken 
bridge, enfiladed and crossed by a murderous fire. 
Gallantly leading his brigade. Col. Bell bad almost 
gained the bridge, when a shot struck him and he 
fell mortally wounded. A moment later and the colors 
of his own regiment, which he had loved so long and so 
well, were planted on the first mound of the fort. Thus 

fell the colonel of the Fourth New Hampshire, dearly 
beloved and deeply mourned by his brigade. Dig- 
nified yet genial, brave yet cautious, never sacri- 
ficing lives uselessly, ever ready to share danger and 
hardship with his men, no influence or peril could 
deter him from doing his duty, or shake a resolution 
once formed. 

The one weak point in the Malakoff was the gate. 
The foremost men now gained this, and were speedily 
reinforced by the remainder of the division, who crept 
hastily through the stockade while the engineers were 
at work hewing it down. The great strength of the 
fort was in its long succession of huge sand mounds 
or traverses, thirty I'eet high, each forming a redoubt 
in itself, with magazines and bomb-proofs, accessible 
only over the top or tlirough a narrow entrance. The 
gate and captured mound formed the base of opera- 
tions against the rest of the fort, tliough to any but 
iron-nerved men it would have proved but a slender 
footliold, for the rebels still had the advantage of su- 
perior numbers, twelve mounds to one, and Fort Bu- 
chanan below to rake the inside of the work. Ad- 
miral Porter kept up a continued and harassing fire. 
Now came the tug of war. The dash and first ex- 
citement of the assault were over ; dogged obstinacy 
and persistent effort to advance in tlie face of death 
were tlie soldierly <)ualities now called into play. In 
the narrow limits where the whole division was now 
compelled to operate, identity of company, regi- 
ment, or brigade was impossible. Each man must 
and did act as though success depended on his own 
right arm. The fire of the enemy was well directed 
and incessant. A hundred dashes to the next tra- 
verse would fail, and the next succeed. This desper- 
ate contest continued till after ten o'clock in the 
evening, and nine of the traverses were taken. The 
men were by this time almost exhau.sted, and the 
ranks were fearfully decimated. The enemy's fire 
had almost ceased, when Gen. Abbott's brigade en- 
tered the fort, and the remainder of the rebels soon 
after surrendered. The fierce, prolonged struggle 
was over, and victory was proclaimed by a blaze of 
rockets from the fleet and the triumphant cheers of 
the men on shore. The joy of the Fourth was min- 
gled with sadness at the loss of tlieir beloved com- 
mander and a number of tried comrades. The regi- 
ment was mustered out, and arrived home Aug. 27, 

Fifth Regiment. — This regiment was organized in 
1861, and had one company, D, from Strafford County. 
Edward E. Cross, of Lancaster, was colonel ; Samuel 
G. Langley, lieutenant-colonel ; Wm. W. Cook, of 
Derry, major; Charles Dodd, adjutant; E. M. Web- 
ber, of Somersworth, quartermaster; Dr. L. M. Knight, 
surgeon; Dr. J. W. Buckham, assistant surgeon; Rev. 
E. R. Wilkins, chaplain. The regiment rendezvoused 
at Concord, and October 29th left for the seat of 
war. The regiment saw severe service, and partici- 
pated in the following engagements: Fair Oaks, Mai- 


vern Hill, Antietam, Charleston, Va., Snicker's Gap, 
Freilericksburg, Chaiicellorsville, Brandy Station, 
Gettysburg, Cold Harbor, Deep Bottom, Hatcher's 
Run, Five Forks, and Farniville. The regiment was 
mustered out July 8, 1865. No regiment in the ser- 
vice from any State fought better, and few, if any, 
fought oftener. 

The Sixth Regiment. — This regiment was organ- 
ized at Keene, and mustered into the service on the 
27th, 2Stli, and 30th of November, 1861. Company 
C was from Rockingham ( 'ounty, and Company H 
from Straflbrd. December 25th the regiment left for 
the seat of war, and upon arrival at Washington was 
assigned to Burnside's expedition. The history of 
the Sixth is the history of many of the severest battles 
of the war. 

No regiment from the State and none in the army 
won a prouder name or made a more honorable record 
than the gallant old veteran Sixth. No regiment 
saw more severe campaigning, did more or better 
service, or was oftener uuder fire. Few regiments 
went through the war with so little internal dissen- 
sion and so much harmony among officers. Few 
regiments endured the hardships of the service with 
so much fortitude and so little grumbling, for they 
were men whose hearts were in the work of crushing 
out the Rebellion. When at various times calls were 
made for the names of men to whom medals should 
be awarded for gallant conduct upon the field, few 
names were ever given, for the reason that so many 
had done well it was hard to designate a small num- 
ber. Captains would repeat that almost every one of 
their men might be recommended, but it would be 
invidious to name a few. 

The following is a list of battles in which it was 
actively engaged: Camden, N. C, April 19, 1862; 
Second Bull Run, Va., Aug. 29, 1862; Chantilly, Va., 
Sept. 1, 1862; South Mountain, Md., Sept. 13, 1862; 
Antietam, Md., Sept. 17, 1862; Fredericksburg, Va., 
Dec. 13, 1862; siege of Vicksburg, Miss.; Jackson, 
Miss.; Wilderness, Va., May 6, 1864; Spottsylvania 
Court-House,Va.,May 12, 1864; Spottsylvania Court- 
House, Va.,May 18, 1864 ; North Anna River, Va., May 
24, 1864; Tolopotomy Creek, Va., May 31, 1864; Beth- 
esda Church, Va., June 2, 1864; Cold Harbor, Va., 
June 3, 1864; Petersburg, Va., June 16, 1864; Peters- 
burg, Va., June 17, 1864; Petersburg, Va., June 18, 
1864; Weldon Railroad, Va., July 30, 1864; Poplar 
Spring Church, Va., Sept. 30, 1864; Hatcher's Run, 
Va., Oct. 27, 1864 ; Petersburg, Va., April 2, 1865. 

Besides these the regiment was present at many 
skirmishes and reconnoissances, which are not men- 
tioned as it suffered no loss. In addition to these 
there were many days during the campaign in the 
Wilderness and for nine weeks before Petersburg 
when the regiment was constantly under fire, and 
suffered heavy losses in the aggregate. The regi- 
ment was mustered out in July, 1865. 

The Seventh Regiment. — This regiment was raised 

by Joseph C. Abbot in the fall of 1861, and Decem- 
ber 14th same year was mustered into the service 
with the following officers : 

Colonel, il. S. Putnam, regular army. 

Lieutenant-Colonel, Joseph C. Abbot, of Manches- 

Major, Daniel Smith, of Dover. 

Quartermaster, Andrew H. Young, of Dover. 

Adjutant, Thomas A. Henderson, of Dover. 

Surgeon, W. W. Brown, of Manchester. 

Chaplain, .1. C. Emerson, of Fisherville. 

The Seventh rendezvoused at "Curry's Hall," Man- 
chester, and Jan. 14, 1862, left for the front. They 
remained at White Street Barracks, in New York, 
about one month, when they embarked for the Dry 
Tortugas to perform general duty. June 16th the 
regiment left Tortugas and embarked for Port Royal, 
arriving on the 22d, and was soon ordered into camp 
at Beaufort. While here Maj. Smith died of disease. 
They left Beaufort September 1st for St. Augustine, 
Fla., where it remained until May 10th. In the mean 
time, however, Col. Putnam and five companies of the 
regiment had joined the expedition against Charles- 
ton, which proved a failure, and after two weeks re- 
turned to the regiment. 

The first engagement in which the Seventh partici- 
pated was the unsuccessful assault on Fort Wagner. 
This was one of the memorable assaults of the war, 
and during the hour and a half the engagement 
lasted the gallant Seventh lost two hundred and 
eighteen killed, wounded, and missing, with Col. 
Putnam and four line-officers among the killed. 
The regiment subsequently participated in the bat- 
tles of Olustee, Lempster Hill, Drury's Bluff, Peters- 
burg, Deep Bottom (where Lieut.-Col. Henderson 
was killed), New Market Heights, Laurel Hill, Dar- 
bytown Road, Fort Fisher. 

The Eighth Regiment. — There were a few men 
from Rockingham and Strafford Coifhties in this 
regiment, but no organization. The regiment was 
mustered into the service Dec. 23, 1861, in Manches- 
ter. The regiment participated in various engage- 
ments, the most memorable of which was the attack 
on Port Hudson, where it suffered more than any 
other regiment in the army. In December, 1863, the 
Eighth was changed to " Second New Hampshire 
Cavalry." It was mustered out in December, 1864. 

Ninth Regiment. — There were a few men from 
Strafford County in this regiment, which was re- 
cruited in 1862, with E. Q. Fellows, of Sandwich, as 
colonel. The regiment participated in the battles of 
South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Spott- 
sylvania, the " Mine," Poplar Grove Church. The 
Ninth saw liard service, and suflered severely. 

Tenth Regiment. — This regiment was raised 
during the dark hours of 1862, when the glamour of 
military life had passed away, and grim-visaged war 
stood out before the people in all it.s horrors. It was 
commanded by Col. Michael P. Donohoe, who was 


subsequently breveted brigadier-general. Rocking- 
ham County had one company, "G," in this regi- 
ment, which was raised in Portsmouth and Greenland. 
George W. Towle was captain. 

The history of the Tenth Regiment contains nothing 
which need cause anj' of its members to be ashamed 
of tiie organization in which they served, while it 
is a record of brave deeds and heroic sacrifices of 
which any soldier might well feel proud. Other 
regiments from the State may have been through 
more battles and lost more men, but none ever fought 
more gallantly or discharged whatever duty devolved 
upon them more faithfully. With the Army of 
the Potomac at Fredericksburg and Cold Harbor, 
and the Army of the James at Drury's Blufl', Fort 
Harrison, and all the bloody campaign of 1864, its 
history is inseparably connected, and as long as the 
war for the Union and its heroes shall be gratefully 
remembered by the people in whose behalf so much 
was risked, the story of the Tenth New Hampshire 
will never cease to be of interest. 

The regiment was mustered out June 21, 1865. 



The Elev nth Regiment— The Thirteenth Repniout— Tlie Fourteenth 
Beginient— The Fifteenth Kegiment— The Sixtoentli lloKiment— Tlie 
Eighteenth Regiment. 

The Eleventh Regiment.'— The Eleventh Regi- 
ment was recruited and mustered into the service in 
August, 18G2, with the following officers : Colonel, 
Walter Harriman, of Warner ; Major, Moses A. Col- 
lins, of E.xeter ; Adjutant, Charles R. Morrison, of 
Nashua ; Quartermaster, James F. Briggs, of Hills- 
borough ; Surgeon, Jonathan S. Ross, of Somers- 
worth ; Assistant Surgeon, John A. Hayes, of Con- 
cord ; and Chaplain, Frank K. Stratton, of Hampton. 

There were three companies recruited from Rock- 
ingham County for the regiment. A, B, and I, and 
one company, K, from Straftbrd County. 

" The Eleventh Regiment left Concord on the 11th 
of September, 1862, and arrived at Washington on 
the 14th, and was brigaded with the Twenty-first 
Connecticut and Thirty-seventh Massachusetts, under 
command of Brig.-Gen. Henry S. Briggs, of Massachu- 
setts, and constituted a part of Casey's reserved corps. 
Early in October the regiment marched to Pleasant 
Valley, Md., and was brigaded with the Thirty-fifth and 
Twenty-first Massachusetts, Fifty-first New York, and 
Fifty-first Pennsylvania, and was the Second Brigade, 
Second Division, Ninth Army Corps, the brigade 
commander being Acting Brig.-Gen. E. Ferrero. On 
the 27th of October the Army of the Potomac started 

t From Adjutant-General's Report, and Waite'B " New Hampshii 
the Rebellion." 

in pursuit of Gen. Lee's retreating army, the division 
to which the Eleventh belonged being in the advance. 
The enemy was closely pursued and driven from point 
to point, occasionally skirmishing, without any serious 
engagement or the loss of any men to the regiment. 
They reached Falmouth, opposite Fredericksburg, on 
the 19tli of November, and went into camp, where 
they remained, drilling and ]>erforniing ordinary camp 
and picket duty, until they engaged in the battle of 
Fredericksburg. Tlie Eleventh Regiment crossed the 
Rappahannock on the morning of the 12th of Decem- 
ber. It was not put into the fight until about twelve 
o'clock on the 13th, when it was ordered to the rail- 
road, and thence advanced to the bottom of a slope 
across an open plain swept by the enemy's fire of 
infantry and artillery, with nothing to divert that fire, 
and two or three fences to impede the progress of the 
regiment and add to^its exposure. The order to ad- 
vance, given by Col. Harriman on the right and Maj. 
Farr on the left, was promptly obeyed, and th6y 
proceeded upon the double-quick to the point indi- 
cated, which was not more than twenty rods from the 
rebel intrenchments. The position was held by a few 
companies that had preceded the regiment. For 
nearly two hours they sustained a tremendous fire 
from the enemy's strongholds, nearly alone. The 
enemy were well protected by their intrenchments, 
while the regiment was considerably below them, and 
only partially protected when flat upon the ground by 
the character of tiie slope. The men were ordered to 
lie down and load, and then stand up, take aim, and 
fire. Some, however, were so eager for the fray and 
reckless of consequences that they persisted in stand- 
ing bolt upright all the while. The enemy rushed 
down the slope several times as if to make a charge, 
but were met with terrific volleys from the Eleventh 
and repulsed. Every man stood firm and would not 
yield an inch. After the ammunition was nearly 
exhausted, only a few rounds being reserved for an 
emergency, and when there were indications that 
they might be called upon to make or meet a charge, 
Col. Harriman gave orders to fix bayonets. Some of 
the men, by procuring ammunition from other regi- 
ments which had come up and from the cartridge- 
boxes of the dead, kept up a continuous fire. Regi- 
ment after regiment came up, and so the battle raged, 
the fire of the enemy's musketry and artillery being 
most murderous and terrific, until after dark, when 
the regiment was withdrawn. On a single acre, em- 
bracing the ground held by the New Hampshire 
Eleventh, as measured by those who afterwards went 
over to bury the dead, there were six hundred and 
twenty dead men. The conduct of the regiment on 
that day was the subject of universal commendation. 
The general in command in an address said, 'To 
the new troops who fought so nobly on the 13th, on 
their first battle-field, thanks are especially due; they 
have every way proved themselves worthy to stand 
side by side with the veterans of the Second Brigade.' 


The New Hampshire Eleventh were the only ' new 
troops' in that brigade, and of course appropriated 
this high and well-deserved compliment. In this 
battle the regiment had fourteen men killed, one 
hundred and fifty-six wounded, and twenty-four miss- 
ing. Of the latter some afterwards came in, some are 
supposed to have been killed, others were wounded 
or prisoners. Many died of wounds not supposed at 
the time to be fatal. Among these was Capt. Amos 
15. Shattuck, an excellent officer and much esteemed 

" The Eleventh Regiment remained at the heights 
of Strafford until the 11th of February, 1863, when, 
with the rest of the corps, they were at Newport 
News until tlie 26th of March, and then went to 
Covington, Ky., to protect the people from guerrillas 
and drive out the rebel forces. They remained in 
the State at different places until the 4th of June, 
when they were removed to Vicksburg. Here Col. 
Harriman resigned, and Lieut. -Col. Collins assumed 
command of the regiment. 

" After the surrender of Vicksburg, on the 4th of 
July, the Eleventh with other troops started in pur- 
suit of Johnston, the details of which movement are 
given in the history of the Sixth Regiment. The 
regiment returned to Milldale, where it remained 
until the 6th of August, suffering like the other 
regiments from the unhealthiness of the location. 
From there it proceeded to Cincinnati, where it ar- 
rived on the 14th, sadly reduced in numbers and 
strength by exposure to the malaria of the swamps 
in the vicinity of Vicksburg. The regiment marched 
over to Covington, Ky., and remained there until 
the 26th of August, when they were succe.ssively at 
Nicholasville, Camp Parke, Crab Orchard, and Lou- 
don, Ky., and were then engaged in the siege of Knox- 

" After a very tedious march the Eleventh arrived 
at Knoxville on the 29th of October, and on the 17th 
of November were joined by Gen. Burnside and his 
gallant little army of thirteen thousand men, who 
were closely followed by Longstreet with his excel- 
lent force, thirty thousand strong, and the siege of 
Knoxville commenced. Trenches were thrown up; 
trees were felled ; forts were built; dams were erected 
on the small creek separating the city proper from 
North Knoxville, and other preparations made for a 
defense of the city. The Eleventh shared all the 
hardships of the siege, short rations, etc., until the 
night of the 28th of November, when the rebels 
made an attack along the whole line, and skirmish- 
ing continued through the night. At five o'clock in 
the morning the enemy opened with renewed vigor 
on the whole front, the object being to capture Fort 
Sanders, at the west part of the town. Against this 
Longstreet hurled five thousand of his best troops, 
who were mowed down like grass by the Union bat- 
tery. The enemy charged bravely, but it was only 
to meet sudden death. At seven o'clock the enemy, 

repulsed at every point, withdrew from the contest, 
leaving a thousand dead and wounded along the lines, 
while only ten or twelve men had been killed or 
wounded on the Union side. In a day or two news 
came of the victory at Chattanooga, and ringing 
cheers ran along the whole line. On the 5th of De- 
cember the enemy commenced a retreat, and troops 
were sent in all directions in pursuit, who brought in 
a large number of prisoners. On the 7th an advance 
was made up the valley to force Longstreet inside 
the Clinch Mountains, and keep him from Cum- 
berland Gap. After considerable skirmishing the 
Eleventh went into camp at Lee's Springs, and re- 
mained there three weeks. Rations had become very 
short, some days only a single ear of corn being issued 
to the men. The Eleventh had drawn very little of 
any kind of clothing for the five months that they had 
been in Tennessee, and they could be tracked by the 
marks of bloody feet while marching. In lieu of 
shoes, green hides were issued to the men, of which 
they made moccasins. 

" The last of February, 1864, Col. Harriman re- 
joined the regiment, and was received with much en- 
thusiasm. He had been re-commissioned as colonel 
of the Eleventh, and had marched over the moun- 
tains, a distance of two hundred and forty miles, in 
command of a detachment of six hundred recruit^s for 
that and other regiments. 

" On the 18th of March orders were received to 
proceed to Annapolis, and the {.roops, after long and 
tedious marching and railroad transportation, arrived 
there on the 7th of April and went into camp. The 
Ninth Corps, under its favorite commander, Gen. 
Burnside, was reorganized, enlarged, and made to 
embr.ace four heavy divisions. Here they remained, 
drilling, clothing, arming, and organizing, until the 
23d of April, when it began another march to the 

" At the battle of the Wilderness, on the 6th (rf May, 
tlie regiment was under fire nearly all day. At one 
o'clock the brigade advanced through the Wilderness 
in good order, in the face of a terrific fire. It passed 
one line of Union troops lying close to the ground not 
engaged ; came to another similar line and passed that 
also, when about three hundred Western men from 
that line sprang to their feet and rallied under the flag 
of the Eleventh and joined their fortunes with them. 
They pressed forward with spirit and carried two suc- 
cessive lines of the enemy's works at the point of the 
bayonet, driving the rebels from their bust intrench- 
ments in their front, and nearly out of the Wilder- 
ness. In this bloody engagement tlie regiment lost 
severely in both officers and men. Col. Harriman 
was captured, Lieut.-Col. Collins was killed, Capt. J. 
B. Clark and Lieut. J. C. Currier were wounded se- 
verely, and Capt. H. O. Dudley slightly. Lieut. Ar- 
thur E. Hutchins, serving on Gen. Griffin's staff, was 
killed. The command of the regiment devolved on 
Capt. Tilton. 



"Ou the 12th of May occurred the battle of Spott- 
sylvauia. The advance was commenced before day- 
light. The enemy's pickets were soon encountered. 
The Eleventh discovered a regiment of the enemy 
dressed in Union blue, detected their character, and 
at once attacked them. The fighting was terrific all 
along the lines, in which hundreds of pieces of artil- 
lery and thousands of muskets dealt death on every 
hand. Among the wounded in this fight were Adjt. 
Morrison and Lieut. John E. Cram, who at the time 
had the colors in his hand. The position of the 
Eleventh was just to the left of where the Second 
Corps captured the rebel general, Bushrod Johnson, 
and about five thousand prisoners. 

"On the 16th, in a skirmish with the enemy, the 
regiment lost several men killed and wounded. On 
the 24th the regiment was under fire at North Anna 
River. On the 25th and 26th, in picket and skirmish 
firing, several of the men were wounded. 

" At Cold Harbor, notwithstanding the regiment 
was not used in the offensive movement, the battle 
being fought mainly by the other troops, it was under 
fire and a number of its men were killed and wounded. 
Captain Shepard, of Company I, being among the 
latter. On the 16th and 17th of June, in an engage- 
ment with the enemy before Petersburg, the regiment 
lost several prisoners, among them Lieut. Dimick. 
On the 21st Lieut. Little was mortally wounded while 
on the picket line. 

" The months of June and July were spent by the 
regiment in the trenches before Petersburg, and on 
the 30th of July took an active part in the celebrated 
battle of the ' Mine.' Capt. Tilton, who had been in 
command of the regiment from the 17th of June, was 
wounded early in the morning, and the command 
devolved upon Capt. Locke. The result of the at- 
tack was a repulse of the Union troops. The Elev- 
enth occupied the ' crater' most of the day, and lost 
heavily. The colors were twice lost and twice re- 
taken, and were finally torn in two, the enemy 
retaining half while the remaining half was retained 
by the regiment. 

'■ In September the regiment took part in the move- 
ments on the Weldon Railroad. On the 30th it moved 
to Poplar Grove Church, and was actively engaged at 
Pegram's Farm, where it lost heavily in killed and 
wounded. Among the wounded were Capts. Locke, 
commanding the regiment. Currier, and Bell, and 
Lieuts. Davis, Brown, and Bean, the latter mortally. 
Capt. Shepard succeeded to the command of the regi- 
ment, which he held until the 1st of October, when 
Capt. Dudley returned from leave of absence and 
succeeded him. On the 27th the regiment took part 
in the engagement at Hatcher's Run, where it lost 
two men wounded and the sergeant-major captured. 
On the 31st, by order of the commanding general, 
Capt. Shepard again took command of the regiment. 

" On the 21st of November, Col. Harriman returned 
to the regiment from his imprisonment, and was cor- 

dially welcomed. On the 29th the regiment, with the 
Ninth Corps, moved to the front of Petersburg, where 
it went into camp near Hancock Station, on the mili- 
tary railroad, and remained there until the 2d of 
April, 1865, engaged in picket duty, skirmishing, and 
preparing for the last great struggle. On the 25th of 
March the enemy made a vigorous assault upon the 
lines of the Ninth Corps at Fort Steadman at day- 
light. They took the fort, but an hour later were 
driven back with great slaughter and a loss of two 
thousand prisoners. 

"On Sunday morning, April 2d, at three o'clock, 
the grand charge all along the lines, from the Appo- 
mattox River to Hatcher's Run, was made. It was a 
great day and a great battle. The division commander 
having been wounded during the day. Gen. Griffin 
assumed command, and Col. Harriman took charge of 
the brigade, while the command of the Eleventh 
Regiment devolved on Capt. Dudley. About mid- 
night it became evident that the rebels were evacu- 
ating Petersburg. The city was on fire at three difler- 
ent points. Half an hour before day on the 3d an 
advance was ordered. The troops moved cautiously 
at first, but hurriedly very soon, and sprang over the 
rebel breastworks with a shout of triumph. The 
brigade commanded by Col. Harriman, consisting of 
the Sixth, Ninth, and Eleventh, and six other regi- 
ments, marched through Petersburg with bands play- 
ing and banners flying. The common people, and 
especially the colored population, received the troops 
with demonstrations of joy, while most of the rich, 
aristocratic, original rebels were sour and glum. Se- 
cession was dead, and this latter class distinctly saw 
and keenly felt it. The army closely pursued Lee to 
Appomattox Court-House, where, on the 9th, he sur- 
rendered the great Army of Northern Virginia to Gen. 
Grant, and the four years' war of the Rebellion was 
virtually ended. 

"The Eleventh Regiment joined in the grand re- 
view of the Second, Fifth, and Ninth Corps, Sher- 
man's entire army, and some other troops at Wash- 
ington on the 23d and 24th of May. It was the 
grandest spectacle of the kind ever witnessed in this 
country. Two hundred thousand armed veterans 
passed the whole length of Pennsylvania Avenue, 
the reviewing officers being stationed in front of the 
President's house. It has been confidently claimed 
that, in soldier-like bearing and general appearance, 
no corps eclipsed the Ninth, no division the Second 
of that corps, no brigade the Second of that division, 
and no troops those of that brigade from New Hamp- 

"The Eleventh was mustered out of the United 
States service on the 4th of June, and immediately 
started for home, arriving at Concord on the after- 
noon of the 7th, meeting with a hearty reception in 
the State-House yard. On the 10th tlie regiment was 
paid ofi" and formally discharged. By order of the 
commanding general of the army, for meritorious 



conduct in battle, the Eleventh Regiment inscribed 
upon its banner ' Fredericksburg, ^'icksb^rg, Jack- 
son, East Tennessee, the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, 
North Anna, Cokl Harbor, Weldon Railroad, Poplar 
Grove Church, Hatcher's Run, Petersburg.'" 
• The following were the officers of this regiment, 
with their official record, during the term of service : 

Field- and Staff- OJtcei-s.—Co\. Walter HaiTiinan, of Warner, captured 

May 6, 18C4 ; exchanged Sept. 12, 1804 ; appointed brig.-gen. U. S. V. 

by brevet, for gallant conduct during tlie war, to date from Marcli 

13, 1865; muBt. out as col. June 4, 1865. 
Licut.-Col. Moses N. Collins, of Exeter, killed in action May 6, 1864. 
Lient.-Col. Leander W. Cogswell, of Hennikor, not mustered ; hon. disch. 

as capt. April 26, 18C5. 
Mnj. Moses N. Collins, of Exeter, pro. to lieut.-col. Sept. 9, 1862. 
Maj. Evarts W. Farr, of Littleton, must, out Jnne 4, 1865. 
Adjt. Charles R. Morrison, of Nashua, wounded severely May 12, 1864 ; 

hon. disch. Sept. 9, 1864. 
A<yt. William A. Nason, of New London, not mustered; must, out as Ist 

lient. June4, 1865. 
Q.-m. James F. Briggs, of Hillsborough, hon. disch. Aug. 1, 1863. 
Q -m. Gilman B. Johnson, of Epping, must, out June 4, 1865. 
Surg, John S. Ross, of Somereworth, hon. disch. for dis. Dec. 7, 1864. 
Surg. John A. Hayes, of Concord, must, out Jnne 4, 1865. 
Asst. Surg. John A. Hayes, of Concord, pro. to surg Jan. 2, 1865. 
Asst. Surg. Edward R. Hutchins, of Concord, res. Dec. 25, 1862. 
Asst. Surg. John C. W. Moore, of Concord, must, out Oct. 11, 1864. 
Asst. Surg. Charles M. Jones, must, out June 4, 1865. 
Chaplain Frank K. Stratton, of Hampton, res. May 6, 1863. 
Chaplain Edward T. Lyford, of Deerfiekl, res. May 13, 1865. 
Sergt.-Maj. Josiah W. Taylor, wounded severely May 6, 1864; died of dis- 
ease March 18, 18C5. 
Sergt.-Maj. Jonathan T. Williams, of Sutton, must, out June 4, 1865. 
Q.m.-Sergt. Henry L. Colby, of Warner, must, out June 4, 1865. 
Com.-Sergt. William S. Carter, of Warner, must, out June 4, 1865. 
Hosp. Steward Charles M, Jones, pro. to asst, surg, Jan. 2, 1865. 
Hosp, Steward George P. Ladd, of Deeriug, must, out June 4, 1865. 
Principal Musician Andrew J. Coffin, of Epping, nuist. out June 4, 1865. 
Campamj Q^'cers,— Capt. Horace C. Bacon, of Epping, Co, A, wounded 

Dec, 13, 1862; hon, diach. June 11, 1864, 
Capt, J. Charles Cnrrioj-, of Derry, Co. A, wounded severely Sept, 30, 

1864; hon, disch, Jan, 18, 1865. 
Capt, Charles E. Frost, of Hampstead, Co. A, must, out June 4, 1865. 
1st Lieut. George N, Shopard, of Epping, Co, A, wounded Dec. 13, 1862; 

pro. to capt. May 6, 1864. 
1st Lieut. Charles Davis, Jr., of Warner, Co, A, pro, to capt. Sept. 20, 1864. 
1st Lieut. Charles E. liartlett, Co. A, must, out June 4, 1865. 
2d Lieut. Gilman B. Johnson, of Epping, Co. A, pro. to q.m. April 22, 

2d Lieut. Charles E. Bartlett, Co. A, pro. to Ist lieut. Feb. 17, 1865. 
Capt. Sewell D. Tilton, of Raymond, Co. B, wounded severely May 30, 

1864; must, nut June 4, 1806, 
1st Lieut, Isaac H, Morrison, of Deering, Co. B, wounded .^lightly Dec, 

13, 1862; hon, disch. Sept, 3, 1864. 
1st Lieut. Merrill Johnson, of Deering, Co. B, must, out June 4, 1865. 
2d Lieut, Joseph H, Crum, of Deering, Co, B, disch, Feb, 5, 1864. 
2d Lient, John E. Cram, of Raymond, Co, B, wounded severely May 12, 

1864; hon, disclj. on account of wounds Oct. 19, 1864. 
2d Lieut, George W, Caswell, of South Newmarket, Co, B, wounded July 

30, 1864 ; not must, ; disch. for disability at Concord, May 20, 1865. 
Capt, Hollis 0, Dudley, of Manchester, Co, C, wounded slightly May 6, 

1864; must, out June 4, 1865. 
let Lieut, Joseph B, Clark, of Manchester, Co, C, pro, to capt. May I, 

Ist Lieut, Jeremiah D. Lyford, of Manchester, Co, C, died of disease Dec, 

9, 1864, 
Ist Lieut Charles C. Page, of Candia, Co. C, wounded severely Juno 2, 

1864; trans, from Co. I; not must. ; unable to accept on account of 

wounds; must, out as sergt. Aug. 23, 1865. 
Ist Lieut. Will C. Wood, of Lyme, Co. 0, trans, from Co, H ; must, out 

June 4, 1863, 
2d Lieut, T. P. Henlh, of Manchester, Co. C, res. Aug. 3, 186 !. 
2d Lieut. Ira G. \\ilkin8, of Manchester, Co. C, pro. to 1st lieut. Nov. 

5, 1864. 

Capt. Leander W. Coggswell, of Henniker, Co. D, pro. to lieut.-col. Aug. 

20, 1864. 
Capt. Charles Davis, Jr.. of Warner, Co. D, wounded severely Sept. 30, 

1864; not must.; hon. disch. as 1st lieut. Jan. 20, 1865. 
let Lieut. Thomas L. Sanborn, of Henniker, Co. D, res. Feb, 23, 1863. 
Ist Lieut, David C, Harriman, of Warner, Co, D, res, June 27, 1863, 
1st Lieut, Joseph N. Modica, of Henniker, Co, D, app, capt, U, S. V, by 

brevet, for gallai\t and meritorious conduct before Petersburg, Va,, 

to date from April 2, 18C5; must, out as 1st lieut, June 4, 1865, 
2d Lieut, David C, Harriman, of Warner, Co, D, pro. to Ist lieut, Feb. 

27, 1863. 
2d Lieut. Charles Davis, Jr., of WaTiier, Co. D, pro. to Ist lieut. July 25 

Capt. Amos B. Shattuck, of Manchester, Co. E, wounded Doc. 13, 1862 ; 

died of wounds Dec. 17, 1862. 
Capt. Arthur C. Locke, of Epsom, Co. E, wounded Sept. 30, 1864 ; must. 

out June 4, 1865. 
1st Lieut. Arthur C. Locke, of Epsom, Co. E, pro. to capt. Dec. 18, 1862. 
Ist Lient. Henry G. Dillenback, of Derry, Co. E, hon. disch. July 22, 

Ist Lieut. Charles E. Frost, of Hampstead, Co. E, pro. to capt. Feb. 17, 

1st Lient, Solomon Dodge, Jr., of New Boston, Co. E, must, out Jnne 4, 

2d Lieut, Charles E. Frost, of Hampstead, Co. E, wounded Nov. 19, 1803 ; 

pro. to 1st lieut. July 22, 1804. 
Capt. Samuel M. Carr, of New London, Co. F, resigned Jan. 29, 1863. 
Capt. Charles Woodward, of New London, Co. F, hon. disch. June 23, 

Capt. Orlando W. Dimick, of Lyme, Co. F, must, out June 4, 1865. 
Ist Lieut, Austin W, Messer, of New London, Co. F, disch. for disability 

Sept. 29, 1802. 
Ist Lieut. Hiram K. Little, of Sutton, Co. F, wounded; died of wounds 

at David's Island, N. Y., July 4, 1864. 
Ist Lieut. William A. Nason, of New London, Co. F, pro. to adjt. Dec. 1, 

Ist Lient, B, Baxter Brown, of Candia, Co, F, trans, to Co, I, 
2d Lieut, Hiram K. Litlle,of Sutton, Co, F, pro. to 1st lieut. Jan. 30, 1863. 
2d Lieut. R. Freeman Sanborn, of Springfield, pro. to 1st lieut. July 25, 

Capt, George E, Pingree, of Lisbon, Co. G. ; hon. disch. to accept ap- 
pointment in V. R. C, April 30, 1864. 
Capt. J. LeRoy Bell, of Haverhill, Co. G, wounded July 30, 1864 ; wounded 

Sept. 30, 1864 , must, out June 4, 1865. 
1st Lieut. Arthur E. Hutchins, of Bath, Co. G, killed in action May 6, 

Ist Lieut. L. Newell Sawyer, of Dover, Co. G, pro. to capt. Sept. 1,1864. 
1st Lient. Ira U. Wilkins, of Manchester, Co. G, wounded April 2, 1865 ; 

appointed capt. U. S. V. by brevet, for gallant and meritorious con- 
duct in the assault before Petersburg, Va., to date from April 2,1865 1 

must.eut June 4, 1865. 
2d Lieut. J. LeRoy Bell, of Haverhill, Co. G, wounded slightly May 12, 

1864; wounded slightly June 2, 1864; pro. to capt. July 22, 1864. 
Capt.Convers G. Morgan, of Enfield, Co. H, dismissed April 18, 1863. 
Capt. Joseph B. Clark, of Manchester, Co. G, wounded severely May 6, 

1864; must, out June 4, 1805. 
1st Lieut, Orlando W, Dimick, of Lyme, Co, H, pro. to capt. July 22, 1864. 
1st Lient. Frank S. Beau, of Enfield, Co. H, trans, to Co. I, Sept. 23, 1864. 
1st Lieut. Will C. Wood, of Lyme, Co. H, trans, to Co. I. 
2d Lieut, Allen H, George, of Canaan, Co. H, hon. disch. May 23, 1864. 
2d Lieut. Frank S. Bean, of Enfield, Co. H, pro. to 1st lieut. July 25, 

2d Lieut. Will C. Wood, of Lyme, Co. H, pro. to 1st lieut. Jan. 2, 1805. 
Capt. William R. Patten, of Candia, Co. I, hon. disch. April 20, 1864. 
Capt. George N, Shepard, of Epping, Co. I, wounded severely June 2 , 

1864; must, out June 4, 1865. Lieut. John K. Cilley, of Exeter, Co. I, prt>. to capt. and asst. q.m. 

U. S. v., April 7, 1864. 
1st Lieut. J. Charles Currier, of Derry, Co. I, pro. to capt. June 28, 1804. 
1st Lieut. K. F. Sanborn, of Springfield, Co. I, hon. disch. Aug, 9, 1864. 
lit Lieut. Frank S. Bean, of Enfield, Co. I, trans, from Co. H, Sept. 23, 

1804; wounded Sept. 30, 1864 ; died of wounds Nov. 25, 1804. 
1st Lieut. Charies C. Page, of Candia, Co. I, trans, to Co. C. 
1st Lient. R. Baxter Brown, of Candia, Co. I, trans, from Co. F; must 

out Jnne 4, 186). 
2d Lieut. J. Charles Currier, of Derry, Co. I, wounded severely 3I...V 6, 

1864 ; pro. to 1st liout. May 11, 1804. 



2d Licnt. K. Baxter Brown, of Candia, Co. I, pro. to 1st lieut. Dec. 5, 

Capt. Nath^uiel Lowe, Jr., of Dover, Co. K, pro. to capt. and asst. q.m. 

U. S. V. June 16, 1864. 
Capt. L. Newell Sawyer, of Dover, Co. K, must, out June 4, 1865. 
l6t Lieut, li. Flunk Uackley, of Dover, Co. K, resigned Dec. 22, 1862. 
1st Lieut. Henr.y W. Twoniiily, of Dover, Co. K, resigned July 19, 18G3. 
1st Lieut. Cliarles E, Everett, of Dover, Co. K, pro. to capt. May 16, 1S65. 
2d Lieut. Heury VV. Twombly, of Dover, Co. K, pro. to Ist lieut. Dec. 24, 

2d Lieut. L. Newell Sawyer, of Dover, Co. K, wounded slightly June 16, 

1864 ; pro. to 1st lieut. July 25, 1864. 
'26 Lieut. George P. Demerritt, of Durham, Co. K, not mustered ; must. 

out as sergt. June 4, 1865. 

Thirteenth Infantry. — This was the fiftli regiment 
raised by the State, in the fall of 1862, under the call 
of the President for six hundred thousand troops.. 

In its organization of ten companies seven counties 
were represented : Rockingham, Hillsborough, and 
Strafford each furnishing two, and Merrimack, Grafton, 
Carroll, and Coos one each. The first compaiiy went 
into camp at Concord on the 11th of September. The 
whole were mustered into the United States service 
on the 18th, 19th, and 20th of the same month, and 
on the 23d the field-officers were also mustered. 

Aaron F. Stevens, Esq., of Nashua, who had served 
as major of the First New Hampshire, was commis- 
sioned colonel ; George Bowers, of the same city, who 
had served in Mexico, was lieutenant-colonel ; and 
Jacob I. Storer, of Portsmouth, wa-s major. 

On the 5th of October, in the presence of a great 
assembly, the Thirteenth received its colors, at the 
State-House, from the hand of Hon. Allen Tenny, 
Secretary of State, and on the following day left the 
Capitol for Washington, fully armed and equipped. 

Mr. Waite, in "New Hampshire in the Rebellion," 
says, " It went into camp near Fort Albany, on the 
south side of the Potomac, where it remained several 
weeks, engaged mostly in drill. The regiment arrived 
at Falmouth, opposite Fredericksburg, Va., on the 9th 
of December, and was assigned to the First Brigade, 
commanded by Col. Hawkins, Third Division, Gen. 
Getty, of the Ninth Army Corps, then commanded by 
Gen. O. B. Wilcox. 

" The Thirteenth crossed the Rappahannock River 
with its brigade on the 11th, and held the lower part 
of the city. During the greater part of the battle on 
the 13th the regiment was protected from the guns of 
the enemy by a blufl' under which it was stationed. 
About five o'clock in the afternoon Gen. Getty was 
ordered to attempt with his division what two corps 
had failed to accomplish and liad been repulsed with 
terrible slaughter. He was to carry the batteries on 
Marye's Heights, the most formidable position in the 
enemy's line. The division consisted of but two bri- 
gades, Hawkins' and Harland's. The former posted 
his brigade in two lines. The Thirteenth was on the 
right of the second line. The order to advance was 
obeyed promptlj'. The troops moved across the rail- 
road under a considerable fire from both musketry 
and artillery, and charged up the steep bank, hoping 

to carry the works which crowned its crest. It was so 
dark that the line was considerably confused, and re- 
ceiving a terrific volley when within a few rods from 
the enemy and the point aimed at, the regiments 
were broken up and retreated in disorder. The lines 
of the Tenth and Thirteenth New Hampshire were 
immediately reformed by their commanders, expect- 
ing to renew the attack, but the whole command was 
soon ordered to retire to the city. The troops re- 
crossed the river on the night of the 15th, and the 
regiment returned to its old encampment. During 
the evacuation of the city, and while the remainder 
of the division retired across the river, the Thirteenth 
held the Union picket line along the railroad and on 
both sides of Hazel Run. Lively firing was kept up 
during the night with the enemy's pickets. It was a 
position of responsibility and peril, and was held by 
the regiment until three o'clock on the morning of 
the 16th, when it was relieved and again joined its 
brigade. In this battle the Thirteenth lost three 
officers and thirty-nine men killed, wounded, and 
prisoners. Capt. Carter and Lieuts. Durell and Shaw 
were slightly wounded. This was the first time the 
regiment h.-id met the enemy or been under fire, but 
it proved the coolness and gallantry of the officers 
and the bravery of the men. 

" The Thirteenth shared with the army the cold and 
snow, the mud and exposure of Falmouth, and suf- 
fered severely from sickness of officers and men. It 
moved witii the Ninth Corps to Newport News in 
February, 1863, and on the 13th of March with the 
division to Suflblk, where it was actively engaged in 
the defense of that place against the siege which soon 
followed, and was under fire most of the time for four 

" "On the 3d of May a reeonnoissance was ordered, 
and the Thirteenth and three other regiments, with 
some artillery and cavalry, crossed the Nansemond on 
the Providence Church road, and in their advance 
drove in the skirmishers of the enemy, who retired to 
their rifle-pits in the edge of the woods, where they 
occupied a line more than half a mile long. Upon 
this the Thirteenth, with a part of the Eighty-ninth 
New York, charged, under command of Col. Stevens, 
and carried the works at the point of the bayonet, the 
killed and wounded of the enemy falling into the 
hands of the Union troops. The enemy were driven 
through the woods, and a strong line of intrenchments, 
heavily garrisoned, unmasked. The artillery opened 
a sharp fire upon the works, which was briskly replied 
to, the fight lasting until dark. The same night the 
enemy withdrew from his position, raised the siege of 
Suffolk, and retreated towards Blackwater, closely fol- 
lowed by the Union troops, who captured a large 
number of ])risoaers. The regiment was particularly 
complimented for its conduct in this affair. Its loss 
in killed and wounded was about thirty. Capt. Buz- 
zell was killed, and Lieut. Murray severely and Capt. 
Stoodley slightly wounded. 



" During the ensuing summer and fall tlie regiment 
wiis engaged upon tlie fortifications in tlie vicinity of 
Portsmoutli, doing an immense amount of labor. It 
participated in Gen. Dix's expedition to Hanover 
Junction in June, sutt'cring nuicli from tlie' exposure 
and luirdship of the inarch, which was followed after 
its return to camp by extraordinary sickness and mor- 
tality. Companies B and D were soon after placed in 
Fort Tallinghast, in the line of defenses, where they 
remained until the following winter, instructed and 
exercised in heavy artillery. . The regiment passed the 
winter in comfortable quarters erected by the men, 
doing but little severe duty. During the fall and 
winter the regiment received an accession of two hun- 
dred and forty recruits, many of whom were substi- 
tutes. ■ . 

" For the campaign of 1864 the regiment was or- 
ganized with the Second Brigade and First Divi.sion 
of the Eighteenth Army Corps. The brigade was 
composed of the Tenth and Thirteenth New Hamp- 
shire, Eighth Connecticut, and Hundred and Eigh- 
teenth New York, under command of Brig. -Gen. 
Hiram Burnham, formerly colonel of the Sixth Maine. 
The Eighteenth Corps was under command of Maj.- 
Gen. W. F. Smith. From Yorktown the corps moved 
up the James River, landed at Bermuda Hundred, 
and on the 7th of May the Thirteenth was engaged 
with the enemy on the Walthal Railroad, and on the 
9th and 10th fought them at Swift Creek, near Peters- 
burg, driving them across the creek, and losing in 
these operations several men killed and wounded. 
On the 12th it again met the enemy on the Rich- 
mond and Petersburg turnpike, drove them towards 
Richmond, capturing several prisoners ; on the 13th 
and 14th drove them across Kingsland Creek from 
their rifle-pits and intrenchments, and capturing their 
outer line of works at Drury's_^ Blutl'. The regiment 
was constantly under fire, a portion of it heing night 
and day on the skirmish line, with the remainder in 
support. The position in the captured works as- 
signed to the Thirteenth, being on the extreme left of 
the brigade, with the Tenth New Hampshire joining 
it on the right, was held until the morning of the 
16th, when Beauregard with thirty thousand troops 
in the dense fog attacked Gen. Butler's line, and 
surprised and routed Gen. Heckman's command on 
the right, forcing it back. The attack commenced 
about four o'clock, but the Tenth and Thirteenth 
were under arms and prepared to receive the enemy. 
The day previous Gen. Burnham had caused wires to 
be stretched along the front of his command, fastened 
to stumps, and about a foot from the ground. The 
rebels made a fierce attack on the skirmishers in front 
of the two New Hampshire regiments, and forced 
them to retire, but they were soon rallied, and their 
line reformed and held until the enemy, being re- 
inforced, massed his troops directly in front of the 
Thirteenth, and advanced to the assault of its posi- 
tion in three lines, forcing the skirmishers to retire 

to the main body. The enemy emerged from the 
woods and moved forward evenly under a hot and 
deliberate fire. When the enemy reached the wire 
his lines were entirely broken, when some fled and 
others threw down their arms. Each successive line 
was broken as soon as it reached the wire, and met 
the same fate as the first. The attack was hand- 
somely repulsed by the Thirteenth, aided by the 
oblique fire of the Tenth. The enemy made two like 
attempts to carry the position, but were each time 
repulsed with heavy loss. The Thirteenth took fifty- 
nine prisoners, principally from the Forty-fourth 
Tennessee and North Carolina regiments, including 
the adjutant-general of Bushrod Johnson. Abou^ 
nine o'clock peremptory orders were received from 
the division commander to retire, the right and left 
of the line having fallen back, and they were reluc- 
tantly obeyed. The loss of the regiment in these 
operations towards Petersburg and Richmond was 
thirty-one killed, wounded, and prisoners. Lieut. R. 
R. Thompson was wounded severely while on the 
picket line. 

"The regiment with its corps arrived at Cold 
Harbor on the 1st of June, and on the afternoon of 
that day engaged the enemy, advancing under a ter- 
rific fire of artillery and musketry, gaining and hold- 
ing an advanced position commanding the enemy's 
works. The Thirteenth was in- front of its brigade, 
and lost heavily, sixty officers and men having fallen 
in less than five minutes. Col. Stevens and Capt. 
Goss were slightly, and Capt. Farr and Lieut. Staniels 
severely, wounded. On the 3d, the day of the main 
battle at Cold Harbor, the regiment was in front of 
and near the enemy's lines and under fire, suffering 
severely, but was not ordered to attack. Lieut. 
George H. Taggard was severely wounded, and 
Lieut. J. M. Durell received a slight wound in the 
neck. In subsequent operations at Cold Harbor the 
regiment was constantly on duty at the front, losing 
several men, among whom was Capt. Julian, slightly 
wounded. The total casualties of the regiment at Cold 
Harbor were: officers wounded, six ; men killed, 
Spurteen ; wounded and prisoners, sixty-four ; total, 

"On the 15th of June, in an attack upon Peters- 
burg, the Thirteenth, under C'ol. Stevens, covered the 
front of its whole division, and behaved so bravely 
as to call forth, in the reports of the generals com- 
manding the brigade and division, especial commen- 
dation. Gen. Burnham, in his report, said, ' I threw 
my skirmishers i'orward, and assaulted their line, 
advancing on the double-quick, under a severe mus- 
ketry and artillery fire. My line dashed across the 
open field to the enemy's ' French rifle-pits,' which 
they captured with the entire force that occupied 
them. Nearly a hundred prisoners were captured 
here and were hastily sent to the rear, a portion of 
them guarded by men from the Tliirteenth New 
Hampshire, while others were probably driven to the 



rear without any guard whatever. Col. Stevens then 
moved the line forward, and still encountering a 
severe fire, they dashed across the open plain, through 
the ravine, and up to the enemy's formidable works, 
assaulting and capturing Battery No. 5 in a gallant 
manner. Capts. E. W. Goss, George N. Julian, and 
N. D. Stoodley, of the Thirteenth New Hampshire, 
were among the first to enter the battery, and to them 
the officers commaliding it surrendered. Lieut.-Col. 
Council, of the Twenty-sixth Virginia Regiment, 
Maj. Beatty, and another major, name unknown, sur- 
rendered their swords to Capt. Julian, while Capt. 
Sturtevant, commanding the field battery which was 
captured, surrendered his sword to Capt. Stoodley. 
The Thirteenth captured in this work one color, five 
pieces of artillery, and about one hundred prisoners. 
The number of prisoners captured-in the whole affair 
could not have been less than two hundred.' Imme- 
diately after the fort was entered by the Thirteenth, 
the captured guns were, by order of Col. Stevens, 
turned and fired on the retreating enemy. The loss 
of the regiment was heavy. Capt. E. E. Dodge, a 
gallant officer, fell mortally wounded before the works 
were reached, and died in hospital seven days after. 
Adjt. Boutwell and Lieut. Gafney were dangerously 
wounded in front of and near the works, while gal- 
lantly pressing forward in the assault. The whole 
number of killed and wounded in the operations of 
the day was forty-nine, the regiment going into 
action witli fifteen officers and one hundred and 
eighty-nine muskets. Two rebel flags, one taken by 
Sergt. James R. Morrison, of Company K, the other 
by Corp. Peter Mitchell, of the same company, were 
sent by Col. Stevens to the Governor of New Hamp- 

" The Thirteenth remained in front of Petersburg 
until the 27th of August. At the explosion of the 
" Mine," on the 30th of July, the brigade held the 
outer position of the Union works in front of the 
" crater" for two days after the other troops had re- 
tired. On the 25th of July the regiment was trans- 
ferred to the First Brigade of the division, and Col. 
Stevens was assigned to its command, which ife 
retained until the assault on Fort Harrison, on the 
29th of September. This was a formidable work in 
the enemy's line at Chapin's Farm, half a mile from 
the north bank of the James River, and about six 
miles from Richmond. To the First Division, com- 
manded by Brig.-Gen. Stannard, of Vermont, was 
assigned the duty of assaulting and capturing this 
work. The division came upon the enemy's pickets 
at daylight on the morning of the 29th, and skirmish- 
ing at once commenced. 

" On the next day, the 30th, the enemy attempted 
to retake the fort, making four assaults upon the lines 
established by the Union troops, but was each time 
repulsed with terrible slaughter. In these assaults 
the Thirteenth received the enemy in open ground. 
Of their part in these operations the official report of 

Lieut.-Col. Smith gives the following account : ' On 
the inorning of the 30th the regiment was again 
moved into the fort and placed at work on the left, 
where we were when it was found the enemy were 
massing on the right, when we were moved to the ex- 
treme right of the fort, our right resting on the in- 
trenchments. About twenty minutes afterwards the 
enemy made the attack. The regiment was almost 
entirely unprotected during the engagement, but 
never flinched, and kept up a destructive fire upon 
the advancing enemy, who were repulsed in every 
attempt to recapture the fort. After the repulse of 
the enemy, Capt. Goss, Company I, commanding 
sharpshooters, captured the colors of three regiments 
of Clingman's brigade, with several prisoners.' 

" The conduct of the officers and men of the Thir- 
teenth on these two days was superb. But again its 
loss was severe. More than one-half the command 
which left camp on the night of the 28th had melted 
away under the fire of the enemy. Two officers and 
thirteen men were killed, and seven officers and fifty- 
nine men wounded. Capt. Forbush and Lieut. R. R. 
Thompson, both brave officers, were killed in the 
assault and capture of the fort. Col. Stevens fell 
severely wounded in the assault while at the head of 
his regiment and brigade, and within a few yards of 
the fort. Lieut.-Col. Smith, Capts. Saunders and 
Bruce, and Lieuts. Ladd, Plall, and Wheeler were 

" The Thirteenth was assigned as a part of the garri- 
son of Fort Harrison, now called Fort Burnham, in 
honor of Gen. Burnham, who lost his life in its cap- 
ture. It participated with its division in the move- 
ment to the Williamsburg road on the 27th of Octo- 
ber, but was held in reserve, and its list of casualties 
was small. It returned to Fort Harrison the next 
day. In the reorganization of the Army of the James 
in December the Thirteenth was assigned to the First 
Brigade of the Third Division of the Twenty-fourth 
Corps, with which it served until its muster out of the 
service. During the winter furlough prizes were 
offered to the best soldier in each division. Sergt. 
Shattuck, of Company B, Thirteenth New Hampshire, 
received the first furlough granted in a division of 
over six thousand men, and during the winter the 
regiment carried off" a very large portion of the fur- 
lough prizes. 

" The Thirteenth Regiment participated in the final 
movement upon Richmond, on the 3d of April, 1865. 
Gen. Devens, commanding the division, in a compli- 
mentary letter to Governor Smyth, of this State, dated 
at Richmond, June 22, 1865, speaking of the Tenth, 
Twelfth, and Thirteenth Regiments, say.s, ' On the 
formation of the Twenty-fourth Corps, all these regi- 
ments formed a part of the Third Division, to which 
they have until now belonged, and were of the first 
column that entered Richmond on the morning of 
April 3, 1865, the Thirteenth New Hampshire being 
the first regiment of the army whose colors were 



brought into tlie city.' The Thirteenth was mustered 
out of the United States service on the 22d of June, 
and came home witli the Tenth and Twelftli, under 
command of Brevet Brig.-Gen. Donohoe. Arrived 
at Nashua, the oflicers of the brigade assembled at 
the Indian Head House, and Capt. George A. Bruce, 
of the Thirteenth, upou the start' of Gen. Donolioe, in 
their behalf, presented Gen. Aaron F. Stevens, their 
old and esteemed commander, a sabre, sash, and belt, 
suitable to his rank. The general accepted the gift iu 
a handsome and feeling speech, after which he re- 
viewed the brigade, and it appeared so well as to re- 
ceive the warmest encomiums of thousands of specta- 
tors who witnessed it. 

" Authority was received from the general com- 
manding the anny for the Thirteenth Regiment to 
inscribe upon its colors the names and dates of the fol- 
lowing engagements: Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862; 
siege of Suffolk, April and May, 1863 ; Walthal Road, 
May 7, 1864 ; Swift Creek, May 9 and 10, 1864 ; Kings- 
land Creek, May 12 and 13, 1864 ; Drury's Bluff, May 
14 and 16, 1864; Cold Harbor, June 1 and 3, 1864; 
Battery 6, Petersburg, June 15, 1864; Battery Harri- 
son, Sept. 29 and 30, 1864. 

" The regiment was paid off and finally discharged 
at Concord on the 1st of July, 1865. Its record while 
in the service is a better commendation than words. 

Field- and SlaJ-OScers.— Col. Aaron F. Stevens, of Nashua, wounded 
severely June 1,1864; severely wounded Sept. 29,1864; bonorably 
discharged Feb. 4, 1SG5 ; discharge suspended; appointed brigadier- 
general U. S. V. by brevet, to dale from Dec. 8, 1864 ; must, out as 
colonel June 21, 1865. 

Lieut.-Col. George Bowers, of Nashua, res. May 30, 1863. 

Lieut.-Col. Jacob I. Storer, of Portsmouth, hon. disch. May 28, 1864. 

Lieut.-Col. William Grantman, of Wakefield, hon. disch. Oct. 16, 1864. 

Lieut.-Col. Norniand Smith, ofStewartstown, must, out June 21, 1S65. 

Maj. Jacob I. Storer, of Portsmouth, pro. to lieut.-col. June 1, 1863. 

Maj. William Grantman, of Wakefield, pro. to lieut.-col. July 15, 1864. 

Maj. Norniand Smith, ofStewartstown, wounded slightly Sept. 29, 1864; 
pro. to lieut.-col. July 15, 1864. 

Maj. Nathan D. Stoodley, of Peterborough, must, out June 21, 1865. 

Adjt. George H, Gillis, of Nashua, resigned March 23, 1863. 

Adjt. Nathan B. Boutwell,of Lyudeltorough, wounded severely June 15, 
1864; bon. disch. for disability May 5, 1865. 

Adjt. George H. Taggard, of Nashua, must, out June 21, 1865. 

Q.m. Person C. Cheeney, of Peterborongli, resigned Aug. 6, 1863. 

Q.m. Mortier L. Morrison, of Pelerborough, must, out Juno 21, 1865. 

Surg. George B. Twitchell, of Keeiie, resigned March 24, 1863. 

Surg. Samuel A. Kicliardson, of Marlborough, must, out June 21, 1863. 

Asst. Surg. Samuel A. Richardson, of Marlborough, pro. to surg. April 1, 

Asst. Surg. John Sullivan, Jr., of Exeter, bon. disch. Aug. 16, 1864. 

Asst. Surg. Ezekiel Morrill, of Concord, pro. to surg. 1st N.H. H. Art. 
Nov. 17, 1804. 

.\88t. Surg. H<iralio N. Small, of Lancaster, pro. to surg. 10th N. H. Vols. 
Aug. 20, 1803. 

Asst. Surg. John C. Emery, must, out June 21, I860. 

Chap. George C. Jones, of Nashua, hon. disch. May D, 1865. 

Sorgt.-Maj. William J. Ladd, of Portsmouth, pro. to 2d lieut. Dec. 30, 

Sergt -Maj. Charles C. Favor, of Boston, Mass., pro. to -lA lieut. Nov. 28, 

Scrgt.-Mnj. James M. Hodgdon, of Rollitisford, wounded severely Sept. 
30, 1864 : pro. to 2d lieut. Juno 15, 1805. 

Q.m.-Sergt. M. L. Jlorrison, of Peterbomugh, pro. to q m. Aug. 12, 1863. 

Q.m.-Sergt. Charles A. Ames, of Peterborough, must, out June 21, 1865. 

€om.-Sergt. George H. Tuggard, of Nashua, pro. to 2d lieut. March 16, 

, pro. to 1st lieut. July 1."j 

Com.-Sergt. George W. Ferguson, of Mon 


Com.-Sergt. George Burns, of Concord, pro. to 2d lieut. Juno 15, 1865. 
IIosp. Stew. John J. Whittemoro, disch. for disability Nov. 22, 1862. 
IIosp. Stew. Hoyal B. Prescott, of Nashua, pro. to 1st lieut. Oct. 28, 

Hosp. Stew. D. W. Butterfleld, of Nashua, must, out June 21, 1865. 
Principal Musician Charles C. Hall, of Stratford, died of disease Jan. 

22, 1865. 
Principal Musician Mansou S. Brown, of Campton, must, out Juno 21, 

Compamj OJBoers— Capt. William Grantman, of Wakefield, Co. A, pro. 

to maj. June 1, 1863. 
Capt. Buel C. Carter, of Ossipee, Co. A, appointed A. Q. M. Vols, May 

17, 1864. 
Capt. George A. Bruce, of Mount Vernon, Co. .\, woumled slightly Sept. 

29, 1861 ; must, out June 21, 1865. 
1st Lieut. Buel C. Carter, of Ossipee, Co. A, wounded severely Dec. 13, 

1862; pro. to capt. June 1, 1863. 
1st Lieut. Charles B. Gafney, of Ossipee, Co. .\, wounded severely June 

15, 1864 ; must, out June 21, 1865. 
2d Lieut. Charles B. Gafney, of Ossipee, Co. A, pro. to Ist lieut. June 1, 

2d Lieut. Henry Churchill, of Brookfield, Co. A, lion, disch. for disability 

Feb. 28, 1865. 
Capt. Elisha K. Dodge, of Rollinsford, Co. B, wounded severely June 15, 

1864 ; died of wounds June 22, 1864. * 

Capt. Marshall Saunders, of Littleton, Co. B, wounded slightly Sept. 29, 

1864; must, out June 21, 1865. 
1st Lieut. George A. Bruce, of Mont Vernon, Co. B, pro. to capt. May 30, 

1st Lieut. William J. Ladd, of Portsmouth, Co. B, wounded severely 

Sept. 29, 1864; appointed capt. U. S. V. by brevet, for gallant and 

meritorious services, to date from March 13, 1865; must, out as 1st 

lieut. June 21, 1865. 
2d Lieut. N. B. Boutwell, of Lyndeboro', Co. B, pro. to ai^jt. March 24, 

2d Lieut. Charles M. Kittridge, of Mont Vernon, Co. B, res. Nov. 3, 1863. 
2d Lieut. Charles C. Favor, of Boston, Mass., Co. B, hon. disch. Sept. 5, 

Capt. Charles 0. BraUley, of Concord, Co. C, res. June 10, 1864. 
Capt. James M. Durell, of New Market, Co. C, must, out June 21, 1865. 
1st Lieut. Charles H. Curtis, of Farmington, Co. C, pro. to capt. Oct. 28 

Ist Lieut. Eoyal B. Prescott, of Nashua, Co. C, must, out June 21, 1865. 
2d Lieut. Rufus P. Staniels, of Concord, Co. C, pro. to 1st lieut. Feb. 20 

2d Lieut. Wm. H. McConney, of Windham, Co. C, must, out June 21 

Capt. George Fair, of Littleton, Co. D, wounded severely June 1, 1864- 

must, out June 21, 1866. 
1st Lieut. Edward Kilburn, of Littleton, Co. D, res. Jan. 24, 1863. 
1st Lieut. Marshall Saunders, of Littleton, Co. D, pro. to capt. July 15 

1st Lieut. Robert R. Thompson, of Stratford, Co. D, killed in action at 

Fort Harrison, Va., Sept. 29, 1864. 
1st Lieut. Andrew J. Sherman, of Bethlehem, Co. D, must, out Juno 21, 

2d Lieut. Marshall Saunders, of Littleton, Co. D, pro. to 1st lieut. Jan. 

26, 1863. 
2d Lieut. Andrew J. Sherman, of Bethlehem, Co. D, pro. to 1st lieut. Oct. 

28, 1864. 
Capt. George N. Julian, of Exeter, Co. E, must, out Jan. 31, 1805. 
let Lieut. James M. Durell, of New Market, Co. E, wounded Dec. 13 

1862; wounded slightly June 3, 1804; pro. to capt. July 15, 1864. 
1st Lieut. Oliver M. Sawyer, of Nashua, Co. E, hon. disch. March 10, 

2d Lieut. H. H. Mu rray, of New Market, Co. E, pro. to Ist lieut. Fob. 20, 

2d Lieut. S.Millett Thompson, of Durham, Co. E, wounded severely 

June 15, 1864; hoo. disch. Oct. 4, 1804. 
Capt. Lewis H. Buzzell, of Harrington, Co. F, killed Jlay 3, 1863. 
Capt. Gustavus A. Forbush, of Peterborough, Co. F, killed in action at 

Fort Harrison, Virginia, Sept. 29, 1864. 
Capt. Charles H. CanU, of Farmington, Co. F, must, out June 21, 1866. 
1st Lieut. Wra. 11. H. Young, of Barrington, Co. F, lion, discb. Feb. 2, 



1st Lieut. Jonathan Dustin, of Barrington, Co. F, hon. disch. Oct. 1, 1864. 
Ist Lieut. George H. Taggard, of Nashua, Co. F, pro. to adjt. Mi^ 30, 

2d Lieut. Hubbard W. Hall, of Strafford, Co. F, pro. to 1st lieut. May 1, 

2d Lieut. Jonatban Dustin, of Barrington, Co. F, pro. to 1st lieut. March 

16, 18G4. 
2d Lieut. George H. Taggard, of Nashua, Co. F, wounded severely June 

3, 1864; pro. to Ist lieut. Oct. 28, 1864. 
Capt. N. D. Stoodley, of Peterborough, Co. G, pro. to maj. Oct. 28, 1864. 
Capt. Lewis P. Wilson, of Greenfield, Co. G, must, out June 21, 1865. 
Ist Lieut. G. A. Forbush, of Peterborough, Co. G, pro. to capt. May 5, 

1st Lieut. Lewis P. Wilson, of Greenfield, Co. G, pro. to capt. Jan. 2, 

1st Lieut. Lucius C. Oliver, of New Ipswich, Co. G, pro. to 1st lieut. 

March 1, 1865. 
Capt. Normand Smith, of Stewartstown, Co. H, pro. to maj. July 15, 

Capt. Rufus P. Staniels, of Concord, Co. H, must, out June 21, 1865. 
1st Lieut. Albe Holmes, of Stratford, Co. H, res. Feb. 19, 1863. 
Ist Lieut. Rufus P. Staniels, of Concord, Co. H, wounded severely June 

1, 1864; pro. to capt. July 15,1864. 
I8t Lieut. George W. Ferguson, of Monroe, Co. H, must, out June 21, 

2d Lieut. Edward Parker, of Nashua, Co. H, res. May 28, 1863. 
2d Lieut. Hubert R. Thompson, of Stratford, Co. H, wounded severely 

May 16, 1864; pro. to 1st lieut. July 15, 1864. 
Capt. Luther M. Wright, of Nashua, Co. I, res. Dec. 29, 1862. 
Capt. Euos W. Goss, of I'ortamouth, Co. I, killed in action Oct. 27, 1864. 
1st Lieut. AUred S. Smith, of Pelliaui, res. Nov. 14, 1862. 
Ist Lieut. Major A. Shaw, of Nashua, wounded Dec. 13, 18C2; res. April 

29, 1 863. 
1st Lieut. Hubbard W. Hall, of Stratford, wounded severely Sept. 29, 

1804; pro. to capt. March 1, 1865. 
Ist Lieut. Lucius C. Oliver, of New Ipswich, must, out Juno 21, 1865. 
2d Lieut. Major A. Shaw, of Nashua, pro. to 1st lieut. July 15. 1862. 
2d Lieut. Oliver M. Sawyer, of Nashua, pro. to 1st lieut. July 15, 1864. 
2d Lieut. Henry B. Wheeler, of Peterborough, wouuded slightly Sept. 

29, 1864 ; must, out June 21, 1865. 
Capt. Matthew T. Betlon, of Portsmouth, Co. K, must, out Juno 21, 1865. 
Ist Lieut. Enoch W. Goss, of Portsnioutli, Co. K, pro. to capt. Dec. 30, 1862. 
Ut Lieut. Nathan J. Coffin, of Portsmouth, Co. K, res. June 9, 1863. 
1st Lieut. Heno* H. Murray, of New Market, Co. K, captured Oct. 27, 

1864 ; i>aroled Feb. 15, 1865 ; must, out June 21, 1805. 
2d Lieut. Nathan J. Coffin, of Portsmouth, Co. K, pro. to 1st lieut. Dec. 

30, 1862. 
2d Lieut. William J, Ladd, of Portsmouth, Co. K, pro. to 1st lieut. May 

.30, 1804. 

The Fourteenth Regiment.— This was recruited 
principally from the western part of the State, al- 
though a few were furnished by Rockingham County. 
It was uuisteied into the service in September, 1862, 
with Robert Wilson, of Keene, as colonel. It par- 
ticipated in the battles of Winchester, Cedar Creek, 
etc. It lost by death over two hundred men and offi- 
cers, seventy of whom fell in battle or died of their 

The Fifteenth Regiment. — This was the fii-st regi- 
ment raised in New Hampshire under the President's 
call for three hundred thousand nine-months' troops. 
There were a few men from Rockingham and Straf- 
ford Counties, and John W. Kingman, of Durham, 
was colonel, George W. Frost, of New Market, lieu- 
tenant-colonel, Ira A. Moody, of Dover, quartermas- 
ter B. N. Towle, of New Market, assistant surgeon, 
Edwin M. Wheelock, of Dover, chaplain, and John 
O. Wallingford, of Dover, sergeant-major. 

The regiment was mustered into the service Nov. 
12 1862, and upon arriving at the front was assigned 

to the division commanded by Gen. Sherman. Their 
first engagement was the assault on Port Hudson, 
which is thus described by Mr. Otis F. R. Waite : 

" On the 27th an assault was ordered along the whole 
line. The four companies under Maj. Aldrich, thrown 
out on the flanks as sharpshooters and skirmishers, did 
good execution in picking off the rebel artillerymen. 
The other six companies formed a part of the assault- 
ing column of the brigade, commanded by Gen. Dow, 
and led by Gens. Sherman and Dow. The brigade 
covered the south end of the eastern portion of the 
enemy's works, and lay in line of battle about three- 
fourths of a mile from the enemy. The intervening 
distance was level. Just in front was a long dense 
belt of woods, some sixty rods in depth ; then an open- 
ing about forty rods wide and one hundred and fifty 
long, from right to left; then woods again, between 
this opening and the enemy. There was a gap in the 
woods about forty rods wide, leading direct from this 
cleared ground to a broad level space, on the farther 
side of which was the earth bank of the enemy. The 
distance from the line of trees nearest the rebels to 
their works was about a quarter of a mile. On the 
right of this front was a deep ravine, with steep, ir- 
regular sides, running direct to the enemy's works, 
forming a right angle at the point of intersection. 
At one o'clock p.m. the brigade was drawn up in 
the first clearing in front of its position. On the ex- 
treme left were several batteries of artillery, which 
played through the gap in the woods upon the rebel 
works. The forenoon had been pa.ssed in sharp skir- 
mishing along the whole length of the lines; the light 
troops, covering themselves with stumps, bushes, and 
everything that afforded shelter, had puehed in 
many places nearly up to the rebel works. For two 
days the enemy had not shown himself outside his 
defenses. The air was filled with Mini6-balls, cannon 
shot and shell, which, however, did but little damage 
to either side. The artillery opened at one o'clock in 
earnest, and for half an hour thundered upon the en- 
emy. The fire was tremendous, and the enemy re- 
plied with an incessant shower of every conceivable 
missile. Soon a long train of wagons, loaded with 
bags of cotton, boards, and long poles, for bridging 
the ditch, and escorted by three hundred negroes, 
burst through the smoke and hurried to the front. 
The brigade was awaiting the order to advance. It 
was soon given, and they went forward at the double- 
quick, and met a terribly deadly fire from the enemy. 
As they pressed on over fences and through scattering 
trees the men fell in fearful numbers. An attempt 
was made to correct the alignment, which had become 
broken, but it was found impossible, and the confu- 
sion soon became inextricable, so murderous was the 
fire of the enemy. The bravest hurried to the front, 
the cowards to the rear; the whole knew not what to 
do; to retreat was unthought of, and finally the whole 
brigade was swept away to the right, and went into 
the ravine. Those in the extreme advance — and the 



Fifteenth was largely represented there — seeing their 
support disappear, leaped into the gorge themselves, 
while their officers hurried back to arouse the middle 
and rear. Gen. Dow had been wounded and carried 
from the field. There was no possibility of reforming 
till' brigade ; nothing could be done but push on, sur- 
mount tlie parapet, if possible, and attack the enemy 
in his teeth. A second advance was made, at double- 
quick, and when in perfect range the enemy opened 
his fire, concentrated from more than a mile of his 
works, direct upon the column, but they did not fal- 
ter. Lieut.-Col. Blair was in command of the advance. 
As he started the second time he asked Gen. Sherman 
for instructions. ' Lead them ahead, straight ahead, 
dead on the enemy's works,' were the orders he re- 
ceived. The advance was unsuccessful, and the troops 
were obliged to fall back to the ravine in order to re- 
form. Gen. Sherman, having been severely wounded, 
was taken from the field by men of the Fifteenth. 
The command devolved upon Col. Cowles, of the One 
Hundred and Twenty-eighth New York, who rallied 
the men and attempted another advance, which was 
also unsuccessful. Col. Cowles ordered a retreat, and 
fell, mortally wounded, about forty rods outside the 
enemy's works. There was one more attempt to gain 
the works. A common soldier came marching along 
alone, leading a white horse with his right hand, wav- 
ing the stars and stripes with his left, and calling upon 
his comrades to rally, and rally they did. The bank 
of the ravine was instantly alive with soldiers, the 
parapet was ablaze again, and the men fell fearfully 
fast; still they pressed on. The centre and rear of 
the column did not waver. The advance hurried for- 
ward, was nearing the parapet ; it was not ten rods 
off; here Lieut.-Col. Blair fell, severely wounded in 
the arm. The brave fellow with the white horse 
pressed forward a few steps beyond, and fell, blood 
streaming from his mouth. The men who rushed 
forward had nearly all fallen, and with this ended 
the fight. At night the troops were withdrawn. The 
loss was very heavy, one-fourth of the fighting men of 
the corps." 

On the 13th of June fifty men from the Fifteenth, 
under Lieuts. Seavey and Perkins, of Company H, 
with the same number from the Twenty-sixth Con- 
necticut, all commanded by Lieut. Seavey, made a 
demonstration against the enemy's works. Before 
advancing they were addressed b)' Col. Clark, com- 
manding the brigade, who told them if there was a 
man among them who feared to die, he then had an 
opportunity to honorably retire, but that they must 
choose then or not at all. Not a man of the Fifteenth 
left the ranks, and but one of the Twenty-sixth Con- 
necticut. They were then deployed as skirmishers 
and ordered to advance across the scene of the late 
battle, coolly and steadily, towards the rebel parapet, 
up to it, and over it. They obeyed their instructions 
until many of them had fallen, when, not being sup- 
ported, they lay down, and covering themselves as 

they could, they fought away until dark. There 
never was a braver act than the charge of that line 
of skirmishers. The rebels were struck with admira- 
tion, and, after they were well up, i.ssued orders to 
kill no more such brave fellows, but by a sally to en- 
deavor to capture them. But for this forbearance of 
the enemy probably not a man could have escaped. 
The loss of the regiment in this affair was thirteen 
killed and wounded, or more than one-fourth of the 
number engaged. 

The next day another attack was made upon the 
enemy's works. Soon after sunrise the Fifteenth, com- 
manded by Lieut.-Col. Blair, followed by the Twenty- 
sixth Connecticut, marched up the road from a posi- 
tion near the river, wljich had been reached by a cir- 
cuitous route of six miles, to within seven hundred 
yards of the rebel works. Here they formed in line 
of battle and advanced about four hundred yards, 
under a heavy artillery fire, and came upon a con- 
cealed ravine, filled with fallen timber, underbrush, 
and brier-vines, which was impassable. There was 
no path to the right or the left, and after some hesi- 
tation the regiments plunged into the gorge. Some 
struggled through and came up on the other side, but 
to no purpose. The division remained there during 
the day, intensely tortured by heat, hunger, and thinst, 
under the fire of the enemy, but the men were so well 
protected by the underbrush that but few were harmed. 
At night the command was withdrawn. The loss in 
the Fifteenth was two officers and twenty-four men 
wounded. Lieut.-Col. Blair was hit by a Mini(5-ball 
on the arm previously wounded. Capt. J. H. John- 
son, of Company D, was prostrated by exertion and 
heat, and died at his home at Deerfield on the 14th 
of October. Col. Clark, who commanded the brigade 
on the 14th of June, in his report of the engagement 
said of the Fifteenth New Hampshire Regiment, 
"Both ofiicers and men conducted themselves in a 
manner worthy of American soldiers. The nine- 
mouths' men have demonstrated by their gallant con- 
duct that they can be relied on in any emergency." 

The siege of Port Hudson continued, both armies 
erecting batteries and strengthening their works, for 
several days, without either molesting the other. At 
length fire was opened simultaneously from each side, 
au<l continued for several days; the rebel guns were 
dismounted and the rebel flag shot away several times, 
and finally not raised again, though no breach was 
made sufficient to warrant an attempt to take the 
works by storm. After the receipt of the news of the 
fall of Vicksburg, Gen. Gardner unconditionally sur- 
rendered Port Hudson to Gen. Banks. 

On the 26th of July the regiment turned over its 
camp and ordnance stores and started on its way 
home. It reached Concord on the 8th of August, 
and was mustered out, paid, and discharged on the 
13th. When the regiment was mustered out of ser- 
vice, though there were thirty-nine officers and seven 
hundred and two enlisted men whose n:imes were 



borne upon the rolls, less than thirty officers and 
not four hundred and fifty enlisted men were fit for 
duty. The siege of Port Hudson and the clijnate of 
Louisiana had thus sadly thinned the ranks. 

The Sixteenth Regiment. — This regiment was 
mustered into the service in November, 1862, with 
James Pike, of Sanbornton, as colonel. One com- 
pany (K) was recruited in Rockingham County. 
Though this regiment saw but little hard fighting, 
it suffered as much from disease, induced by ex- 
posure and the malaria of Southern swamps, as any 
from New Hampshire had done from all causes com- 
bined in the same length of time. It was mustered 
out in August, 1863. 

The Eighteenth Regiment.— On the li>th of July, 
18G4, the War Department issued an order calling for 
five hundred thousand volunteers, and under this 
call the State authorities commenced recruiting the 
Eighteenth Regiment. Charles H. Bell, of Exeter, 
was commissioned colonel, and James W. Carr, of 
Manchester, lieutenant-colonel, both of whom re- 
signed before being mustered into the United States 
service, and their places were filled by the appoint- 
ment of Thomas L. Livermore, of Milford, and .lo- 
seph M. Clough, of New London. Company K was 
principally from Rockingiiam County. The regi- 
ment participated in the following engagements: 
Fort Steadman, March 25, 1865; attack on Peters- 
burg, April 2, 1865; and capture of Petersburg, April 
3, 1865. It mustered out in July, 1865. 

The First Heavy Artillery was raised in August, 
1864, and was mustered into the service with Charles 
H. Long, of Claremont, as colonel, and Ira McL. 
Barton as lieutenant-colonel. Company D was re- 
cruited in Dover. The following is a list of the 
officers of this company : Captain, George W. Col- 
bath, of Dover. First Lieutenants, William S. Pills- 
bury, of Londonderry, William F. Thayer, of Dover. 
Second Lieutenants, William F. Thayer, of Dover, 
promoted to first lieutenant Sept. 12, 1864; .loseph 
T. S. Libby, of Dover ; Moses P. Moulton, of Dover, 
honorably discharged Feb. 15, 1865; Joseph H. Flagg, 
of Kingston. 

On the 21st of November, 1864, Col. Long was as- 
signed to the command of Hardin's division, Twenty- 
second Army Corps, and the command of the regi- 
ment devolved upon Lieut. -Col. Barton. On the 
25th Battery A was ordered to Portsmouth Harbor, 
and in February, I860, Battery B was ordered for 
duty at the same place. During the winter and until 
the muster out of the regiment it garrisoned a line of 
works ten miles in extent and gained considerable 
proficiency in artillery drill. 

On the 15th of June, 1865, the regiment was mus- 
tered out of service, and arrived at Concord on the 
19th, where it received final pay and discharge. 

Our military history is closed. We have faithfully 
traced the history of the various regiments, and it 
has been our honest endeavor to place before the 

people of Rockingham and Strafford Counties a 
truthful record of their gallant sons who risked their 
lives in the defense of their country. We have sought 
to deal justly with all, and give deserving credit to 
each and every regiment. 

While the history is a record of many of the severest 
battles of the war, it is not in any particular over- 
drawn ; it is a " plain, unvarnished tale." It has 
been impossible to sketch many individual acts of 
heroism, but these were not wanting. 

Rockingham and Strafibrd Counties niayjustly feel 
proud of their soldiery, as no section of our country 
acted a more prominent or honorable role in the great 

Eighteen years have now elapsed since the close of 
the Rebellion, and we find our country a united and 
prosperous people. Sectional strife is rapidly passing 
away, and the same hand strews flowers alike on the 
graves of the Blue and the Gray. 

* No more sliaU tlie war-cry sever. 

Or the winding rivers be red; 
Tht-y bani^di our anger forever 

When they laurel the gravei 
Under the sod and the dew, 

Waiting the judgment-day ; 
Love and tean« for the Blue, 

Tears and love for the Gray, 

of < 



Among the prominent agencies which give shape 
and order in the early development of the civil and 
social condition of .society, the pulpit, press, and bar 
are perhaps the most potential in moulding the in- 
stitutions of a new community ; and where are 
early planted, the school, academy, and college are 
not long in assuming their legitimate position, and 
the maintenance of these institutions secures at the 
start a social and moral foundation upon which we 
may safely rest the superstructure of the county, the 
State, and the nation. 

The establishment of courts and judicial tribunals, 
where society is protected in all its civil rights under 
the sanction of law, and wrong finds a ready redress 
in an enlightened and prompt administration of jus- 
tice, is the first necessity of every civilized community, 
and without which the forces and press of society, in 
its changeable developments, even under the teach- 
ings of the pulpit, the directions of the press, and 
the culture of the schools, are exposed to peril and 
disaster from the turbulence of passion and conflicts 

1 The biographical sketches in this chapter (excepting that of himself 
and those of most of the lawyers of Portsmouth) are liy Governor Chiirles 
H. Bell. Those of the Portsmouth lawyers (Daniel Webster and William 
M- Richardson excepted) are by Col- William H. Hackett- 



of interest; and hencfe the best and surest security 
that even the press, tlie school, or the pulpit can find 
for the peaceful performance of its higliest functions 
is when protected by and intrenched behind the bul- 
warks of law, administered by a pure, independent, 
and uncorrupted judiciary. 

Tfie Rockingham County bar lias from its begin- 
ning numbered among its members able jurists, tal- 
ented advocates, and safe counselors. Here many 
have lived, flourished, and died, while others still 
are upon the stage of action who have been promi- 
nent in the advancement of the interests of the 
county and figured conspicuously in the councils of 
the State. 

for so many years the important town of the State, 
and noted for the extent of its commerce, wealth, and 
political importance, naturally maintained an able 
and influential bar, whose members had a large prac- 
tice, and some of whom were known throughout the 
country from their pblitical as well as their legal 

Matthew Livermore (son of Samuel) was born 
in Watertown, Mass., Jan. 14, 1703; graduated at 
Harvard College, 1722, and went to Portsmouth to 
keep school and study law. He was admitted to the 
bar in 1731, at which time there was no regularly 
educated lawyer in Portsmouth. He practiced ex- 
tensively in Maine and New Hampshire. He was 
attorney-general of the province and king's advocate 
in the Admiralty Court. He was afterwards judge of 
the Superior Court of New Hampshire, and died 
Aug. 11, 1762. 

William Paeker was born in Portsmouth, Dec. 
9, 1703, and, after being for a while at school, was 
apprenticed by his father to a tanner, but on attain- 
ing his majority became master of one of the public 
schools. He then studied law, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1732. He was clerk to the commissioners 
selected to settle the boundary line between New 
Hampshire and Massachusetts ; was register of pro- 
bate, surrogate, and judge of admiralty. He was a 
representative in the Assembly for several years from 
17G5 to 1774. In August, 1771, he was a|)pointed 
justice of the Supreme Court, and held this office 
until the Revolutionary war. He was not only a 
well-read lawyer, but an excellent scholar. He died 
April 21, 1781. 

Wyseman Claggett was born in Bristol, Eng- 
land, in 1721, and came to Portsmouth to serve as the 
king's attorney-general in 1758. He married in 
Portsmouth, 1759, Miss Warner, and died at Litch- 
field in 1784. As king's attorney he was faithful in 
the discharge of his " duties," but when tlie " Stamp 
Act" was promulgated he was one of the earliest to 
remonstrate. His father was Wyseman Claggett, a 
barrister at-law in Bristol. Mr. Claggett was re- 
nowned as a classical scholar. In Alden's "Collec- 
tions" there is a copy of an inscription on an elegimt 

marble baptismal vase in Portsmouth, which is said 
to have been written by Mr. Claggett. In the war of 
the Revolution he took sides with the people at the 
risk of very mucli of his property, then within the 
power of the British government. 

Samuel Livermore was born in Waltham, Mass., 
May 14, 1702 (O. S.). He taught school in Chelsea 
in 1750-51, and during the latter year entered Nassau' 
Hall College, N. J., graduating in September, 1752. 
After teaching for a while he studied law with Judge 
Trowbridge, and was admitted to the bar in June, 
1756. Commencing practice at Waltham, he removed 
to Portsmouth in 1757 ; thence, in 1764, he removed to 
Londonderry, which town he represented in the Legis- 
lature in 1768. He was commissioned attorney-gen- 
eral in 1769, then again living at Portsmouth. In 
1775 he removed to Holderness. In 1776 he was 
again made attorney-general. In 1779 he was a dele- 
gate to the Continental Congress, and also in 1781. 
June 21, 1782, he was appointed chief justice of the 
Supreme Court. In 1790 he resigned his judgeship. 
In 1789 he was representative to Congress. In 1793 
lie was chosen United States senator, and again in 
1798. He resigned the latter office in 1801. He died 
May, 1803, aged seventy- one. 

John Samuel Sherburxe, the son of John and 
Elizabeth (Moft'at) Sherburne, was born in Ports- 
mouth in 1757, and died in that town Aug. 2, 1830, 
aged seventy-three. After reading law he began 
practice in Portsmouth. He w,as a representative in 
Congress from 1793 to 1797 ; attorney for the United 
States for the district of New Hampshire from 1801 
to 1804; judge of the District Court of the United 
States from May, 1804, to the date of his death. In 
the war of the Rev.olution he served with distinction, 
and lost a leg in battle. He married Submit, daugh- 
ter of Hon. George Boyd, in October, 1791. 

John Pickering was born in Newington in 1738 ; 
graduated ,at Harvard College in 1761 ; was chosen 
United States senator in 1789. In August of 1789 
he was appointed justice of the Supreme Court, and 
chief justice in July following, serving- until 1795. 
Was then appointed judge of the United States Dis- 
trict Court, and served till 1804. He was noted for 
his strength of character, learning, and personal ex- 
cellence. He died April 11, 1805. 

Charles Story was appointed judge of the Court 
of Admiralty for New Hampshire in the fall of 1696. 
He sailed from England for Portsmouth late in the 
same season, and reached that town in January, 1797. " 
On the 19th of .Tanuary he presented his commission 
to the President and Council, and it was read, ap- 
proved, and recorded. In 1699 he was appointed 
register of probate, continuing in office till his death. 
His last record bears date Dec. 11, 1774. In 1712 he 
was attorney-general of the province, and was en- 
gaged in many prominent suits. His residence was 
at New Castle. 

Jonathan Mitchell Sewall was born in Salem, 



Mass., in 1748, and read law with Judge John Pick- 
ering in Portsmouth. He began practice at Haverhill, 
N. H., and was register of probate for Grafton County 
in 1773. Previous to 1787 he removed to Portsmouth, 
where he was register of the Court of Admiralty. He 
was admitted to the bar of the Circuit Court of the 
United States, Nov. 20, 1790, and held high rank as a 
counselor in the courts of the States. His poetic 
writings have to some extent survived him. He wrote 
an address presented to President Washington on his 
visit to Portsmouth, and an oration delivered July 4, 
1788. He was the author of the oft-quoted lines, — 

" No penl-up Utica coutracts your powers. 
But the whole boundless continent is yours.** 

Mr. Sewall died March 28, 1808, aged sixty years. 

Daniel Humphreys was the son of Rev. David 
Humphreys, of Derby, Conn., and graduated at Yale 
College in 1757. He became a lawyer and a teacher 
of the Sandemauian doctrines. He came to Ports- 
mouth in 1774, and was United States district attorney 
from 1804 to 1828, and was a member of the conven- 
tion to frame a new Constitution in 1791-92. He was 
in considerable practice, and was a man of unblem- 
ished character. 

Joseph B.\rti.ett was noted for his eccentricities 
and wit. He was born at Plymouth, Mass., June 10, 
1762, and graduated at Harvard College in 1782 with 
a high rank in scholar.ship. He studied law first at 
Salem, Mass., then went to England. Returning, he 
was a captain of volunteers raised by Massachusetts to 
put down Shay's rebellion. After this he resumed his 
legal studies and was admitted to the bar. He prac- 
ticed at Woburn and Cambridge. In 1803 he removed 
to Saco, Me., where he had a good practice. After 
losing his influence and a large share of his business 
in Saco by the prosecution of a protracted libel suit, he 
for a while lived in Branch, and came to Portsmouth 
in 1810. He died in Berlin, Oct. 27, 1827. He pub- 
lished an edition of poems dedicated to John Quincy 
Adams, and while in Saco edited a paper called the 
Freeman's Friend. July 4, 180-5, he delivered an 
oration at Biddeford. He was a fluent, and at times 
eloquent, speaker, abounded in wit, which was at 
ready command, but his habits of life and a lack of 
firmness of purpose prevented his attaining a position 
at the bar which he otherwise might have filled. He 
married Ann Witherell, of Kingston, Mass., but left 
no children. 

Edward St. Loe Livermoee was a son of Hon. 
Samuel Livermore, and born in Portsmouth in 1762. 
He studied law and practiced his profession in Ports- 
mouth, and was United States district attorney for the 
District of New Hampshire from 1789 to 1797. Mr. 
Livermore was a member of the convention chosen to 
revise the Constitution of the State of New Hamp- 
shire, which assembled at Concord on the 7th of Sep- 
tember, 1791. His father was president of the con- 
vention. He was justice of the Superior Court of 

New Hampshire from' 1797 to 1799, and subsequently 
removed to Massachusetts. He died September 22d, 
aged eighty years. 

Jeremiah Mason, one of the ablest members of 
the Rockingham County bar, was born at Lebanon, 
Conn., April 27, 1768. He was a descendant of John 
Mason, a captain in Oliver Cromwell's army,' and 
who came from England in 1630, and settled at Dor- 
chester, Mass. After graduating at Yale College, Mr. 
Mason studied law in Connecticut, and was admitted 
to the bar in New Hampshire in 1791. He began prac- 
tice at \Vestmoreland, and removed thence to VValpole, 
from which place he removed to Portsmouth in 1797. 
He was appointed attorney-general in 1802, which 
office he resigned in three years. In June, 1813, he 
was chosen a senator of the United States, and served 
with distinction until his resignation in 1817. He 
also served in the Legislature of New Hampshire, 
and was president of the United States Branch Bank 
at Portsmouth. His law practice was extensive, and 
in his office were many students-at-law. Mr. Web- 
ster has said of Mr. Mason that " his great ability lay 
in the department of the common law. In his ad- 
dress to the court and jury he afl'ected to despise all 
eloquence and certainly disdained all ornament, but 
his efforts, whether addressed to one tribunal or the 
other, were marked by a deirree of clearness, direct- 
ness, and force not easy to be equaled." He was the 
most adroit and successful in the cross-examination 
of witnesses of any lawyer ever .seen at the bar of the 

In 1832, Mr. Mason removed to Boston, in which 
city he dijed Oct. 14. 1848. While a resident of Ports- 
mouth, Mr. Mason's practice extended throughout the 
State, and he was retained in the most important 
cases upon the dockets of the various counties of 
New Hampshire, and enjoyed a reputation as one of 
the leading lawyers of the country. 

Daniel Webster, whose fame is world-wide, lived 
the earlier half of his life in New Hampshire. The 
son of a Revolutionary patriot Capt. Ebenezer Web- 
ster, and of New Hampshire descent lor four genera- 
tions, he was born in Salisbury, Jan. 18, 1782. A feeble 
constitution pointed him out as fitter for education 
than for the sturdy labors of the farm, and with self- 
denial on the part of his parents, and struggle on his 
own part, he accomplished his wishes, and graduated 
at Dartmouth College in 1801 with honor. His legal 
studies he completed under the direction of Hon. T. W. 
Thompson, of Salisbury, and Hon. Christopher Gore, 
of Boston, where he was admitted an attorney in 1805. 
He took up his residence at once in Boscawen, and re- 
mained two years a close student of his profession and 
of general literature. In 1807 he made Portsmouth his 
place of abode, and lived there until 1816, when he 
removed to Boston. While a resident of New Hamp- 
shire he served two terms as representative in Con- 

Mr. Webster acquired a high reputation as a lawyer 

^^5^.^t^ ^^^^S:^ 



.and a statesman (for he never was a politician) before 
lie quitted his native State. When he went to Ports- 
niiiutli, at the age of only twcnty-fivi^ years, he was a 
mature man, armed at every point for the battle of 
life. Mr. Mason, then in the prime of hi.s unrivaled 
powers, describes his first encounter with Webster. 
He had heard of him as a formidable antagonist, and 
found on trial that he was not over-estimated. Young 
and inexperienced as he was, Webster entered the 
arena with Mason and Sullivan and Bartlett, and bore 
away his full share of the honors. And before he 
quitted his New Hampshire home his reputation as 
a lawyer and as an advocate of eloquence and power 
ranked with the very highest in the land. 

Those who heard his addresses to the jury in his 
early prime testify that none of his later great efforts 
surpassed them — if, indeed, they equaled them — as 
examples of earnest, impassioned forensic oratory. 
There was a youthful brilliancy and bloom about 
those earlier productions that is not found in the 
stately works of his maturer years. 

In those days, when practitioners made reputations 
by special pleading and sharp practice, Mr. Webster 
relied little upon mere technicalities or adroit man- 
agement. He tried his causes upon their merits, and 
with his logical power and eloquent tongue made 
short work of trumped-up claims and dishonest de- 
fenses. Many tr.iditions attest his commanding in- 
fluence over court and jury at this period of his career. 
Without being authentic in all particulars, they all 
concur in demonstrating that on no legal practitioner 
of his time was the popular confidence and admira- 
tion so universally bestowed as on Webster. 

The events in the life of Mr. Webster from the time 
he re-entered Congress from Massachusetts are too 
familiar to require special repetition here. He con- 
tinued in public life, with the exception of very brief 
intervals, up to the time of his decease in 1862. He 
was a senator in Congress for seventeen years. He 
was twice Secretary of State, and died in posses.sion 
of that office. Every public position that he held he 
adorned and dignified by eminent, patriotic services. 

Now that nearly a generation has passed since Mr. 
Webster's death, his character is beginning to be es- 
timated more justly, and the value of the work he did 
for the country has been tested. We see that his sa- 
gacity and foresight were far beyond those of his 
time; that his apprehensions for the safety of the 
Union were well founded ; that his exhortations to his 
countrymen to stand by the flag were honest, nece.s- 
sary, and vitalizing to the patriotism of the people. 

The petty assaults that seemed temporarily to ob- 
scure his fame have had their brief day, and poster- 
ity will recognize the true grandeur of the man, and 
value at their just worth the great deeds of his life- 
time. As a statesman and a diplomatist, as a vindi- 
cator of the Constitution, as a lawyer and an orator, 
and, most of all, as a patriot, the country will be for- 
tunate if the future shall furnish his peer. 

Nathaniel A. Haven, Jr., was born iu Ports- 
mouth, N. H., .Tan. 14, 1790, and was a son of Hon. 
Nathaniel A. Haven, and a grandson of Hev. Samuel 
Haven, D.D. He graduated at Harvard, and studied 
law in the office of that eminent jurist, Hon. Jere- 
miah Mason. He was admitted to the bar in 1811, 
and commenced practice in his native town. High 
as was Haven in his profession, he had not given to 
a single science a mirid that could compass the circle 
of them. He had a decided taste for literature, and 
from 1821 to 1825 was connected editorially with the 
Portsmouth Journal. He also contributed articles for 
the North American Review. He was a member of 
the Legislature in 1823-24. He died June 3, 1826. 

Peyton Randolph Freeman was the son of 
Hon. Jonathan Freeman, of Hanover, and born Nov. 
14, 1775. He graduated at Dartmouth College in 
1796, and began the practice of the law in Hanover 
in 1801. Previous to this he was principal of an 
academy at Amherst, N. H. He came to Portsmouth 
and established himself in practice in 1803. He was 
Deputy Secretary of State in 1816-17, clerk of the 
United States Courts from March, 1817, to May, 1820. 
Mr. Freeman's strong point was his familiarity with 
the law concerning real property. He was of the 
old school, and any departure by the courts from the 
ancient rules of law concerning real estate was a hor- 
ror to him. He was severely painstaking and careful 
in all business he undertook, such as the investigation 
of titles, drafting of wills, creating trusts, life estates, 
etc. Indeed, he was so much absorbed in following 
the intricate phases of cases and titles that his clients 
after experience in this direction were apt to prefer a 
man of more practical turn of mind. He was never 
married. He died March 27, 1868, in the ninety- 
third year of his age. 

Edward Cutts, son of Edward Cutts, was born 
in Kelley, Me., and was a descendant of Judge 
Edward Cutts. He graduated at Harvard College in 
1801. He studied law with Jeremiah Mason, and 
after his admission to the bar began practice in Ports- 
mouth in 1807. At the May term, 1809, he was ad- 
mitted as an attorney and counselor of the Circuit 
Court of the United States, at the same time with 
Daniel Webster, and c(mtinued in large practice in 
the State and Federal courts until his death, Aug. 22, 
1844, at the age of sixty years. 

Mr. Cutts neither sought, nor attained political 
honors. He was a safe counselor, and devoted him- 
self exclusively to the practice of his profession. He 
was at one time president of the United States Branch 
Bank in Portsmouth, and afterwards a director in the 
Rockingham Bank. He married Mary HurkeSheafe, 
daughter of Jacob Sheafe, a prominent merchant of 
Portsmouth, but left no children. His widow is re- 
membered for her munificent legacy left, to improve 
Richards Avenue, a fine street leading to the South 
Cemetery in Portsmouth. 

William Claggett was the son of Hon. V'lifton 



Claggett, and grandson of Wysemau Claggett. He 
was born at Litchfield, April 8, 1790 ; graduated at 
Dartmouth College in 1808 ; was admitted to the bar 
in Hillsborough County in 1811, and soon after began 
the practice of his profession in Portsmouth. He was 
representative in the State Legislature in 1814, and 
was several times re-elected to that ofiice. jHe was 
clerk of the State Senate in 1820; senator from Dis- 
trict No. 1 in 1825 ; clerk of the United States Cir- 
cuit and District Courts from 1820 to his resignation 
March .5, 1825 ; and naval officer of the port of Ports- 
mouth from 1830 to 1838. His first wife was Sarah 
F., daughter of George Plumer, who died in 1818. 
His second marriage was with Mary Thompson, 
daughter of Col. E. Thompson ; .she died in 1863. 

Mr. Claggett at one time had a large practice in 
Portsmouth, but when he too often became his own 
client his business diminished and finally disappeared. 
In 1812 he gave a Fourth of July oration in Ports- 
mouth, Daniel Webster making one at the same time 
in another part of the town. He was for many years 
an ardent Democrat, and subsequently became a Free 
Soiler, and wrote extensively for the press in Ports- 
mouth and Concord after that party's formation. He 
died on the 28th of December, 1870, at Portsmouth, 
leaving one son, William C. Claggett, then a merchant 
in New York City. 

ICHABOD Bartlett was born in Salisbury. He 
graduated at Dartmouth College in 1808, and studied 
law in the office of Moses Eastman in his native town. 
He practiced law after his admission to the bar at 
Salisbury and at Durham, and in 1818 removed to 
Portsmouth. The same year he was appointed solicitor 
for Rockingham County. 

He was chosen clerk of the Senate for 1817 and 
1818. He was a representative to the General Court 
from Portsmouth in 1820 and 1821 (being Speaker of 
the House of Representatives for 1821 ), and also served 
as representative in the years 1830, 1838, 1851, and 
1852. He Wiis a delegate to the Constitutional Conven- 
tion in 18.50, was representative in Congress in 1823, 
1825, and 1827, and was for many years engaged in 
many of the most important lawsuits throughout the 
State. As a lawyer he had few equals; in ready wit 
and keen satire he was unsurpassed, as public speaker, 
as an advocate of the bar, and a legislator he main- 
tained a prominent position for very many years. He 
died at Portsmouth, Oct. 17, 1853, aged seventy -seven, 
and was unmarried. 

Charles W. Cutter, son of .Jacob Cutter, was 
born in Portsmouth, graduated at Harvard College 
in 1818, and studied law with Jeremiah Mason, and 
commenced practice in his native town. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar of the Circuit Court of the United 
States in October, 1825, and appointed clerk of the 
Circuit and District Courts March 13, 1826, positions 
he held for fifteen years. In 1841 he was appointed 
naval storekeejier, and afterwards was navy agent at 
Portsmouth. He for several years edited the Ports- 

mouth Journal, and was an effective public speaker in 
political campaigns, but never devoted himself with 
much zeal to the practice of his profession. He died 
Aug. 6, 1856, aged fifty-six years, and unmarried. 

Timothy Farrar practiced law in Portsmouth 
from 1814 to 1822, and from 1834 to 1836. He was 
admitted to practice in the Circuit Court of the United 
States, October term, 1817, and subsequently removed 
to Exeter. 

Charles B. Goodrich. This eminent lawyer was 
born at Hanover, N. H., in 1812. He was graduated 
at Darmouth College, and after a course of study, it 
is believed, in his native town, he was admitted to the 
bar. Coming to Portsmouth in 1826, he continued in 
practice for ten years, winning high reputation in his 
profession. His talents found a wider field of action 
at Boston, whither he removed, and where he at once 
took rank as a leader. Till his death, in the summer 
of 1878, Mr. Goodrich had few equals at the SuflTolk 
bar in all that constitutes a learned and skilled prac- 
titioner. His duties called him not infrequently to 
Washington, where he was regarded as one of the 
ablest members of the bar from New England. In 
1853 he published "The Science of Government as 
Exhibited in the Institutions of the United States of 
America," — a course of lectures delivered at the 
Lowell Institute in Boston. In private life Mr. Good- 
rich was genial and warm-hearted. He married, 
March 11, 1827, Miss Harriet N. Shattuck, of Ports- 
mouth, who survived him. 

Levi Woodbury was tlie son of the Hon. Peter 
Woodbury, and born at Francistown, on the 22d of 
December, 1789. He was of the oldest Massachusetts 
stock, being descended from John Woodbury, who 
emigrated from Somersetshire in England in the year 
1624, and was one of the original settlers of Beverly, 
Mass. Peter Woodbury removed from Beverly to 
Francistown in 1773. His son Levi entered Dart- 
mouth College in October, 1805. After his gradua- 
tion with honor in 1809, in September of that year 
he began the study of law at Litchfield, Conn., pur- 
suing it at Boston, Exeter, and Francistown, and in 
September, 1812, commenced practice in his native 
village. He soon attained a high rank at the bar, 
with an extensive business. His first public service 
was upon his election as clerk of the Senate of New 
Hampshire in June, 1816. In December of the same 
year he received the appointment of judge of the 
Supreme Court of the State, and in the discharge of 
the duties of this position were seen the inherent 
force of his abilities, aided by his constant and 
never-ceasing habits of application. 

In June, 1819, he married Elizabeth W. Clapp, of 
Portland, Me., and removing to Portsmouth soon 
after, except when absent on public duties resided in 
that city. In March, 1823, he was chosen Governor 
of New Hampshire, and re-elected in 1824. 

In 1825 he was chosen one of the representatives 
from Portsmouth in the Legislature, and elected 



Speaker upon the assembling of the House of Repre- 
sentatives. This was his first seat in any deliberative 
assembly; but his knowledge of parliamentary law, 
aided by his dignity and urbanity of manner, served 
to enable him to fill the oifice in a commendable 

At the same session he was elected a senator in the 
Congress of the United States. His senatorial term 
was completed in March, 1831, and in that month he 
was chosen State senator from his district, but before 
the Legislature assembled he was, in May, 1881, ap- 
pointed Secretary of the Navy, and resigned the sen- 
atorship June 4th of that year, and served till June 
30, 1834, in the secretaryship. 

In July, 1834, Governor Woodbury was appointed 
Secretary of the Treasury, and served until the elec- 
tion of Gen. Harrison to the presidency. He was 
again elected a senator in Congress for the term of six 
years, commencing March 4, 1841. He served until 
November, 1845. During that year President Polk 
had tendered Governor Woodbury the embassy to 
the Court of St. James, but the appointment, for 
domestic reasons, was declined. 

Upon the death o.f Mr. Justice Story, Mr. Wood- 
burj^ was commissioned an associate justice of the 
Supreme Court of the United States, and after subse- 
quently entering upon the duties of this high office 
continued therein until his death, which occurred 
Sept. 4, 1851. 

Judge Woodbury, in the various public positions 
he was so constantly called to fill, showed himself 
abundantly capable for the discharge of their duties. 
As a legislator he was painstaking and industrious, 
as a judge studious and indefatigable in his labors, 
and as a cabinet minister comprehensive and yet 
exact in his knowledge of details. His life was one 
of uninterrupted work, and his death at the age of 
sixty-one deprived the country of an upright judge 
and an eminent public man. Of his children, his 
only son is Charles Levi Woodbury, a prominent 
lawyer in practice in Boston, who retains the family 
mansion at Portsmouth. One daughter is the wife 
of Hon. Montgomery Blair, who was postmaster- 
general under President Lincoln, and another is the 
wife of Capt. Gustavus V. Fox, formerly of the 
United States navy, who rendered to the country 
such signal service by his practical knowledge as 
assistant secretary during tiie late war. 

William Henky Young Hackett. — One of the 
last survivors of a school of lawyers who were at the 
bar when Jeremiah Mason and Daniel Webster ap- 
l)eared of counsel in important causes was William 
Henry Young Hackett, who, at tlie ripe age of 
seventy-eight, died at Portsmouth, Aug. 9, 1878, after 
a continuous practice of more than fifty-two years in 
duration. Mr. Hackett was born at Gilmanton, N. H., 
Sept. 24, 1800. His ancestor ^Vas Capt. William 
Hackett, of Salisbury, Mass., probably the "Will 
Hackett" who had a grant in 1656, " touching Bel- 

lemie's bank freshet" (now Dover). After receiving 
an education at Gilmanton Academy, Mr. Hackett 
studied law in his native town and at Sanbornton 
Square. In April, 1822, he came to Portsmouth, and 
entered the office of Ichabod Bartlett. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in January, 1826, and soon acquired 
a good practice, which he steadily maintained up to 
the time of his decease. He tried many cases to the 
jury, was retained of counsel by corporations, and 
later in life was largely employed in the management 
of trust estates. He had an instinctive knowledge of 
how to apply legal principles, and a knowledge, too, 
of human nature. As a counselor, though he warmly 
espoused the cause of his client, he was prudent and 
inclined to discourage litigation. He had an excel- 
lent memory, and knew what had been decided in the 
New Hampshire courts and in those of the New Eng- 
land States generally ; but he is not to be termed a 
learned lawyer. He favored the extension of equity 
practice in New Hampshire, and he lived long enough 
to see some of his views in this regard adopted. In 
1859 he declined a seat upon the bench of the Supreme 
Judicial Court. 

Portsmouth sent him repeatedly to the Legislature, 
where he rendered important service as chairman of 
the judiciary and on other committees. In 1861 he 
was chosen president of the Senate, of which body he 
had been assistant clerk in 1824 and clerk in 1828. 
He was eminently successful in the management of a 
bank. As early as 1827 he was made director of the 
Piscataqua Bank. When the PLscataqua Exchange 
Bank was organized in 1845 he became president, and 
held that office till 1863, when the bank became the 
First National Bank of Portsmouth, the presidency of 
which he assumed and held till his death. He was 
also president of the Piscataqua Savings-Bank, as 
well as a director in railroad and other corporations. 

Mr. Hackett had some literary accomplishments, 
and excelled in writing brief biographies. A memoir 
of Andrew Halliburton, and a sketch of Charles W. 
Brewster, author of " Rambles about Portsmouth" 
(the latter being pfefixed to the second series of that 
work), are from his pen. All his life long Mr. Hack- 
ett was public-spirited and devoted to the interests of 
the town. His name has thus been identified with 
the history of Portsmouth for more than half a cen- 
tury. A memoir of Mr. Hackett (written by his son 
Frank W.) was privately printed in 1879, and a copy 
sent to various libraries in New England. 

Hon. Albert Ruyter Hatch was born in 
Greenland on the 10th day of October, 1817. He 
entered Bowdoin College when quite young, and 
graduated in 1837. The late Governor John A. 
Andrew, of Massachusetts, was one of his classmates. 

He immediately came to Portsmouth, and pursued 
the study of law with the late Ichabod Bartlett, who 
was then known all over the State as a great lawyer. 
Here Mr. Hatch, under the direct oversight of Col. 
Bartlett, saw a great deal of practice and hard work, 



and here be laid the foundation of those habits of 
industry and close attention to his chosen profession 
wliicli for the past quarter of a century have made 
him one of the foremost lawyers of our State and a 
model practitioner. 

In 1841 he was admitted to the bar, and was soon 
in active practice. 

In 1847 and 1848 he was a member of the House 
of Representatives from Portsmouth, then a town, 
and in 1848 was appointed solicitor for the county of 
Rockingham, and also clerk of the United States 
Court for New Hampshire. 

Mr. Hatch was in no sense a politician. He was 
a Democrat from principle, and could never yield Lis 
convictions of duty for the sake of policy or of tem- 
porary advantage. He preferred to be right rather 
than hold office. Had the Democratic party been in 
power in this State he would have been a Governor 
and a senator, but though his party was unable to 
bestow upon him the honors he deserved, it never 
ceased to respect and esteem him, and his advice and 
counsel were always heeded. 

In 1864 he was a candidate for Presidential elector, 
and in 1868 he was a member of the Democratic 
National Convention. 

In 1873 his extensive law practice, which had 
steadily increased, required all his attention, and he 
resigned his position as clerk of the United States 
Court, having held it for twenty-five years. He then 
began to devote himself wholly to his profession, to 
which he was so firmly attached, but his friends 
urged him to accept again an election to the Legis- 
lature, and against his own judgment he was induced 
to yield to them, and that year he was a member of 
the House, and being again a member in 1874 he was 
elected Speaker, which position he filled under very 
trying circumstances to the general acceptance of all. 
He was again a member in 1875 and also in 1876. 
At the same time he was a member of the Board of 
Aldermen and of the High School Committee of this 
city, and taking a deep interest in city and school 
affairs he was scarcely ever absent from their meet- 
ings. He was a hard worker everywhere he was 
placed. The various Masonic bodies of which he 
was a" member also received a share of his time and 
attention, and he soon found himself overwhelmed 
under the accumulating burdens imposed upon him. 

He was an active member of all the Masonic bod- 
ies, and to show the esteem in which he was held 
among them it is only necessary to say that he was 
elected and served as Commander of DeWitt Clinton 
Commandery of Knights Templar for twenty-five 
successive years. 

He was a director of the Portsmouth and Dover 
Railroad, the Portsmouth Bridge Company, and the 
Athenaeum, and was held in great esteem by his asso- 
ciate directors. He was a vestryman and prominent 
member of the Episcopal Church of this city, and 
one of the trustees of the new Christ's Church, in the 

erection of which he was greatly interested, and to 
which he gave much time. 

In public life no man ever accu.sed him of fraud, 
wrong, or dishonor. As a lawyer he was learned, 
ready, fortified at every point, quick to perceive and 
quick to apply, and of incomparable industry. He 
was ever true to his client, and no man employed 
him who did not receive the benefit of every faculty 
that he possessed as well as having every point in his 
case presented in the best shape. 

As a scholar he was superior, and his knowledge 
of books and the best literature was remarkable. He 
had a large miscellaneous library of the choicest 
works, and his studious habits and retentive memory 
had made him familiar with its contents. 

In social life he was a gentleman in the truest 
sense of the word. Dignified in his bearing, he may 
have appeared to those who did not know him well 
cold and indifferent, but to those who really knew 
him he was a delightful companion, a man to whom 
one could not fail to be attached, and from whom one 
always parted with reluctance. He had many friends, 
and those jvho could call him a friend had no need 
to go farther to find the truest friend that ever drew 
breath. He died March 5, 1882. 

Samuel Cushman was born in Hebron, Me., July 
21, 1783. His fatlier was Job Cushman, a descendant 
from Robert Cushman, who joined the Plymouth 
colony in 1612. After an academic education, he 
studied law under the tuition of John Holmes, of Al- 
ford. Me., and was admitted to the York County bar 
in 1807, and began practice of the law in Maine, 
where he was a postmaster during Madison's ad- 
ministration. In May, 1812, Mr. Cushman was mar- 
ried to Maria J., daughter of John Salter, of Ports- 
mouth, and in 1816 he removed to that place, where he 
resided up to the time of his death. May 22, 1851. He 
filled numerous municipal postions in Portsmouth be- 
tween the year 1824 and the time of his death. He 
was for five years county treasurer, and for two years 
a member of the Executive Council. He was a mem- 
ber of the Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fifth Congresses 
from New Hampshire, in the years 1835 to 1839, was 
postmaster under the Van Buren administration, and 
navy agent from 1845 to 1849. In March, 1850, he 
was appointed policejustice of the city of Portsmouth, 
being the first magistrate under the new city charter. 
This office he held up to the date of his death. Mr. 
Cushman was at one time associated in the practice 
of the law with the late Charles B. Goodrich. He 
was conscientious in his profession. He discouraged 
litigation, and oftentimes filled the position of pacifi- 
cator rather than that of advocate. He was noted 
for his urbanity of majiner, his kindness of heart, and 
his undeviating integrity. Of twelve children but two 
survive; one of these is Elizabeth S., widow of Hon. 
Samuel Tither, deceased, formerly of Sanburnton, and 
at one time United States Marshal for the District 
of New Hampshire. 



The foregoing are sketches of lawyers who have been 
prdininent in i)rofession or political position. There 
were many of tlieni of perhaps less celebrity as law- 
yers, but of wlioni we can only make mention, of them 
wore R. Ciitts Shannon, clerk of the Federal Courts 
from May 1, 1804, to 1814; Leverett Hubbard, at one 
time judge, who died in 1793 ; Samuel Hale, Oliver 
Whipple, who at one time lived in Maine; George 
Pierce, who died after a short practice ; John Hale ; 
Henry S. Langdou, afterwards a bank cashier ; George 
W. Prescott, clerk of the United States Courts from 1814 
to March, 1817, and who died in 1817 ; Isaac Lyman, 
who also practiced in York ; John P. Lord, in practice 
from 1809 to 1819 ; Thomas L. Elwyne, who practiced 
but little from 1813 to 1816; JamesSmith, Jr., who lived 
in Port-smouth and Newington, and was more or less 
in practice from 1820 to 1869 ; Ertwich Evans ; Hamp- 
den Cutis, who removed to Hanland, Vt. ; Ichabod 
Bartlett Claggett, son of William Claggett, who gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth College, read law with Ichabod 
Bartlett, and died March 12, 1861 ; Horace Webster, 
son of Hon. Samuel Webster, of Barnstead, who gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth College, read law with Albert R. 
Hatch, and died Aug. 7, 1867, and John Scribner 
Jenness, son of Richard Jenness, who graduated at 
Harvard College, was a student in the oflSce of Icha- 
bod Bartlett, practiced a few years in Portsmouth, 
removed to New York, and died in Portsmouth, Aug. 
10, 1879. 


Atkinson's only lawyer was John Kelly. He 
was a native of the neighboring town of Plaistow, 
the son of Deacon Simeon Kelly, and was born July 
22, 1796. He was educated at Atkinson and Exeter 
Academies, and at Amherst College, where he gradu- 
ated in 1825. He began the practice of the law in 
Plaistow in 1829. In 1832 he took the charge of the 
Atkinson Academy, and retained it till 1838 ; thence 
he removed to Derry, and was principal of the Adams 
Female Academy for nearly four years. In 1841 he 
removed to Chester, and resumed the practice of his 
profession until 1845, when he returned to Atkinson, 
and there resided until his death, in January, 1877. 

Mr. Kelly was a lawyer of good capacity, but had 
none of tlie enthusiasm for his profession tliat would 
have led him into the contests of the courts. He 
preferred teaching, and was a good deal employed, 
especially in later life, as a land surveyor, in which 
he greatly excelled. He was a genial man, fond of 
social intercourse, and possessed a fund of entertain- 
ing anecdotes. He was also passionately fond of 
music, and entered into the spirit of it with his whole 
soul. Honest and upright in all his dealings, he de- 
served and won the sincere respect and trust of the 


John Porter, a graduate of Dartmouth College 
in the chiss of 1787, practiced law iu Chester from 
1790 to 1793, and then removed to Canada. 

Arthue Livermore was the second lawyer of 
Chester. He was the son of Judge Samuel Liver- 
more, and was born in Londonderry about the year 
1766, came to Chester about 1793, and remained there 
not far from five years. He was a representative from 
Chester in the General Court in 1794 and 1795, and 
was appointed solicitor for the county of Rocking- 
ham in 1796. In the latter part of 1798 he was made 
a justice of the Superior Court, and about that time 
removed to Holderness, to which place his subsequent 
history belongs. He held other important offices, 
civil and judicial, and died July 1, 1853, at the age 
of eighty-seven. 

Judge Livermore's njental endowments were of a 
high order, and must have been so regarded by his 
contemporaries to have placed him in the positions 
of trust and responsibility in which a large share of 
his active life was spent. And this is the more appa- 
rent from the fact that his manners were not of a 
popular character, and he took little pains to ingra- 
tiate himself with the people. He was a man of keen 
wit and quick temper, but he was honest, and en- 
deavored to discharge his official duties acceptably. 
He belonged to a family which long took a distin- 
guished part in public affiiirs in the State. 

Daniel French was born in Epping, Feb. 22, 
1769, a son of Gould French, a farmer there. He 
received his education at Phillips' Exeter Academy, 
and after studying law with Hon. W. K. Atkinson 
commenced practice at Deerfield, but after two years 
removed to Chester, as successor to Arthur Livermore 
on his appointment to the bench. In June, 1808, he 
was appointed solicitor of the county, and in Feb- 
ruary, 1812, was commissioned attorney-general of 
the State, which office he resigned in 1815. He held 
the office of postmaster thirty-two years, from 1807 to 
1839. In addition to his legal pursuits he took con- 
siderable interest in agriculture. 

Mr. French was a man of talents and ample profes- 
sional learning, and manifested no small share of skill 
and tact in the management of his business. He was 
faithful to the interest of his clients, even to the 
extent, as was the fashion of his time, of being some- 
times pretty sharp to his adversaries. He was the father 
of a large and mostirespectable family of children. 

Amos Kent was born at Kent's Island, in Newbury, 
Mass., in October, 1774. He was fitted for college in 
part under the celebrated Master Moody, of Byfield 
Academy, and graduated at Harvard College in 1795. 
He read law with Hon. William Gordon, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1798. The next year he opened 
an office in Chester, where he continued to reside 
until his death in 1834. 

Mr. Kent was gifted with a fine personal appearance 
and excellent powers of mind. He is said to have 
been a good counselor, but was not successful as an 
advocate. He was much fonder of active, outdoor 
employments than of the practice of his profession. 
A born athlete, he was much given to rough, bolster- 



ous sports, shooting matches, etc. He had some ap- 
titude for political life, and was chosen to the State 
Semite in the years 1814 and 1815. But he gave much 
more time to his farm and to the promotion of agri- 
culture than was good for his law business or profit- 
able to his pocket. 

Samuel Bell was the son of Hon. John Bell, of 
Londonderry, where he was born Feb. 9, 1770. He 
was employed upon his father's farm until the age of 
eighteen, and then commenced his classical studies. 
Afterwards he attended the academy at New Ipswich, 
under the tuition of Hon. John Hubbard. From 
Dartmouth College he received his bachelor's degree 
in 1793, and then pursued his law studies under the 
direction of Hon. Samuel Dana, of Amherst, whose 
daughter he subsequently married. He rose early to 
distinction in his profession. 

In 1796 he began practice in Francestown, and in 
1812 he removed to Chester, which afterwards was 
his home. A large part of his life he passed in 
public employment. In 180-1 he became a representa- 
tive in the State Legislature, and the two following 
years was Speaker of the House. In 1807 he received 
the appointment of attorney -general of the State, but 
the salary attached to the office at that time was so 
inadequate that he declined it. In 1807 and 1808 he 
was a member of the State Senate, and both years 
president of that body. In 1810 he was appointed a 
judge of the Superior Court, and so continued till 
1819, when he resigned the place to accept the office 
of Governor of the State, which he held by successive 
elections until 1823. So fully were the people satis- 
fied of his ability and integrity that on his fourth 
election to tlie gubernatorial chair he received in a vote 
of nearly twenty-four thousand all but about one thou- 
sand of the whole number of ballots cast. While he 
held the office of Governor, Bovvdoin College conferred 
upon him the degree of Doctor of Laws. 

Upon quitting the office of Governor Mr. Bell was 
elected to the United States Senate for six years, and 
upon the expiration of that term re-elected for a like 
term. Upon leaving his seat in the Senate he retired 
from public life, and passed his remaining years upon 
his farm in Chester, where he died Dec. 23, 1850. 

Mr. Bell was a man of good natural powers, culti- 
vated with diligence, and accompanied by scrupu- 
lous integrity. The long-continued and honorable 
public positions conferred upon him are the best 
proof of the confidence reposed by his fellow-citizens 
in his honesty and capacity. He was a tall, erect, 
and slender man, of a naturally delicate constitution, 
wliich he fortified by exercise and temperance. His 
manners were dignified and impressive. His profes- 
sional learning was ample, and his judgment in pub- 
lic affairs was regarded as peculiarly sound. It was 
he to whom Mr. Webster, just before he delivered 
his celebrated reply to Hayne, applied to know if 
the sentiments which he proposed to enunciate in that 
speech were in accord with the views of his party at 

the North. Senator Bell assured him that they were. 
"Then, by the blessing of God," replied Mr. Webster, 
" the country shall know my views of the Constitution 
before this day is over." 

Samuel Dana Bell was the son of Hon. Samuel 
Bell, and was born Oct. 9, 1798. He graduated from 
Harvard College in the class of 1816, read law in the 
office of Hon. George Sullivan in Exeter, and com- 
menced practice in 1820. He lived in Chester from 
1820 to 1830, and thence removed to Exeter, where 
he held the office of cashier of the Exeter Bank till 
1836, and in 1889 he established himself in the grow- 
ing town of Manchester, and there remained until his 
decease, July 31, 1868. 

While a resident in Chester he twice represented 
that town in the General Court, and in 1823 was ap- 
pointed solicitor for Rockingham County, which office 
he filled until 1828. In 1830 he was appointed one 
of the commissioners to revise the statutes of the 
State, and afterwards received a similar appointment 
in 1842, and again in 1867. He was commissioned a 
judge of the Court of Common Pleas in 1848, and 
justice of the Superior Court in 1849. He held the 
latter position till 1859, when he was elevated to the 
chief justiceship, which office he resigned in 1864. 
In 1854 he received from Dartmouth College the 
degree of Doctor of Laws. 

Judge Bell possessed a souud understanding and 
unwearied patience and industry. He acquired not 
merely the learning of his profession in a degree 
rarely surpassed, but he made himself thoroughly 
conversant with every branch of useful knowledge. 
It was difficult to broach a subject of practical im- 
portance which he had not studied and had not at 
his tongue's end. It was a common remark of those 
who met with him that his information was inex- 

He was notably instrumental in promoting educa- 
tion, good order, and good morals in Manchester, 
which he saw grow up from a village to a large and 
populous city. He was the professional counsel and 
adviser of the great companies that built u]) the place ; 
his recommendations were always heeded by them, and 
were productive of much advantage. 

Judge Bell was deeply interested in historical 
studies, and contributed some valuable papers on the 
early persons and events of New Hampshire. He 
was a constant and stanch supporter of the New 
Hampshire Historical Society, of which he held the 
office of president, and collected much material for a 
work upon the history of the courts and bar of the 
province and State. 

David Pillsbuey, son of Benjamin Pillsbury, 
was born at Raymond, Feb. 17, 1802, graduated from 
Dartmouth College in 1827, studied law with Hon. 
Henry Hubbard and Hon. Samuel D. Bell, and be- 
gan practice in Chester in 1830, and remained there 
till 1854, when he removed to Concord, where he died 
May 25, 1862. He was representative two years from 


Chester in the Legishiture of the State, and was police 
judge of Concord. He l\,ad a taste for military affairs, 
and rose to the rank of major-geueral of the militia. 

He was a man of fair talents, of industry, and of 
considerable learning in his profession, but lacked 
acquaintance with human nature, and though he pre- 
pared his causes carefully, was very liable to be out- 
generaled before a jury. He wjis a bachelor, and was 
sometimes made the butt of waggery, as is not unfre- 
quently the case with those in like forlorn circum- 

Moody Kext was born in Newbury, Mass, in the 
year 1779, graduated at Harvard College in 1801, 
reiid law with Hon. William Gordon and Hon. C. H. 
Atherton, of Amherst, was admitted to the bar in 
.1804, and the same year settled in practice in Deer- 
field. He remained there until 1809, when he re- 
moved to Concord, in which place and in Pembroke 
he spent most of the remainder of his life. He died 
unmarried Feb. 1, 1866, leaving the bulk of his large 
fortune to the New Hampshire Asylum for the Insane. 

Jlr. Kent acquired scholarship and great general 
information, and was industrious, methodical, and 
sagacious. He was a sound lawyer, but did not prac- 
tice for many of the later year.s of his life, his time 
being occupied by the care of his large property. 


Phineas Howe was a native of Hopkinton and 
the son of Deacon Jotham Howe. He was a graduate 
of Dartmouth College, in the class of 1798, and after- 
wards was a teacher in Deerfield for five years, studied 
law, and opened an office for a short time in Weare, 
but returned to Deerfleld in 1805, and continued in 
the practice of his profession there until 1809, when 
he returned to Weare. He is believed to have lived 
afterwards in Maine, and in the State of New York, 
where he died. He is understood to have shown 
capacity and some literary taste. 

Jesse Merrill was a native of Atkinson and a 
graduate of Dartmouth College in 1806. He studied 
law and was admitted in 1812, and commenced prac- 
tice in Deerfield immediately, but remained there but 
a short time. He lived afterwards in Bradford, Vt., 
and died there in 1864, at the age of seventy-five. 

JosiAH Butler was a son of Nehemiah Butler, of 
Pelham, and was born there Dec. 4, 1779. He grad- 
uated from Harvard College in 1803, and pursued the 
stu<ly of the law under the direction of Hon. Clifton 
Clagctt, and afterwards in the State of Virginia, where 
he was admitted to |)ractice in 1807. He then returned 
to his native town and pursued his ])rofession there 
until 1809, when he removed to Deerfield. He began 
his political life the same year as representative in 
the State Legislature from Pelham. In 1810 lie was 
ajipointed siieritf of Rockingliam County, but in 1813, 
when the opposite political party attained the ascend- 
ency, he Wius removed by address from the office. This 
loss was naturally well made up to him by his political 

friends when they afterwards came into power. He 
was appointed clerk of the Court of Common Pleas, 
in 1815 and 1816 he was chosen a representative from 
Deerfield to the State Legislature, and in 1817 he was 
elected a repre.sentative in the Congress of the United 
States, where he continued by successive re-elections 
until 1828. In 1825 he was appointed an associate 
justice of the State Court of Common Pleas, and held 
the office until 1833, when the courts were remodeled, 
and afterwards he received the commission of post- 
master of Deerfield, which he continued to hold until 
his death, Oct. 29, 1854. . 

Judge Butler was possessed of superior abilities 
and of honest purposes ; he was true to his party, of 
unquestioned integrity and usefulness. As a lawyer 
he was attentive to his business, faithful, industrious, 
and persevering. As a citizen he is spoken of in terms 
of the highest commendation by those who knew him 

Frederic H. Davis was a native of Boston, and 
was said to have been educated at the Roman Catho- 
lic College in Baltimore. He practiced in Salem in 
1815, and came to Deerfield the next year, but re- 
mained only a year or two. 

David Steele, Jr., was a native of Peterborough, 
and graduated from Dartmouth College in 1815. 
After reading law with Hon. James Wilson, he com- 
menced practice in Deerfield in 1818, but remained 
only a short time, removing to Gaflstown, where he 
passed the residue of his life. 

Josiah Houghton studied law at the Connecticut 
Law School and in the office of Hon. Boswell Ste- 
vens, of Pembroke, and on being admitted to the bar 
in 1820 set up practice in Deerfield, where he died in 
1833. He was a respectable practitioner and an es- 
timable citizen. His death was the result of excite- 
ment and exposure, caused by the search for a child 
who had strayed away from his home. 

Ira St. Clair was born in New Hampton, Aug. 
9, 1796, read la\v with Stephen Moody, Esq., of Gil- 
manton, and S. C. Lyford, Esq., of Gilford, and began 
practice in his native town in 1824. The next year 
he changed his residence to Deerfield. where he re- 
mained for the rest of his life. In 1848 he received 
the appointment of judge of probate for the county of 
Rockingham, and held it until 1857. He was a law- 
yer of competent learning, with a good deal of old- 
fa.shioned prudence and caution, and was in many 
ways well fitted for the responsible office which he 
held. His character was excellent, and he w;is much 
respected by the community. He died April 5, 1875. 

Horatio Gates Cilley was a son of H(m. Ho- 
ratio G. Cilley, of Deerfield, and was born Nov. 26, 
1805. He graduated from Dartmouth College in 
1826, and pursued his law studies under the direction 
of Hon. George Sullivan, commencing his profes- 
sional life in Deerfield in 1830. He was a lawyer of 
respectable learning and capacity, and wm chosen a 
representative of Deerfield in the General Court for 



the years 1851 and 1852. Not long afterwards he 
left the State and removed to Lewiston, Me., where 
he passed the remainder of liis life. His death oc- 
curred March 13, 1874. 


John Poeter was boru in Bridgewater, Mass., 
Feb. 26, 1776. He completed his college course at 
Dartmouth in 1803, and studied law with Aaron 
Hutchinson, E<q., of Lebanon, and in 1806 began to 
practice in Derry( then Londonderry). He represented 
that town iu the State Legislature for five years, and 
the town of Derry for ten year."?. He was also a mem- 
ber of one of the commissions to revise the statutes of 
the State. 

Mr. Porter's education and capacity were quite 
above the average, and he was esteemed an able and 
learned counselor. He was engaged in many con- 
tested causes in the courts, though he lacked confi- 
dence in his powers as an advocate, and the most im- 
portant of them were argued to the jury by other 
counsel. He gained the confidence of the community 
in an unusual degree, and there is no doubt that he 
conducted his legal business with prudence and un- 
common skill, and was faithful to the interests of his 

He was a tall, impressive-looking man, deliberate 
in movement and speech, but with a thorough appre- 
ciation of all that was bright and humorous. 

Jame.s Thom was born in Londonderry, Aug. 14, 
1784, graduated from Dartmouth College in 1805, 
studied his profession with Hon. George Sullivan, and 
was admitted an attorney in 1808, making Exeter his 
first residence. While there he edited a paper called 
The Constifulioitulist, besides attending to his law busi- 
ness. In 1815 he changed his residence to his native 
town, and remained there till his death, Nov. 27, 
1852. He was a representative in the Legislature for 
several years, and took a leading part therein. About 
1828 he was instrumental in obtaining the charter of 
a bank in Derry, and became its cashier, after which 
he gave little time to his profession. - 

He was a bright, ready man, of popular manners, 
and sang a good song in the old-fashioned convivial 
assemblies of the bar. He was public-spirited and 
took much interest in every movement for the benefit 
of his town. Few men have passed through life with 
the more general esteem and regard of all parties 
than Mr. Thom. 

David Aikex Gregg, a native of Londonderry, 
was born March 12, 1788, and died at Derry, May 15, 
1866. He was a graduate of Dartmouth College in 
1811, and began the practice of law in Londonderry 
in 1814, removed to Salem in 1817, and returned to 
Londonderry in 1820. In 1832 he was representative 
in the State Legislature, and State senator in 1840 
and 1841. He was also postmaster of Derry, and 
register of probate from 1842 to 1847, during which 
time he resided in Exeter. 

Mr. Gregg manifested no little of the sagacity and 
wit which characterized his Scotch-Irish ancestors. 
He was never largely engaged in the courts, but con- 
ducted a quiet, useful business to the satisfaction of 
those who employed him. 

Thornton Betton, a son of Hon. Silas Betton, 
was born in Salem in the year 1800, and died there 
Sept. 1, 1841. He graduated from Dartmouth College 
in 1820, studied law with James Thom, Esq., and set 
up in his profession in Salem, from which town he 
was sent as representative to the General Court for 
two or three years. In 1830 he changed his residence 
to Derry, and that town also he represented in the 

Mr. Betton possessed t.alents, and during his rather 
brief career made something of a figure. It is believed, • 
however, that his judgment and balance were not 
equal to his enterprise. 

Edward Pinkerton Parker, son of Rev. Ed- 
ward L. Parker, was born in Londonderry, April 18, 
1816. Graduating from Dartmouth College in 1836, 
he taught in the Pinkerton Academy and studied law 
for two years, and was admitted to practice in 1839, 
establishing himself in Derry. From 1843 to 1847 
he was principal of the Adams Female Academy 
there, and then removed to Merrimac, where he formed 
a connection in business with Hon. James U. Parker. 
In 1853 he bade adieu to the law and engaged in 
manufacturing. He died in Merrimac. 

Joseph A. Gregg was the son of Hon. David A. 
Gregg, of Derry. He studied law in his father's 
office, and commenced |)ractice in Derry about 1842. 
In 1850 he was a member of the convention to revise 
the Constitution of the State, and the youngest of that 
body. He was a man of promising talents, and had 
he been spared gave every indication of rising to em- 
inence. He died Sept. 9, 1854, at the early age of 
thirty-one. An obituary notice mentions the fact of 
his holding the office of postmaster, and being one 
of the prominent and enterprising citizens of his 

John Porter, Jr., was a son of John Porter, Esq., 
of Londonderry. He studied law under the direction 
of his father, and entered practice in 1837 at Bedford 
as the partner of Jonas B. Bowman, Esq. Two years 
afterwards they removed to Manchester. Mr. Porter 
at a later date entered into trade in Manchester. 
Afterwards, about 1868, he returned to Derry and 
resumed his law practice. He was irregular in his 
habits, and his law business dwindled, and at length, 
without notice to his friends, he went to Enfield and 
joined himself to the Society of Shakers there. He 
became a leading member of the sect, and was for 
several years engaged as their business agent, ac- 
quitting himself quite to their satisfaction. He died 
among them iu 1875. 


William Plujier filled no small sp^ce in the 
legal and political history of the State. His native 





place was Newbury, Mass., where he was born June 
2.'), 1859, but when he was but nine years of age liis 
father, Samuel Plunier, became a citizen of Epping, 
■in this State, where his son ever afterwards resided. 

William attended the schools of the neighborhood 
while assisting his father on the farm until he was 
seventeen, after which he had no instructor except 
while acquiring his legal education. But he was a 
great reader, and had an active mind and a retentive 
memory. His first essay in life was as a preacher of 
the Baptist denomination when he was just reaching 
his majority ; but before long his opinions changed, 
and he resolved to study law. His instructors were 
Hon. Joshua Atherton, of Amherst, and Hon. John 
Prentice, of Londonderry, though he gave little credit 
to the latter. 

Mr. Plumer was admitted to practice in 1787, hav- 
ing previously served in the office of selectman of 
Epping and representative in the State Legislature. 
The latter office he held for eight years, and was 
Speaker in 1791 and 1797. In 1798 he received the 
commission of solicitor for Rockingham County. 
In June, 1802, he was chosen to fill the vacancy in 
the Senate of the United States caused by the resig- 
nation of James Sheafe, and held his seat until March, 

He was chosen a State senator in 1810 and 1811, 
and presided over the Senate both of those years. 
He was elected Governor of the State in 1812, and 
.again in 1816, 1817, and 1818. This was the end of 
his public service, though he survived until Dec. 23, 
1850. For the remainder of his life he lived in re- 
tirement on his farm, surrounded by his family, and 
deriving great enjoyment from his large and well- 
selected library and from his literary labors. He 
wrote and published various essays of a historical, 
practical character, and prepared and left in manu- 
script a series of valuable biographical sketches of 
Americans of note of his own and earlier times. 
These would have been given to the public had not 
the various biographical dictionaries and works of a 
similar character occupied so fully the fiehl of his 

As' a lawyer Governor Plumer was diligent, careful, 
and sagacious. He won his laurels among no mean 
competitors, the bar of Rockingham and Straffi)rd 
Counties during the period of his active practice 
containing some of the foremost lawyers of their 
time in the country. In all the relations of life he 
was respected, even by those whose symjjathies were, 
by reason of political disagreement, turned most 
widely in other directions. 

William Plumer, Jr., son of the preceding, was 
born in Epping, Feb. 9, 1789, was a student in Phil- 
lips' Exeter Academy and in Harvard College, whose 
diploma he received in 1809. He completed his legal 
studie-s under the tuition of his father in 1812, and 
was admitted to the bar, but he never could be styled 
an active practitioner. He was essentially a student, 

and was far more interested in literary work and in 
public questions than in the pursuits of his profes- 

In 1816 he was appointed United States commis- 
sioner of loans for the State of New Hampshire, and 
as such resided in Portsmouth for above a year, and 
until the office was abolished. In 1818 he was chosen 
a representative in the State Legislature, and the 
same year was elected a representative in the Con- 
gress of the United States, where he remained by 
successive re-elections for six years. In 1824 he was 
chosen, on the part of the New Hampshire Senate, 
United States senator, but the House failed to concur. 
In 1827 and 1828 he was a member of the New Hamp- 
shire Senate, and in 1827 he declined the appoint- 
ment of United States district attorney. After this 
Mr. Plumer appeared seldom in public, though he 
occasionally took part in popular meetings and on 
occasions of unusual interest. He lived in much 
domestic happiness at his home in Epping, and em- 
ployed himself in reading and in literary compo- 
sition. Several poems of his were published, and 
others privately printed for distribution among his 
many friends. He also prepared a valuable biog- 
raphy of bis father. His last public labors were in 
the State Constitutional Convention of 1850-51, and 
he died three years later, Sept. 18, 1864. 

Hiram Osgood was a native of Loudon, and com- 
menced the law business in Epping about 1823. 
After remaining there about a dozen years, during 
which time he sustained a highly respectable char- 
acter, he emigrated to Michigan, where he died in 

Enoch Bartlett was a son of Hon. Bradbury 
Bartlett, of Nottingham, and commenced practice in 
Epping about 1845, but remained there only a couple 
of years before he went to Lawrence, Mass., and 
opened an office. He was' quite a successful prac- 
titioner, and was elected mayor of the city, but died 
in 1855. 

James McMttrphy was a partner of the pre- 
ceding, and continued in business in Epping after 
Mr. Bartlett's departure until his death, about 1855. 
Mr. McMurphy was a man of decided ability, had 
gained a respectable position as a lawyer, and was a 
growing man at the time of his decease, which oc- 
curred while he was only in middle age. 


The first educated lawyer in Exeter was Nicholas 
Ferryman, a native of Devonshire, England, born 
Dec. 24, 1692. Be came to this country young, after 
the death of his parents, married Joanna, daughter 
of Stephen Dudley, about 1717, and Wiis in practice 
in Exeter between 1720 and 1730. His name appears 
pretty frequently in suits after that date, and he did 
much of the conveyancing of liis time. In 1744 and 
1746 he appeared in behalf- of Exeter in divers con- 
tested matters wherein the town was interested. He 



was evidently a leading man, and took a prominent 
part in the affairs of the community. 

He had several children, only one of whom arrived 
at maturity, Joanna, who married Noah Emery, 
Esq. Mr. Ferryman died Aug. 9, 1757. 

Noah Emery was a son of Daniel Emery, of Kit- 
tery, Me., and wa.s born Dec. 23, 1725. He studied 
law with Nicliolas Ferryman, Esq., whose son-in-law 
he became, and was in practice in Exeter before 1769. 
During the Revolutionary war he occupied important 
and confidential positions in the new governaient. 
He was repeatedly chosen delegate from Exeter to 
the Frovincial Congress, and was made clerk thereof, 
and acted on the committee to draw up a form of 
government for the colony. He was appointed clerk 
of the Court of Common Fleas in 1776, and continued 
to hold the office till 1787, 'near the time of his death, 
and was succeeded in the office by his sou, who bore 
the same name. 

AViLLiAM Faekee, Je., was the son of Hon. Wil- 
liam Parker, of Portsmouth, an eminent judge of the 
Superior Court. He was born in 1731, graduated 
from Harvard College in 1751, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1765. Commencing practice in Exeter, he 
succeeded his father as register of probate in 1776, 
and discharged the duties af the office until his death 
in 1813. He was also appointed a judge of the Court 
of Common Fleas in 1790, and served in that capacity 
until 1807. 

Judge Parker was respectably learned in his pro- 
fession, and through his long life did much business 
in it, but on account of constitutional diffidence ap- 
peared little in the courts. It is said he never argued 
a cause to the court or jury, but he was an excellent 
conveyancer and a safe and judicious counselor, and 
found abundant professional occupation outside the 
courts. He was a man of bright parts and unbending 
integrity, and though he looked after his clients' 
interests faithfully, was very easy towards his own 
debtors. He died June 5, 1813. 

Oliver Peabody, eldest son of a farmer of the 
same name, was born in Andover, Mass., Sept. 2, 
1753, graduated at Harvard College at the age of 
twenty, studied law with Hon. Theophilus Parsons, 
of Newbury, Mass., and settled in Exeter about 1781. 
He was soon brought into public notice. He received 
the appointment of solicitor Aug. 6, 1789, was elected 
State senator in 1790, and the same year was consti- 
tuted judge of probate for the county of Rockingham, 
which office he filled until June, 1793. In 1793 and 
1794 he was again a member of the State Senate, and 
in the latter year president of that body. Being 
chosen State treasurer he resigned the office of sena- 
tor, and continued in the former office for nine years. 
In 1805 he was appointed sheriff of the county of 
Rockingham, and discharged the duties of the posi- 
tion for five years. In 1813 he was again chosen to 
the Senate, and was its presiding officer, and the same 
year was made a justice of the Court of Common 

Pleas for the Eastern Circuit, holding the position 
until 1816. Three times he was chosen an elector of 
President of the United States, viz., in 1796, 1800, 
and 1808. He died Aug. 3, 1831. 

Judge Peabody was gifted with excellent natural 
advantages, improved by study and cultivation. In 
all the various official positions which he sustained he 
exhibited the capacity and qualities needed for their 
satisfactory administration. He was not a contentious 
lawyer, and rarely took part in the trial of in 
court, but he drew many writs and conducted a large 
office business to the contentment of his clients. He 
was formed by nature for popularity. Handsome in 
person, graceful in manner, with a mild temper and 
a social disposition, he won the regard and conciliated 
the good will of all. He could not have an enemy. 
His name naturally suggested itself for new positions 
of trust, and while few objected, he attracted warm 
friends and zealous partisans, who easily carried his 
election or appointment, so tiiat a large portion of 
his active life was spent in the service of the public. 
He was the father of an interesting and gifted family, 
on whose education he spared no expense, and in 
whose society he enjoyed the chief happiness of his 
later years. 

Nathaniel Parker, .son of Judge William 
Parker, Jr., was born in East Kingston, Oct. 22, 1760, 
and studied law in the office of his father, settling in 
practice at Exeter. He represented that town in the 
Legislature, and after performing the functions of 
deputy Secretary of State for some years was then 
made secretary in 1809. He died in 1812, leaving no 

George Sullivin, a native of Durham, and a 
son of Gen. ^John Sullivan, of the Revolution, was 
born Aug. 29, 1771, and was a graduate of Harvard 
College, of the class of 1791. He prepared himself 
for his profession under the tuition of his father, and 
made Exeter his home. He was appointed solicitor 
for Rockingham County in 1802, and held the office 
till 1805. In 1811 he was elected a member of Con- 
gress for two years, and in 1814 and 1815 he was 
chosen to a seat in the New Hampshire Senate. Be- 
fore this time, in 1805, he had received the appoint- 
ment to the State attorney-generalshijj, — which for 
three generations has been held long and creditably 
in the Sullivan family, — and occupied it for two years. 
Afterwards in 1815 he was reappointed and adminis- 
tered the office for twenty years more. He resigned the 
place in 1835, on the passage of a law increasing the 
salary, but prohibiting the incumbent from engaging 
in practice in civil causes. Mr. Sullivan's services 
were in too much demand by suitors to allow him to 
confine his attention solely to the criminal business. 
He died April 14, 1838, highly respected throughout 
the State. His private, professional, and public char- 
acter were alike unblemished. His intellectual ca- 
pacity, his legal acquirements, and his honorable 
course of practice placed him in the foremost rank of 

.OTiiEJSBaEixm i^saniPiEo 



New Hampshire lawyers, while the charms of his 
sweet voice, his graceful gesticulation, and his elo- 
<|uent periods gave him a great advantage over his 
less favored competitors. Though of ardent tempera- 
ment, and never shunning a contest, he was as ready 
to forgive as to take offense; the only unpardonable 
sin in his eyes was mean and underhand dealing. 
He was above all tricks and artifices. The traditions 
of his career that yet linger in the bar are all as 
creditable to his high sense of professional honor as 
to his mental force and moving eloquence. 

SoT.ON Stevens, born in Charlestown, Oct. 3, 1778, 
graduated from Dartmouth College in 1798, read law 
with Hon. Benjamin West, and settled in Exeter in 
1804. He remained there but a few years, when he 
removed to Boston, and soon returned to his native 
town, where he died Aug. 29, 1809. 

Jeremiah Smith, a son of William Smith, was 
born in Peterborough, Nov. 29, 1759. He entered 
Harvard College iu 1777, and about the same time 
served for two months in the army, being present and 
wounded at the battle of Bennington. He afterwards 
migrated to Rutgers College, in New Jersey, and 
graduated in 1780. He was for a time engaged in 
teaching, and then studied law. entering the bar in 
1786, and establishing himself in his native town. He 
was sent as representative to the Legislature in 1788, 
1789, and 1790, and as delegate to the State Constitu- 
tional Convention in 1791-92. In 1790 he was chosen 
representative in the United States Congress, and 
served until he resigned his seat to accept the ap- 
pointment of United States district attorney for 
New Hampshire in 1797. The same year he changed 
his residence to Exeter. In 1800 he was commis- 
sioned judge of probate for Rockingham County, and 
discharged the duties of the position about two years. 
In 1801 he received from President Adams the ap- 
pointment of United States circuit judge and en- 
tered upon its duties, but in a few months the law 
which established the court was repealed and his 
office terminated. In 1802 he was elevated to the 
dignity of chief justice of the Superior Court of the 
State, and administered the office with eminent ability 
until his resignation, on account of ill health, in 1809. 
The next year he was elected Governor of New 
Hampshire, and held the office for one year. He 
was replaced as chief in 1813 upon the bench of the 
highest State court, and continued as such until 
1816, when a radical change of the judicial .system of 
the State resulted in the removal of all the judges. 

For a few years after this Judge Smith returned to 
the bar, and then about 1820 retired from active prac- 
tice. The honorary degree of Doctor of Laws was 
conferred upon him by Dartmouth College in 1804, 
and by Harvard in 1807. He continued to live iu 
Exeter till 1842, and then removed to Dover, where 
he died September 21st in the same year. 

Judge Smith's intellect was vigorous, his learning 
great, and his perceptions keen. He was an admirable 

lawyer, and enjoyed a large and lucrative practice in 
four counties for some years; but he studied and 
trained himself for the judicial office, and there he 
shone conspicuous. He had abundant professional 
learning, patience, and sound sense, beside fine dis- 
crimination and a sense of justice that was rarely 
at fault. Some of his opinions have been recently 
published in a volume, and, though mere skeletons 
and without revision, they constitute a valuable ad- 
dition to the juridical literature of the State. 

Many anecdotes of Judge Smith's ready wit are 
told by those who remember him. It was keen as an 
arrow, but left no sting behind. As a citizen and a 
neighbor his society was greatly valued. He mani- 
fested an interest in everything that made for the 
benefit and credit of his town. He was a trustee 
and treasurer of the Phillips Academy for many 
years; he was active in promoting the formation of a 
lyceum, and prepared lectures for it ; he delivered an 
interesting and valuable historical discourse on the 
occasion of the two hundredth anniversary of the set- 
tlement of Exeter. Few men have left the record of 
a long life so unsullied. 

Joseph Tilton was born in East Kingston in Au- 
gust, 1774, and graduated at Harvard College in the 
class of 1797. Studyinglaw with Hon. Jeremiah Smith, 
he commenced practice in Wakefield soon after 1800, 
and removed to Rochester about 1805. In 1809 he 
opened an office in Exeter, where he thenceforward 
resided. For nine years in succession, froiii 1815 to 
1823, inclusive, he represented Exeter in the General 
Court, a fact which is significant of the trust reposed 
in his ability and honesty by his fellow-citizens. He 
practiced his profession in the days of Mason and 
Webster, Sullivan and Bartlett, and other men of mark 
in the law, and maintained among them a creditable 
standing for learning and capacity. He was esteemed 
and resjjected by all, and his social qualities were 
highly valued by those who knew him best. Judge 
Richardson, who had a keen appreciation of humor 
maintained the pleasantest relations with Mr. Tilton 
and enjoyed many a hearty laugh at his quaint stories 
and bright repartees. Mr. Tilton died March 28 
1856, at the advanced age of eighty-one years. 

JoTHAM Lawrence was a son of David Law- 
rence, of Epping. He received his early education at 
the Phillips Exeter Academy, which he entered in 
1793, and prepared himself for admission to the bar 
in the office of Hon. George Sullivan. He lived to 
be the oldest member of the Rockingham bar, and 
died in Exeter, Nov. 6, 1863, aged eighty-seven years. 

Jeremiah Fellowes wiis a native of Exeter, and 
a graduate from Bowdoin College in the class of 1810. 
He went through his preparatory studies under the 
eye of Hon. George Sullivan, and opened an office in 
Exeter in 1813. He was a young man of talents, and 
was the author of a volume of poems of some merit. 
He became in early life the victim of mental disease, 
from which he never recovered. 



George Lamson, a son of Gideon Lamson, of 
Exeter, was a graduate from Bowdoin College in 1812, 
and began to practice in his native place three years 
after. He became interested in the publication of a 
newspaper and of some law books, and was the pro- 
prietor of the Exeter Watchman from 1819 to 1821. 
He subsequently engaged in the business of a book- 
seller in New York, and died there in 1826, aged 
thirty-two years. 

William Smith was a son of Hon. Jeremiah 
Smith, and was born in Exeter about 1800. He grad- 
uated from Harvard College in 1817, and commenced 
the practice of the law in Exeter in 1821. He was 
chosen a representative of the town in the Legislatures 
of'l822, '23, '24, and 1825. He was a young man of 
higli promise, of fine literary taste, and of many ac- 
complishments. He was the author of two pamphlets 
of merit, one " Remarks on the New Hampshire Tol- 
eration Act," the other " On the Assassination of 
Julius Ca?sar." His health failed at an early age, and 
he sought for relief in a milder climate, but in vain, 
for he died unmarried March 29, 1830. 

Oliver William Bourne Peabody was a son 
of Hon. Oliver Peabody, born in Exeter, July 7, 1799, 
and educated at the Phillips Exeter Academy and Har- 
vard College, from which he graduated in 1816. He 
was for a while a teacher in the academy in his native 
town, then studied law and entered into practice 
there. He was a representative of the town in the 
Legislature from 1823 to 1830, eight years succes- 
sively. In the latter year he took up his residence in 
Boston. In 1835 he was one of the representatives of 
that city in the General Court, and in 1836 was ap- 
pointed register of probate for the county of Suffolk. 
He afterwards studied for the ministry, and was set- 
tled over the Unitarian society in Burlington, Vt., 
and died, unmarried, July 5, 1848. 

He was gifted with uncommon talents, and his lit- 
erary acquirements were of the highest character. He 
was the author of several poems and addresses which 
were much admired. His character was singularly 
pure and amiable, and attracted to him a wide circle 
of friends. 

John Sullivan was a son of Hon. George Sul- 
livan, of Exeter. He went through the course of 
studies at the academy in his native town, and pur- 
sued his law-reading under his father's direction. On 
being admitted to the bar, about 1822, he chose Exe- 
ter as his place of business. In 1828 he received his 
first appointment as county solicitor, and performed 
the duties of the office for two terms (ten years). He 
was then commissioned judge of probate for the county 
of Rockingham, and so remained till 1848. In 1849 
the appointment of attorney-general for the State 
was conferred on him, and he retained that position 
as long as he lived. He died Nov. 17, 1862, aged 
sixty-two years. 

Judge Sullivan had a great share of the hereditary 
talent that characterized his family. He was a sound 

and careful lawyer, but he was particularly distin- 
guished for his power as an advocate befure the jury. 
He argued questions of fact with force, and frequently 
with eloquence, his well-rounded periodiiand musical 
voice reminding his elder hearers strikingly of his 
father. His feelings were quick and impulsive, but 
he was honest, honorable, and high-minded. The 
important and responsible offices which he filled for 
so large a portion of his life were ably and impar- 
tially administered. No man ever justly questioned 
his truthfulness or his integrity. 

Samuel Taylor Gilman, a son of Hon. Nathan- 
iel Oilman, of Exeter, received his academical educa- 
tion at Harvard College, graduating in 1819. After 
studying law in the office of Hon. George Sullivan, 
he established himself in practice in Exeter about 
1826. He delivered a Fourth of July address in his 
native town, which gained him much credit ; and 
he was a representative in the General Court from 
Exeter in 1829. He was a young man of fine capacity 
and amiable character, and the future seemed full of 
promise to him, but death cut short his career when 
he had attained the age of thirty-four years. 

James Bell, a son of Hon. Samuel Bell, was born 
in Francestown on the 13th of November, 1804, and 
graduated at Bowdoui College in 1822. Having pre- 
pared himself for his profession in the office of his 
brother, Hon. Samuel D. Bell, and at the law school 
in Litchfield, Conn., he entered into practice first at 
Gilmanton in 1825. After staying there about six 
years, he selected Exeter as his residence, where he 
continued for fifteen years, enjoying a large, import- 
ant, and lucrative practice in Rockingham and Straf- 
ford Counties. During this period he was engaged 
in nearly every cause of magnitude which arose in 
that section of the State. His competitors at the bar 
were strong and learned men, but perhaps none of 
them — certainly none of his years — was his superior 
in all the qu.alities that go to make up an accom- 
plished and successful lawyer. 

In 1846 he was a member of the Legislature, and 
in the same year received a valuable appointment 
which caused him to remove to Gilford, of w'hich 
place he continued a resident until his decease. While 
living there he was chosen a delegate to the State 
Constitutional Convention of 1850, and was one of 
its most prominent and influential members. In 
March, 1855, he was chosen a senator of the United 
States for six years, but he did not live to complete 
the term. His death occurred May 26, 1857. He 
was a man of unblemished character and of high and 
honorable attainments. 

John Kelly, son of Rev. William Kelly, and born 
at Warner, March 7, 1786, was a graduate of Dart- 
mouth College in the class of 1804. After studying 
law he was admitted to practice in 1808, and chose 
Northwood as his home. He was a representative 
from that town in the General Court. In 1814 he 
resided for a year in Concord, and had editorial charge 



of the Concord Gazette. In 1831 he went to Exeter 
to live, having accepted the appointment of register 
of probate, which lie held until 1842. In 1*846 and 
1847 he was a member of the Executive Council of 
the State. Mr. Kelly was for many years the editor 
of the Exeter Newi-Letter, and contributed to its col- 
umns a series of articles of much historical and 
genealogical value. He was distinguished for his 
antiquarian tastes, and his reputation ranks high 
among the New Hampshire scholars in that depart- 
ment of learning. He was a witty writer, and con- 
trived to lend an interest to subjects generally to 
ordinary readers dry and forbidding. He died in 
Exeter, Nov. 3, 18G0. 

Amos Tuck was born in Parsonsfield, Me., Aug. 2, 
1810; pursued his preparatory studies at the acad- 
emies in Effingham and in Hampton, and in 1835 
graduated from Dartmouth College. He then became 
an instructor in Pembroke Academy, and subsequently 
the preceptor of the Hampton Academy, and at the 
same time devoted his leisure hours to law study, 
which he completed in the office of Hon. James Bell 
at Exeter, and on being admitted to the bar became 
his i)artner in business. The firm during the entire 
period of its existence enjoyed a large and important 
business in and out of the courts. Mr. Tuck began 
life as a Democrat in politics, but came out into the 
Free-Soil party in the movement which brought Hon. 
John P. Hale into prominence. In 1847 he was 
elected to Congress by the Whig and Free-Soil voters 
of his district, and was twice reelected, serving six 
full years. 

When Mr. Lincoln became President, he gave to 
Mr. Tuck, an old congressional friend, the position of 
naval officer in Boston, and reappointed him in 
1865. It was an important and lucrative office. Mr. 
Tuck, after Mr. Bell removed from Exeter, had formed 
a law partnership with Hon. William W. Stickney, and 
subsequently with his son-in-law, Francis O. French, 
Esq., but after holding tlie office of naval officer 
gave up his law business and devoted his attention to 
other affairs. He received from the directors of the 
Atlantic and Pacific Railroad the ap])ointment of 
^elling agent of their lands, and for some years passed 
most of his time in the West in that employment ; 
and he gave much attention to other enterprises away 
from his home. He also traveled in Europe consid- 

He died in Exeter, Dec. 11, 1879, of apoplexy. Mr. 
Tuck was of an active temperament, and felt an interest 
in many things. In his town he took a prominent 
part in every movement, religious, educational, and 
political. He was concerned as president of the 
board of trustees in the shaping of the Robinson 
Seminary, and he served many years as a trustee of 
the Pliillips Exeter Academy and of Dartmouth 
College. He was liberal in his dealings, and kind 
and charitable to the poor and needy. 

As a lawyer he was ready, adroit, and familiar with 

human nature. He was faithful to his clients, and 
managed their business with sagacity and success. 
In his addresses to the court and jury bespoke point- 
edly, persuasively, and with effect. From early life 
he assumed a leadin;g position, and throughout his 
threescore years and ten exerted a large influence 
about him. His death deprived the county of one of 
its best known and most important citizens. 

Samuel Hubbard Stevens was born in East 
Kingston, Nov. 20, 1802. He graduated from Dart- 
mouth College in 1830, and after completing his pro- 
fessional study began practice in Bristol, and after- 
wards removed to Lawrence, and thence to Exeter, 
where he was cashier of the Granite State Bank from 
1849 to 1858. Subsequently he took up his residence 
in Concord, having retired from active business, and 
made it his home for the remainder of his life. 

Timothy Farrar, Jr., was born in New Ipswich, 
March 17, 1778, and was the son of Hon. Timothy 
Farrar. lu 1807 he took his bachelor's degree at 
Dartmouth College, and entered the office of Hon. 
Daniel Webster as a student-at-law. He began prac- 
tice in Portsmouth about 1813 as law partner of his 
preceptor, and continued there after Mr. Webster's 
removal to Boston until 1822, when he went to Han- 
over to reside. In 1824 he was appointed a judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas, and so continued until 
the abolition of that court in 1833. He then resumed 
his residence in Portsmouth till 1836, when he as- 
sumed the duties of cashier of a bank in Exeter. 
There he remained till 1844, and then removed to 
Boston, of which city he was a representative in the 
General Court of 1854. In 1867 he was honored with 
the degree of Doctor of Laws from his Alma Mater. 
He died in Boston, Oct. 27, 1874. 

It was said of Judge Farrar that he was " pre-emi- 
nently a safe adviser." He was a man of much 
learning, general as well as professional. A number 
of works were the product of his pen, chiefly upon 
legal and constitutional subjects. He edited the 
"Report of the Dartmouth College Case" in 1819. 
In later life he published a " Review of the Dred Scott 
Decision," and several other minor essays, but his 
chief work was the "Manual of the Constitution," 
which has elicited the high commendation of some 
of our most eminent scholars and constitutional 

Melburn F. ELDRlDCiE was in practice in Exeter 
as an attorney-at-law from about 1845 to 1849, a part 
of that time having an office at Newmarket. He then 
removed to Nashua, and afterwards, it is believed, to 
Milford, where he continued till his decease, about 

JoiinSullivan Wells, a descendant of Gen. John 
Sullivan, of the Revolution, was born in Durham, and 
passed his early childhood there. He first learned 
the trade of a cabinet-maker, and earned enough by 
it to enable him to acquire a fair education. He 
studied law in Vermont and began practice there, 



but removed to Lancaster, N. H., in 1837, where he at 
once received the appointment of county solicitor and 
retained it for ten years. From 1839 to 1842 he was 
a representative from Lancaster in the Legislature, 
and in 1841 was chosen Speaker of the House. About 
1846 he changed his residence to Exeter. In Jan- 
uary, 1847, he was commissioned attorney-general of 
the State, but resigned the position after a few months. 
In 1851 and 1852 he was a member of the State Senate, 
and president thereof both years. In January, 1855, 
he was appointed by the Governor United States 
senator to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of 
Hon. Moses Morris, and occupied his seat until March 
4th. He was subsequently a candidate for Governor 
of the State and for senator in Congress. He died 
Aug. 1, 1860, at the age of fifty-six years. 

Mr. "Wells was gifted with many of the essentials of 
a successful lawyer and politician. He had a fine 
person, pleasing manners, readiness and fluency of 
speech, and a most melodious voice. In many of 
these respects he inherited the qualities which gave 
the Sullivans for several generations their prominent 
standing at the bar. Mr. Wells had the confidence 
of his party and of his clients in a remarkable degree. 
His professional business was large and lucrative, and 
but for the change that took place in the political 
complexion of the State at the period when his name 
was put forward he would have probably enjoyed more 
of her highest honors. 

Eben Franklin Tucke was a native of Kensing- 
ton, born Feb. 16, 1822. He was a graduate of Dart- 
mouth College in 1843, and jnirsued his professional 
studies with Messrs. Bell & Tuck in Exeter and at 
the Harvard Law School, and began to practice in 
Exeter in 1846. His abilities were excellent, and 
his social qualities rendered him a genera! favorite. 
The later years of his life were shaded by illness, 
which put a period to his earthly existence May 30, 

Alva Wood was a native of Georgetown, Mass. 
He received an academical education, and came to 
Exeter about 1847 and made it his lifelong home. 
He studied law in the office of Messrs. Bell & Tuck, 
and entered into practice about 1849. He was active 
and assiduous, and gathered a very considerable busi- 
ness, which continued up to about a year before his 
decease, when his health began to fail. He died 
suddenly, Feb. 17, 1878, aged fifty-seven years. He 
was a man of talents, who had made his own way to re- 
• spectability and competence; was public-spirited and 
generally esteemed. 

Moses Noreis Collins, a native of Brentwood, 
born in April, 1820, completed his law studies in the 
office of Gen. Gilman Marston, and was admitted in 
1857. He had previously, in 1855, represented Brent- 
wood in the General Court. He remained in the 
same office with Gen. Marston, and subsequently 
became his partner. The considerable business of 
the office he managed successfully while Gen. Mars- 

ton was absent in Congress and in the army. In 
1861 and 1862 Mr. Collins wa-s a representative from 
Exeter <o the Legislature, and in the summer of 1863 
he was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the Eleventh 
New Hampshire Volunteers, 'and jiroceeded to the 
.seat of war. He was shot dead in the liattlc of the 
Wilderness, May 6, 1864. 

Gilman Marston is a native of Oxford ; his an- 
cestors lived in Hampton. He took his degree of 
A.B. at Dartmouth College in 1837; the same insti- 
tution conferred the degree of LL.D. upon him in 
1882. He began jiractice in Exeter in 1841. In 
1845, 1846, and 1847 he was a representative of that 
town in the State Legislature, and has been so a 
number of years since. He was a member of the 
36th, 37th, and 39th Congresses of the United States. 
In 1861 he was commissioned colonel of the Sec- 
ond New Hampshire Volunteers, and was severely 
wounded at the battle of Bull Eun. Li 1862 he re- 
ceived the comml.ssion of brigadier-general, and 
served nearly to the close of the war. He is still in 
the practice of the law in ICxeter. 

Hon. William Weir Stickney was born in 
Enfield, N. H., June 24. 1801. He was the son of 
Daniel and Sarah (Morse) Stickney, anil is a de- 
scendant in the sixth generation ot William Stickney, 
the emigrant, who came from Frampton, Lincoln- 
shire, England, about 1637, to Boston, Mass., and 
became one of the first settlers of Rowley, Mass. 
Daniel Stickney was a farmer, a soldier in the Revo- 
lution, enjoyed to a marked extent the confidence 
of the community, and ior years was justice of the 

William W. received his preparatory education for 
college at Kimball Union Academy, and entered 
Dartmouth College in 1819, and was graduated from 
that institution in 1823. He read law with Hon. 
Henry B. Chase, of Warner, N. H., and was ad- 
mitted to the bar at Concord, N. H., in 1826. After 
one year's practice of law in Concord, he removed to 
New Market, N. H., and established himself there as 
an attorney in July, 1827. Here he remained until 
October, 1847, when he moved to Exeter, N. H., and 
engaged in his profession in company with Hon. 
Amos Tuck. This copartnership continued until 
1856. Since then he has been alone in practice. In 
his profession no lawyer could have been more dili- 
gent, attentive, or faithful. During his exceptionally 
long period of practice he has missed attending but 
one term of court, and that was by reason of illness. 

Mr. Stickney has served finir terms as representa- 
tive in the State Legislature, — three from New Market 
(1839, 1840, 1841) and one from Exeter (1854). He 
was appointed United States district attorney for the 
district of New Hampshire by President Taylor, June 
21, 1849, and held that position until the administra- 
tion was changed by the election of Franklin Pierce 
in 1853. In 1857 he was appointed judge of probate 
for Rockingham County, and held that office until 

A-^ z^ 



disqualified by age. He is president of the Bar As- 
sdciatiim of Rockingluim County, and has held that 
po^iiion for a long term of years, being elected Oct. 
1!), IXCd, and is the oldest practicing lawyer in this 
couTity, it not in tiie State. lie has been connected 
with iiiaiiy business enterprises, is now president of 
K.xeter Machine-Works, was chosen director of the 
Granite Bank in 1848, and was continued as such in 
its successor, the National Granite Bank. He has 
l)eeM u member of the Masonic Order since 1829, and 
now holds membership in "Star in the East" Lodge 
in IO.\eter. 

Mr. Stickney married Nov. 5, 18')0, Frances A., 
daui;hter of ("lark llougli, of Lebanon, N. H. Of 
their three ehildren two daughters now survive. 

In private life Judge Stickney is especially charac- 
terized by modest and unassuming manners, strong 
social feeling, and warm friendsliip for a large circle 
of . evdted friends. Li public life he has ever been 
the courter)Us gentlenum to all, and a faithful and 
devoted servant to public interests. As a lawyer he 
is thorough and painstaking, his attainments being 
rather .solid than brilliant, and he is well regarded 
by, and enjoys the esteem of, the members of the bar 
for both ability and thoroughness. In his judicial 
office he was upright and conscientious, just in his 
decisions, and carelul in his investigations. 

Charles Henry Bell' is the son of Governor 
John and Persis (Thom) Bell, and the youngest of a 
family of ten children. He was born Nov. 18, 182.3, 
in Chester, Rockingham Co. After acquiring the 
benefits afforded by the schools of his native town 
he entered the academy at Pembroke, where, and at 
Phillips Exeter Academy, he fitted for college, and 
graduated Irom Dartmouth in 1844. On leaving col- 
lege he commenced the study of law, first with Bell 
& Tuck in Exeter, and subsequently continued with 
his cousin, Hon. Samuel Dana Bell, one of the most 
eminent lawyers in the State, and who for five years 
held the office of chief justice of New Hampshire. 
On his admission to the bar young Bell commenced 
I)ractice in his native town of Chester, but the field 
of labor was far too small for a young man at all 
ambitious, and be began to look about him for an 
opening. He selected Great Falls, where he formed 
a partnership with Nathaniel Wells, a sound law- 
yer and a successlul business man. The firm of 
Wells & Bell enjoyed a fair share of business, which 
was constantly increasing, but after several years' 
practice at the Strafford bar Mr. Bell removed to 
E.\eter. Able lawyers were never scarce in Exe- 
ter, and to most young men the prospects of success 
would have seemed discouraging. As a student Mr. 
Bell had profited largely by association with the best 
lawyers of the time. He entered actively into prac- 
tice, and in 18.')6 he was appointed solicitor of Kock- 
ingham County. For ten years he continued to dis- 

' Oondtnied from a sketch by John TemplMon, In the Granitt itonlU^. 

charge the duties of this office, and to manage a large 
civil business besides. Mr. Bell retired from active 
practice .several years ago. 

Governor Bell first entered politics as a member of 
the House of Representatives at Concord in 1858, 
and in his first term was made chairman of the Ju- 
diciary Committee, an honor that is rarely conferred 
on new members. He was re-elected to the Legisla- 
ture in 18.59, and again in 1860, in .which latter year 
he was chosen Speaker. 

In 1863 and 1864he was elected to the State Senate, 
and during the latter year served as president of that ■ 
body. In 1872 and 1873 he was again chosen to the 
House. Mr. Bell waspresidentof the Republican State 
Convention of 1878, wherehis address proved the key- 
note to a successful campaign. In 1879 he was appointed 
United States senator for the special session of that year 
by Governor Prescott, to take the place of Mr. Wad- 
leigh, whose term of oflSce had expired. He was ad- 
mitted to his seat April 10th, after a long debate on 
the constitutional right of the Governor to make the 

In the Republican State Convention of 1880 the dele- 
gates, with an unanimity never before equaled, selected 
him as their candidate for Governor. Their' oppo- 
nents were preparing for an aggressive campaign with 
a most popular nominee for the Presidency, and their 
prospective candidate for gubernatorial honors was 
regarded as simply invincible. After a canvass prob- 
ably never equaled for thoroughness on both sides, 
Mr. Bell was triumjihantly elected, receiving the 
largest number of votes ever polled for any candidate 
of any party at a New Hampshire State election. 

Governor Bell has devoted much time to historical 
research, and especially to the history of the State 
from its settlement. During the past few years par- 
ticularly there has been no intermission in the as- 
siduity with which he has employed the means of 
cultivating his tastes for literary pursuits. He is the 
author of a "Memoir of John Wheelwright," a work 
that is the only approach to a complete biography of 
this sturdy old Puritan pioneer yet written, the ma- 
terial being collected from every known source of in- 
formation on the subject in this country and England. 
He is also author of "The Wheelwright Deed of 
1629: Was It Spurious?" "Exeter in 1776," and 
"Men and Things of Exeter," besides contributing 
to the current literatureof the State, and having in 
course of i)reparation the " Biographical History of 
the Bench and Bar of New Hampshire." This work 
was undertaken at the request, often repeated, of some 
of the most prominent lawyers in the State. 

In the spring of 1871, Mr. Bell a.ssumed eilitorial 
charge of the Exeter News-I.ettcr, which he retained 
till 1875, about four j'ears. He has (iccupied the 
Grand Master's chair of the Masonic fraternity of 
this State, of which order he is a high member. At 
present he is a trustee of Phillips Exeter Academy. 
For a dozen years or more past he has been pre.sident 



of the New Hampshire Historical Societj', which has 
been instrumental in interesting the public in the 
history of the'State, and has brought to light many 
important facts bearing on this subject. Dartmouth 
College at the commencement in June, 1881, con- 
ferred upon Governor Bell the degree of LL.D. 


William Pickering, a son of William Pickering, 
was born in Greenland, and received his academical 
education at Phillips Exeter Academy and Harvard 
College, from which he graduated in 1797. He pur- 
sued his legal studies in the office of Hon. William 
K. Atkinson, of Dover, and commenced practice in 
his native place. He served for a time as deputy 
Secretary of State, and was in 1816 chosen State 
treasurer, an office which he retained until 1828, and 
again held in 1829. The next year he was appointed 
collector of the United States revenue at Portsmouth, 
and removed to his former home in Greenland. The 
office of collector he resigned in 1833, and continued 
to reside in Greenland until his decease in 1850. 
He also represented that town in the Legislature of 
the State. 

Isaiah P. Moody originated in York, Me., and in 
1820, at the age of fifteen, attended the Phillips 
Academy at Exeter. He took his degree at Bow- 
doin College in 1827, and in 1834 set up practice as 
a lawyer in Hampstead. He appears to have re- 
mained there until about 1841. 

Oliver Whipple practiced law in Hampton from 
about 1794 to 1806. He had previously resided in 
Portsmouth for more than twenty years, and his 
biography more properly belongs to that place. He 
went to Maine after leaving Hampton, and an inter- 
esting account of him is to be found in Willis' "Law 
and Lawyers of Maine." 


Edmund Toppan was the only son of Hon. Chris- 
topher Toppan, a man of note in the history of Hamp- 
ton. He was born Sept. 25, 1777, aud graduated from 
Harvard College in 1796. He studied law under the 
direction of Hon. Theophilus Parsons, then of New- 
buryport, and after a short stay at Portsmouth com- 
menced business in Deerfleld, his father having built 
him a house there and presented him with an ex- 
pensive library. He practiced there till about 1804, 
when his house and library were accidentally de- 
stroyed by fire, and then he returned to his native 
place, and there remained until his death in 1849. 
His business in Hampton was necessarily somewhat 
limited, but he was acceptable to the people, and 
represented the town in the State Legislature. 

Mr. Toppan is said to have possessed by nature 
rather a brilliant than a logical mind. His learning 
in his profession and generally was considerable, he 
spoke readily and gracefully, and his manners were 
courteous and attractive. 


Francis Peter Smith, son of Uev. Isaac Smith, 
was born in Gilmanton, Aug. 22, 1795. He read law 
with Hon. Jeremiah H. Woodman and others, and 
began practice in Boston in 1819. He was in prac- 
tice in Kingston in 1822, and afterwards in Ossipee 
for ten years. He then studied divinity and became 
a clergyman, having settlements successively ii\ New 
Hampshire, Maine, and Vermont. 

John Edward Stanyan was a native of Pem- 
broke ; the time of his birth was May 17. 1816. For 
two years or more after his graduation from Dart- 
mouth College in 1840 he was preceptor of an acad- 
emy, and then studied law. He practiced at Pem- 
broke, Epping, and Kingston, in this State, and at 
Haverhill and Ashby, in Massachusetts. He was 
emphatically a rolling stone, and though a man of 
no little ability, was too irregular and erratic to ac- 
quire and retain the respect of those whose good 
opinion is of value. 

William Colcord Patten was a Kingston man 
by birth, education, and residence. He was gifted by 
nature with superior powers of mind and a fine and 
pleasing address. He began life as a teacher and land 
surveyor, but gradually acquired a taste for the law, 
and prepared himself for its practice. His aptitude 
for political life gave him rather a remarkable succes- 
sion of official positions. He was a representative 
in the Legislature of 1857, State senator in 1861 and 
1862, councilor in 1867 and 1868, and again repre- 
sentative in 1871 and 1872. He died in January, 
1873, at the age of aliout fifty years. 

Mr. Patten entered upon the practice of the law 
rather late in life, but from his experience brought 
with him much acquaintance with practical affairs and 
knowledge of human nature. His business was con- 
ducted with promptness and sagacity, and he acquired 
much credit as a practitioner. His ambition ran much 
in the line of politics, where his popularity was such 
that he was repeatedly elected to office by his towns- 
men when the majority was clearly against his party. 
Had he lived, there was every reason for believing that 
he would have achieved higher political honors. 

His death was sudden, and, occurring while he was 
in the prime of life and apparently of sound constitu- 
tion, caused a severe shock to the community. 


John Prentice, born in Cambridge, Mass., and a 
graduate of Harvard College in 1767, read law with 
Hon. Samuel Livermore, and established himself in 
business in Londonderry, having purchased the place 
where his instructor lived, and erected a large man- 
sion thereon. His wife brought him a handsome 
dowry, and he was thus enabled to live through the 
period of the Revolution when the law business was 
at a standstill. Having been an " addresser of Hutch- 
inson" in Massachusetts, he was not intrusted with 
public business by the friends of liberty, though at 



their instance or insistance lie published a complete 
recantation of his "loyal" sentiments, both in that 
colony and in New Hampshire. 

lint upon the return of ]H'afe and the revival of 
ordinary business Jlr. Prentice began to receive a fair 
share of jirofessional employment. lie was by no 
means a learned lawyer ; he was not a student, and 
his professional library hardly contained fifty vol- 
umes ; yet in those times an accurate knowledge of 
the law was perhaps less valuable to the practitioner, 
pecuniarily at least, than practical sense and abundant 
self-confidence. In these qualities Mr. Prentice must 
have excelled, for he occupied for a considerable 
period some of the highest positions in the State, and 
conducted a large and lucrative law practice besides. 

In 1785 he was elected a representative to the State 
Legislature, and was often re-elected. In 1787 he 
received the appointment of attorney-general of the 
State, and held the office until 1793. The next year 
he was chosen Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives. In 1798 he was appointed a justice of the 
Superior Court, but, perhaps conscious that his quali- 
fications were hardly equal to the position, he declined 
it. The .same year he was elected Speaker of the 
House, and was annually replaced in that position 
until 1805. While holding that place he was sup- 
ported by his party for election to the Senate of the 
United States, but failed to receive the honor. 

Mr. Prentice had many of the qualities needed for 
a lawyer of eminence. With more application and 
taste for the learning of his profession, he would 
have led in important causes where he hesitated to 
trust his own knowledge and judgment, and would 
have avoided many of the obstacles which beset his 
path. But he had an aversion to the use of the pen, 
and no inclination for book-learning so long as he 
found that his native powers enabled him to sustain 
himself respectably. He was fonder of his farm than 
of his office, and prided himself much on its products. 
It is a remarkable circumstance that the place where 
he lived was the home of Hons. Samuel Livermore, 
Arthur Livermore, and Charles Doe, an extraordinary 
succession of men prominent in the judicial annals 
of New Hampshire. 

Mr. Prentice died May 18, 1808. 

Gkokge Reid was a son of Col. George Reid, of 
the Revolution, born at Londonderry, Jan. 29, 1774, 
and educated at Dartmouth College, graduating in 
1797. He studied law, and opened an office in his 
native town, but removed two years afterwards into 
Massachusetts. He died in Boston at the age of 

FitEHERiCK P.\RKEK was a native of Bedford, who 
graduated from Dartmouth College in 1828, and after 
the usual period of study of the law established him- 
self, about 1832, in Londonderry, but in a year or 
two removed to Bangor, where it is understood that 
he became a teacher, and died May 19, 1834, at the 
age of thirty-four years. 


Ei)W.\Ri) P.\RSON'.s, a son of Rev. Joseph Parsons, 
of Bradford, Mass., was born in 1747, and received a 
collegiate education. He had commenced the prac- 
tice of the law in Newmarket as early as 1773. He 
was a member from that town of the Provincial 
Convention which met at Exeter May 17, 1775, and 
afterwards became adjutant of Gen. Enoch Poor's regi- 
ment in the Continental army. He died at Ticon- 
deroga, it is believed, in 177G. 

Nathaniel Huntoon was a native of Salisbury, 
and studied his profession with Hon. Samuel Greene. 
About 1802 he started in life at Portsmouth, and 
after remaining there about twelve years changed his 
residence to Newmarket. But he did not live long 
enough to accomplish much there, for he died about 

Amos A. Parker is still living in Glastonbury, 
Conn., at an advanced age. He is a son of Hon.Nahum 
Parker, of Fitzwilliam, and is a graduate of Vermont 
University in the class of 1815. He has led a varied 
and active life. He was settled as a lawyer for a 
time in Epping, then at Newmarket, afterwards at 
Kingston, and finally in his native towii. For a year 
or two he resided in Exeter also. From 1823 to 1825 
he was the proprietor of the New ffampMre States- 
man at Concord. In 1835 he went on a tour to the 
West and Texas, and the next year published an ac- 
count of his trip in a duodecimo volume, which ran 
through two editions. Within a few years he has is- 
sued a volume of poems, and a thick pamphlet of 
reminiscences of Lafayette's visit to New Hampshire 
in 1824. 

William Tenney was the son of Capt. William 
Tenney, of Hollis, and born Sept. 13, 1785. He at- 
tended the law school at Litchfield, Conn., and was 
admitted to the bar in Boston in 1811. He first 
practiced in Pepperell. Mass., then in Salem, N. H., 
and came to Newmarket in 1815, where he spent the 
remainder of his days. He is said to have been much 
interested in political matters, and to have been more 
ambitious for preferment in that line than for pro- 
fessional advancement. In 182^ he was assistant 
clerk of the Senate, and in 1829 he received the com- 
mission of postmaster of the Lamprey River village. 
He died in 1838. 

Gilbert A. Graxt, who came from New York, 
practiced law in Newmarket three or four years, 
beginning about 1843. He was able, quaint, and 
entertaining, and might probably have acquired 
eminence in his profession had he remained longer 
here. He was afterwards in New York, and it is 
believed in California. 

William B. Small was a native of Limington, 
Me., and was born May 17, 1817. While he was a 
child his father removed to Ossipee, in this State, 
where William passed his youth. He was a pupil of 
Phillips Exeter Academy, and a student-atlaw in the 
office of Messrs. Bell and Tuck, at Exeter. During 



his education he taught school to eke out his narrow 
means, and showed himself to be diligent, capable, 
and independent. He commenced practice in New- 
market in 1846, and soon acquired a good position at 
the bar. 

In 1866 he was appointed solicitor of the county 
of Rockingham, and was again placed in the same 
position in 1875, holding the office up to the time of 
his decease. 

In 1870 he was elected a member of the State 
Senate, and while such received the nomination of 
representative to Congress, to which he was chosen 
in 1873. 

Mr. Small had little taste for political life, but 
loved his profession, and devoted himself to its study 
and practice. He wa-s industrious, studious, and per- 
sistent, regarding his clients' interest far above his 
own convenience or comfort. His character for 
hone.sty and perfect uprightness was never questioned. 
He prepared his causes with conscientious care, and 
tried them ably and vigorously, and took a high rank 
as a counselor and an advocate. His death, while in 
the full tide of his usefulness and power, was re- 
garded as a real loss to the community. He died 
from the effects of a fall, April 7, 1878. 


Abraham B. Story, born in Dunbarton, March 
22, 1777, was the son of David Story, and graduated 
at Brown College in 1799. He studied his profession 
with Hon. Charles H. Atherton, of Amherst, and 
practiced in 1802 and 1803 in Northwood, but then 
removed to Washington, where he lived till about 
1830, in which year he died, in his native place. 

Nathaniel Dearborx was a native of Chester, 
a son of Deacon John Dearborn. He completed his 
legal studies with Hon. George Sullivan, and set up 
in practice in Pembroke in 1806, remaining there till 
about 1820, when he migrated to Deerfield, and after- 
wards in 1831 to Northwood, where he lived ever 
after. He died Sept. 12, 1860. He was an honest, 
painstaking man of fair abilities. 


Silas Betton, a son of James Betton, born at 
Windham, and a graduate of Dartmouth College in 
the class of 1787, was admitted to the bar in 1793 and 
settled in Salem. That town was represented by 
him in the General Court in the years 1797, 1798, 
and 1799, and in 1810 and 1811. In the years 1800, 
1801, and 1802 he was a member of the Senate. In 
1803 he was elected a representative in Congress, and 
served two terms. In 1813 he received the appoint- 
ment of sheriff of the county of Rockingham, which 
he held until 1818. He died Jan. 22, 1822, at the age 
of fifty-eight years. 

Mr. Betton married a daughter of Hon. Matthew 
Thornton, one of New Hampshire's three signers of 
the Declaration of Independence. He was a man of 

handsome talents, and much esteemed in the- com- 
munity. He was gifted with some literary taste; 
many of the poems of Robert Dinsmore, the " Rustic 
Bard," were addressed to Mr. Betton, and some poet- 
ical epistles of his own composition were included in 
the volume of Dinsraore's published pieces. 

David Woodburn Dickey was b'orn in London- 
derry, Dec. 25, 1792, and educated at Dartmouth Col- 
lege, graduating in 1818. He entered upon the prac- 
tice of law in Londonderry about 1821, and remained 
there until 1833, when he removed to Salem, where 
he died Jan. 26, 1837. 


Ebenezer French was born in Newton, April 
10, 1802. He graduated at Dartmouth College in 
1824, studied his profession with Hon. Daniel French, 
of Chester, commenced practice in Sutton in 1827, 
removed to Seabrook in 1828, and there continued 
about twelve years. Thence he went to Amesbury 
and to Boston, and served in the custom-house eight 
years, and subsequently emigrated to the West. 

LsAAC McG.iW originated in Merrimac, his father's 
name being Jacob, as was that of an older brother, 
who was a lawyer of distinction in Maine. Isaac was 
born May 25, 1785, and completed his college course 
at Dartmouth in 1807. He opened his law-office first 
in Bedford, where he continued from about 1811 to 
1818, and then took up his residence in Windham. 
There he was chosen a representative in the Legisla- 
tures of 1829 to 1833, inclusive, and of 1838. After 
a long period of respectable practice in his profession 
he removed to Merrimac, and passed his last years 
with his son-ill-law, Edward P. Parker, Esq., and 
there he died Nov. 6, 1863. 

William Merchant Richardson was born in 
Pelham, Jan. 4, 1774, and died in Chester, March 23, 
1838. He was a graduate of Harvard College in 1797. 
His father was Capt. Daniel Richardson, a soldier of 
the Revolution and a farmer, and WTlliam would 
probably have been brought up to the same employ- 
ment but for an injury received to one of his hands, 
which incapacitated him for severe manual labor. 
After leaving college he was employed for a time as 
preceptor of Groton, Mass., Academy, and afterwards 
entered the office of Hon. Samuel Dana there as a 
student-at-law. On being admitted to practice he 
settled in the same town. In 1811 he was chosen 
representative in Congress, and two years after re- 
ceived a re-election. But political life was little to 
his taste, and in 1814 he resigned his seat and removed 
to Portsmouth, N. H., and opened an office. 

He was at once jecognized as a leading lawyer, and 
upon the reorganization of the courts in 1816 was 
appointed chief justice of the Superior Court. The 
propriety and excellence of the appointment were at 
once admitted, and never questioned during the 
twenty-two years of his service on the bench. Through 



his agency the publication of the series of judicial re- 
jiorts of New Hampshire was begun. He contributed 
vory liirjrely to many of the volumes, and hisopinion.s 
have always been regarded as admirable in style and 
of high authority. 

His professional learning was first-rate, his percep- 
tions were rapid, and his honesty and fairness above 
suspicion. By reason of his quickness of apprehen- 
sion, he was sometimes charged with jumping to con- 
clusions, but he had none of the pride <if o|)inion 
\>-hieh closes the mind to argument, and was always 
ready, for cause shown, to retract a hasty impression. 

In 181!), .Tudge Richardson changed his residence 
pcriHaruntly to Chester. He was a good citizen, 
kind ami public-spirited, and was greatly esteemed 
by his townsmen. His intellectual powers were 
highly cultivated. He was a great reader both in 
his own and in other tongues. He acquired several 
of the modern European languages after his accession 
to the bench, and the Spanish very late in life. Bot- 
any and mineralogy too he made himself master of in 
theory and by practice. He had always a taste for 
poetry. His graduation part at college was the Eng- 
lish poem, and throughout his life he was accustomed 
to throw oft" poetical eflTusions, some of them of much 
merit. Dartmouth College conferred upon him the 
degree of LL.D. in 1827. 

New Hampshire has been fortunate in having se- 
cured for her highest judicatory a succession of chief 
justices of extraordinary learning, ability, and integ- 
rity, and among these Judge Richardson holds no 
secondary place. 

The following is a list of the present members of 
the bar : 

Danville. — O. H. Key. 

Derry.—G. C. Bartlett. 

JS'jreier.— Governor Charles H. Bell, W. W. Stick- 
ney, Thomas Leavitt, J. F. Wiggin, Oilman Marston, 
J. Warren Towle, A. C. Buzell, E. G. Eastman, 
Fred. S. Hatch, C. H. Knight, A. 0. Fuller, and \V. 
C. Harrinian. 

Greenland. — C. W. Pickering. 

Hampton. Lamprey. 

Kingston. — L. G. Hoyt. 

New Market.— A. L. Mellows, C. H. Smith, I. T. 
George, and E. A. Keep. 

Plaistow.—\\. H. Hills and C. C. Cheney. 

Portsmouth.— \V. H. Rollins, J. S. H. Frink, Wil- 
liam H. Hackett, A. F. Howard, Calvin Page, G. E. 
Hodgdon, H. Call, C. E. Batchelder, John Hatch, 
and Wallace Hackett. 

The senior members of the bar of this county have 
many of them made up their records; those still left 
are soon to follow, and the juniors are to assume 
their places at the bar and on the bench ; to them will 
soon be committed these great responsible trusts. 
The perpetuity of our free institutions is committed 
to the guardianship and keeping of the bar and judi- 
ciarv of our free, countrv, for the historv of the world 

teaches, and all free governments illustrate, this truth, 
that to the profession of the" law civil government is 
indebted for all the safeguards and intrenchments 
with which the liberties of the people are i>rotected, 
that legislation is shaped. Constitutions enlarged, 
amended, and adopted by the enlightened adminis- 
tration of the statesman, both of England and the 
United States, who have been in both, and are in all 
free governments, educated for the bar, and, ascend- 
ing by the inherent force of their disciplined pro- 
fessional life, they become the directors of the desti- 
nies of States and nations. 

Military chieftains may spring into ]iowcr, tyrants 
may for the hour dazzle with the glamour of military 
parade, the pomp of war, an oppressed and frenzied 
people, but they turn as the cannonade dies away to 
the statesmanship of the country, and call to the 
Parliaments and congressional halls for final debate 
the arbitraments of the liberties of the people. From 
the days of King John to the present hour the bar 
and the bench have furnished the statesmen who have 
erected the bulwarks of constitutional law, and ex- 
torted from tyrants the iVIagna Chartas which have 
secured to the oppressed the guarantee of free insti- 
tutions. Imbued with the historical traditions of 
their predecessors, and tracing the paths they have 
trod, emulating their good example, it should become 
more and more the resolute purpose of the Rocking- 
ham County bar to so \valk in the light of their pro- 
fessional teachings that when they are called to follow 
them to that upper court and file their judgment- 
roll of the great trial of life with that Supreme Judge 
from whose bar they can take no appeal, — 

" Tlien go not like quiirry.slave at uigbt 
Scourged to bis dungeon, but, sustained and sootbed 
B.v an uiifalterrd trust, approach tby grave 
Like one who wraps tlie drapery of his couch 
About him aud lies down to pleasaut dreams.^* 



Railroads: The Eastern— The Portmnouth aud Dover— Tlio Portsmouth, 
Great Falls and Cunwa}'- The Concord aud Portsmouth— The Port- 
land, Saco aud Portsmouth— The Nashua and Rochester— Tlie Port- 
land aud Bichester— The Boston and Maine— The Dover and Winni- 
piseogee — The Manchester and Lawrence. 

Previous to the establishment of the county farm 
system, the selectmen or overseers of poor of each 
town had charge of all persons needing assistance. 
At various times the Legislature enacted laws which 
largely increased the number cbussed as county poor. 
The system of allowing each town to care for the 
poor within its limits led to some evils, was expen- 
sive, and made it necessary to locate buildings at some 
central point iu each county where this large class of 

1 Coutributed by Newton Johnston, Esq. 



unfortunates eould be better provided for. The 
county convention at its? session in the month of 
June, 1868, authorized the purchase of a farm and 
the erection of suitable buildings to accomodate two 
hundred and fifty inmates. The authority to pur- 
chase said farm was committed to a joint board con- 
sisting of a building committee, — John R. Reding, of 
Portsmouth ; W. H. Robinson, of Exeter ; H. P. 
Hood, of Derry ; and I. L. Robinson, of Fremont, — 
selected by the convention, and the commissioners, 
James C. Brown, John J. Leavitt, and Abbott Norris, 
who finally selected the Thyng farm, so called, in the 
town of Brentwood. The farm contains about one 
hundred and sixty acres, and is situated two and one- 
half miles from Epping depot, on the Concord and 
Portsmouth Railroad. The Nashua and Rochester 
Railroad now connects at said depot. * 

The first cost of the Thyng farm was S6500, in- 
cluding thirty acres adjoining land. The total first 
cost of the almshouse was 819,632. 

The following year a building for the insane and a 
large barn were added at an expense of $9487. The 
same year the county convention authorized the com- 
missioners to purchase woodland and pasture, and 
the farm of D. W. Ladd was bought, one hundred 
and sixty acres, for $4500. In 1873 additional build- 
ings for storage were constructed, costing §2500. In 

1874 boiler-house, laundry, etc., costing S81.50. In 

1875 House of Correction and work-shops, costing 
$12,000. In 1876 new brick asylum for insane, costing 

The farm when purchased wa? in a poor state of 
cultivation, as but little had been done except to cut 
the h.ay for many years, which averaged about fifteen 
tons per year. The yearly crops now are one hun- 
dred tons of hay, with other crops of equal proportions. 

The crops of the farm for the year 1881 are esti- 
mated as follows : 

Hay 100 tons. 

Corn fodder 5 " 

Straw 30 '■ 

Potatoes 2,500 bu.shel8. 

Peas (iij pod) / 50 " 

Oats 620 " 

Eye 30 " 

Beans 50 " 

Tomatoes 40 " 

Cucumbers 25 " 

Cider .\pples 100 " 

Corn 50U " 

Turnips , 18,000 pounds. 

Beets (table) 6,00(1 pound 

Beets (cattlo) 21,600 " 

Carrots :l,7oO 

Onions 9,360 " 

Pumpliins 6,000 " 

Melons , 1,200 " 

Beef 2,500 " 

Pork 8,000 " 

Butler 2,500 " 

Lard 1,250 " 

Piunnips 2,500 " 

Cabbage 60 dozen. 

Eggs 1,000 " 

Average number of inmates for the years from 1871 
to 1881, inclusive, has been 185. This includes in- 
sane, poor, children, idiotic, blind, and prisoners. 

The farm constitutes a school district in itself, and 
three terms of school are taught yearly. There is 
also a chapel-room, provided with organ, etc., for 
services on the Sabbath. Children of sound mind 
and without parents or friends are furnished with 
good homes by the commissioners. The house is 
heated by steam ; comfortable rooms, clothing, and 
good and abundant food is furnished to all, and few, 
if any, of the inmates ever enjoyed a better home. 
The average weekly cost for each inmate for the year 

ending May 1, 1882, was one dollar and ninety-five 
cents. This includes all running expenses of the 
farm, with food, clothing, medical attendance, nurs- 
ing, etc. The farm is under the care of the county 
commissioners, who are now elected biennially in 
September at each State election. They appoint a 
superintendent and all necessary officers and help. 
The first superintendent, William L. Philbrjck, of 
Portsmouth, was appointed 1869, resigned in 1871, 
and was followed by Frank D. Pollard, of Plaistow, 
who resigned in 1878, and was followed by Haven L. 
Scott, of Portsmouth, who retained the position till 
his death in December, 1881. His wife, Nancy M. 
Scott, continued in charge till the end of the year, 
May 1, 1882, when she resigned, and Gayton O. Rey- 
nolds, of Derry, was appointed. The farm always has 
an abundant supply of water drawn by steam-pump 
and two wind-mills. The house is supplied with fire- 
escapes; also three fire-extinguishers and a hydrant 
to the roof of the house, with plenty of hose in case 
of fire. Twice fire has been subdued, the first time 
in the men's wing, and second in the women's, each 
time with but slight damage. 

The county debt. May 1, 1873, was $141,050; in 
1882 it was $30,276.22. 

Cou.NTy Commissioners. 
1856, William C. Patten, William S. Hadley, Portsmouth; Josiah W. 
'James, Deerfield ; 1869, Isiac Woodbury; 1860, Franklin Crombie ; 
1861, Horace P. Walls ; 186>, John Hudgdon (2d), Portsmouth ; 1863, 
John J. Leavitt; 1864. Caleb Moulton ; 1865, John Rowe, Candia; 
1866, James C. Brown, Portsmoutli ; 1867, John J. Leavitt ; 1868, 
Abbott Norris; 1869, William S. Pillsbury; 1870, John W. F. Hobbs, 
North Hampton ; 1871, Frank D. Pollard, Plaistow ; 1872, Frank W. 
Miller, Portsmouth; 1873, Woodbury M. Durgin, Northwood; 1874, 
Nathaniel H, Brown, Derry; 1875, Frank P. Cram, Hampton Falls; 
1876, Sewall D, Tilton, Raymond; 1877, Newton Johnston, Ports- 
mouth ; 1S7S, Frank P. Cram, Hampton Falls ; 1879, Newton John- 
ston, Portsmouth ; Wells C. Underbill, Auburn; Joseph C. Burley, 
Epping; 1881, Newton Johnston, Portsmouth; Joseph C. Burley, 
Epping; Wells C. Underhill, Auburn. 

The Eastern Railroad enters the county at Ports- 
moutli, and i)ass(.'s through Portsmouth, Greenland, 
North Hampton, Hampton, and Seabrook. 

The road was chartered June 18, 1836, and was 
opened Nov. 9, 1840, and leased to the Eastern Rail- 
road Company of Massachusetts for a term of ninety- 
nine years, at a rental which was to equal the divi- 
dends paid on the stock of the lessee. The latter 
failing to pay dividends in 1873, the rental was finally 
changed, Oct. 1, 1878, to $22,.500, which is a trifle 
over 4.5 per cent, on the cost of the road as repre- 
sented by the capital stock (8492,500) of the company. 
Cost of road, $49,090.18 per mile. This road, which 
was chartered as the " Eastern Railroad in New 
Hampshire," forms a portion of the Eastern Railroad, 
which extends from Boston, Mass., to Portland, Me. 
Moody Currier, of Manchester, president ; and E. A. 
Abbott, of Boston, treasurer. 

The Portsmouth and Dover Railroad extends 
from Portsmouth, N. H., to Dover, N. H., and was 
chartered July 7, 1866. It was opened Feb. 1, 1872, 



and leased on its completion to the Eastern Railroad 
of Massachusetts for a period of fifty years, at an 
annual rental of six per cent, on !ii7G'.l,00(), the cost 
of the road, represented by a corres|)onding amount 
of stock. Length of road, 10.88 miles ; sidings, etc., 
1.0i> miles. Frank Jones, of Portsmouth, president; 
and G. L. Tri'iidwi'll, of I'lirtsmouth, treasurer. 

Portsmouth, Great Falls and Conway Railroad 
is a eonsdlichition of the (freat Falls and Uonway; 
chartered .Tune 19, 1844; opened from Great Falls 
to Union village in 1850, and the Great Falls and 
South Berwick chartered .Tune 8, 1848 ; opened in 
July, 18.")4. The line to Conway was built by the 
consolidated company, and completed June 3, 1872. 
It was leased in 1871 to the Eastern Railroad for 
sixty years. Oct. 1, 1878, a new lease for sixty years 
was made. The road extends from Conway Junction 
to North Conway.' I I^ength of road, including sidings 
and other tracks, 6.611 miles. E. B. Phillips, presi- 
dent ; and N. G. Chapin, treasurer; both of Boston. 

The Concord and Portsmouth Railroad, extend- 
ing from Portsmouth to Concord, was chartered July 
1, 184.5, and was opened in 18.52. In 1859 it was 
leased for ninety-nine years to the Concord Railroad 
Company at an annual rental of 7 per cent, on 
$350,000 of stock, with $500 for support of organiza- 
tion. Annual rental $25,000. Stephen Kendrick, 
president, and bloody Currier, treasurer. 

The Portland, Saco and Portsmouth Railroad 
extends from Portsmouth, N. H., to Portland, Me., 
a distance of 50.76 miles, and forms a portion of the 
Eastern Railroad. It was chartered in 1837, and 
opened Nov. 21, 1842. It was leased in perpetuity to 
the Eastern Railroad. E. B. Phillips, president, and 
N. G. Chapin, treasurer. 

The Nashua and Rochester Railroad extends 
from Nashua, N. H., to Rochester, N. H., a distance 
of 48.39 miles. This road was chartered July 5, 1867, 
and opened Nov. 24, 1874. In 1872 it was leased to 
the Worcester and Nashua Railroad Company for 
fifty years. F. H. Kinnicutt, of Worcester, Mass., 
president, and T. W. Hammond, of the same city, 

The Portland and Rochester Railroad extends 
from Portland, Me., to Rochester, N. H., a distance 
of 52.5 miles. It was chartered as the York and 
Cumberland Railroad Company July 20, 1846, and 
opened to Saco River, eighteen miles, in February, 
1853, and to Rochester in July, 1871. George P. 
Westcott, of Portland, Me., president; and W. H. 
Conant, of Pcirtland, treasurer and secretary. 

The Boston and Maine Railroad extends from 
Boston to Portland, Me., a distance of 115.50 miles. 
It is a consolidation of the Boston and Portland, 
chartered March 15, 1833; the Boston and Maine, 
chartered June 27, 1835; and the Maine, New Hamp- 
shire and Massachusetts, chartered March 12, 1839. 
The joad was opened from Wilmington, Mass., to 
South Berwick, Me., Feb. 23, 1843. Between Wil- 

mington and Boston the Boston and Lowell Railroad 
was used until July 4, 1845, when an independent 
line was opened.- The northern branch was com- 
pleted in 1849, and since its opening has formed the 
connecting link between the Manchester and Law- 
rence, to which it was leased, and the Boston and 
Maine Railroads. The extension to Portland, Me., 
was opened Feb. 15, 1873. The road has a branch 
from Rollinsford to Great Falls, and also one from 
Newton Junction to Merrimack. Nathaniel G. White, 
president, Boston; ,\mos Blanchard, treasurer, Bos- 
ton ; and .Tames Furbur, superintendi-Mt, Boston. 

The Dover and Winnipiseogee Railroad extends 
from Dover, N. H., to Alton Bay, N. H., a distance 
of twenty-nine miles. It was chartered as the Co- 
checo Railroad in 1847, and opened in 1857. It was 
reorganized under its present name July 1, 1862. It 
has been leased for fifty years to the Boston and 
Maine. William Dale, president, and George W. 
Berns, treasurer. A branch of the Boston and Maine 
extends from Rollinsford to Great Falls, and also a 
branch from Newton Junction to Merrimack. 

The Manchester and Lawrence Railroad jjasses 
through the southwestern part of the county. It was 
chartered June 3, 1847, and opened Nov. 13, 1849. 
B. F. Martin, president, and George B. Chandler, 



MotiTes of the Colonists— Early Voyagers — Joho Smith — The Piscataqua 
— Thomson's Settlement at Little Harhor — Mason and the Laconia 

Several reasons may be assigned for persons leav- 
ing the comfort, order, luxury, and associations of an 
old land and an old home. There is in every com- 
munity a class of adventurers of the type of John 
Smith, men fond of the excitement of travel, of 
novelty, ready to undertake any strange enterprise for 
the sake of the hazard, for exploration, for science, 
for notoriety, for profit, or for curiosity. Thfe wild- 
ness of the new is more inviting than the regularity 
of the old. In all old and wealthy States there is a . 
large idass of persons, representatives of families of 
past prominence or departed splendor or dilapidated 
fortunes, who in a new place can nuvintain a position 
on cheaper terms, or follow with an easy grace em- 
ployments they would not undertake where they are 
known, or more sons than can be placed iu the ances- 
tral neighborhood, or sons of wealth for whom many 
reasons conspire to make it better to seek situations 
elsewhere, as on the continent one constantly meets 
with English who in humble places or at low rates 
keep up an appearance of respectability they could 
not have at home, and as many from New England 
begin life at the West. The social barriers which 

■ By James De No 

ndie. Minister of the South Parish. 



other lands have made impassable are by the Amer- 
ican idea entirely effaced by putting a few miles be- 
tween our birth and our activity. " My son, you 
know," said a poor woman, " would never be anything 
in Portsmouth, but in Salem he is just as good as any- 
body." An old writer says, "If without ofiense it 
may be spoken, the multitude of patents granted to 
several gentlemen of broken fortunes hath provided 
an honorable exile or confinement, whither many de- 
serving persons of better education than fortune were 
sent to shift for themselves in a foreign land without 
being further troublesome to those nearer home, on 
whom they had their hopes and dependence; yet it 
must not be denied but that some of the undertakers 
were at vast expenses, casting their bread upon these 
waters, where none of their friends and relatives have 
as yet had opportunity to find it." And this class of 
far-seeing, shrew.d business men is always ready to 
send others or embark itself, and to bear any danger, 
delay, or loss in any enterprise which promises satis- 
factory returns, and especially questions of govern- 
ment and religion, of persecution and freedom, make 
it grateful for many to endure any hardships or aban- 
don any associations for a free rule and a broader 
liberty of worship. It is difficult to analyze all the 
motives which enter into colonization ; perhaps all we 
have named do in some degree with every settlement, 
nevertheless each has its prominent characteristics 
easy to be traced; in the Plymouth Colony the pre- 
vailing idea at firslwas religious liberty ./'«;• i!/jemse/yes, 
not for anybody else ; in the Piscataqua Colony it was 
the s[)irit of mercantile enterprise. 

Early Voyagers. — -This spirit of enterprise, which 
in the seventeenth century was so active in the 
French, English, Spanish, and Portuguese, making 
them vie with each other in the establishment of col- 
onies, the exploration of these western lands, and the 
discovery of new sources of wealth, must have sent per- 
sons to this part of the coast as early as 1602. At that 
time there was no European family along the line of 
the sea from Florida to Greenland. Foremost among 
the meii thus filled with schemes for visiting and set- 
tling and owning the New World, and gaining there- 
from fame or wealth, was Sir Walter Raleigh, the 
scholar, author, courtier, and adventurer. Among 
the men who had been interested with him in the 
discovery of Virginia was one Bartholomew Gosnold, 
who, in March, 1602, sailed for America, sighted the 
Maine coast and gave the name to Cape Cod. The voy- 
agers were enraptured with the landscape, and one of 
them wrote after their return : " We stood awhile rav- 
ished at the beautie and delicacy of the sweetnesse, 
besides divers clear lakes whereof we saw no end, and 
meadows very large and full of greene grasse." Each 
voyage, whether successful or a failure, only aroused 
others, such is the fascination df a new and unexplored 
realm. The citj' of Bristol, England, was at that 
time foremost in all maritime adventures. Sebastian 
Cabot was a Bristol boy ; a Bristol ship first touched 

our coast, and a Bristol ship first sailed up our noble 
river. In the spring of 1603 the city government and 
some merchants of Bristol, led thereto chiefly by a 
clergyman of that city, Richard Haklnyt, fitted out 
an expedition for trading and the further discovery of 
that part of this continent which, in ignorance of its 
extent and the uncertain limits of charters, was. called 
North Virginia. The fleet consisted of a ship of 
fifty tons with thirty men and boys, and a bark of 
twenty-six tons with thirteen men and a boy, under 
the command of Martin Pring, and with a pilot who 
bad been on the voyage the year before. They set 
sail from King Road, the anchoring ground, eight 
miles from Bristol, in March, 1603, and in June drew 
near to our coast, entered our harbor, and wrote of 
the " goodly groves and woods" along the banks of 
our river. 

John Smith. — By 1614 the knowledge of our coast 
had grown more definite, and colonization began to 
assume larger and more permanent directions. The 
zeal for sudden wealth from the riches of mines led to 
a hasty occupation of the South, of Peru and Mexico 
by the Spaniards and Portuguese, but the English and 
French came with a tardier pace to the fur and fishing 
trade of the North, and yet found, as we have found in 
California, that the vineyards and pasture lands and 
husbandry are a surer and greater source of wealth 
than mines of gold or fields of diamonds. In March 
of this year the remarkable adventurer, John Smith, 
sailed for North Virginia, seeking a mine of gold and 
copper, or, failing in that, to fish and trade. He 
named the shoals which had previously been sighted 
and described Smith's Islands, spoke of our river, and 
on his return drew a quaint map of the coast and 
wrote a history of his voyages, and left it for Prince 
Charles to christen the new realm, so that in 1614 first 
appears the name of New Enyland. 

The Piscataqua. — -It cannot but be interesting to 
notice the praises which the Piscataqua has called 
forth from the early voyagers and historians. One 
says " that westernmost and best river ;" another, " the 
safe harbor and rocky shore of the Piscataqua;" 
another, " that famous, brave, and navigable river of 
note, which has been frequented ever since the coun- 
try was first planted, whose channel is very swift and 
spacious, fit for vessels of great burden." And in an 
old deed, dated 1671, there is a will of one of the early 
merchants which runs thus: "I, Richard Cutt, for 
y' love I bear unto W" Vaughan, I do give unto him 
my stone warehouse, situate at Strawberry Bank and 
fronting upon the Greate River Piscataqua." And 
the truest poet of Portsmouth writes : 

Like an azure veiu from the heart of tlie main, . 

Pulsing with joy forever, 
By vertluous isles, with dimpled smiles, 

Floweth my native river. 

Singing a song as it flows along, 

Hushed by the ice-king never ; 
For he strives in vain to clasp a chain 

O'er thy fetterless heart, brave river ! 

yffl. Pfiarasi .ji©raEs 



SiUfEing tu one ns full nnd frco 

As It sang to the (tiiHky Jiiugliters, 
Whoii tho light catioe liUo n boh hinl rtow 

Over its peaceful wattus. 

Thomson's Settlement at Little Harbor.— In 

H'tS.', this spirit 1)1' i!iilLM-|)rise took for us ;i luofe deft- 
iiite I'onn, and with results reaching to the present 
ilay'. Among a council of forty noblemen, knights, 
ii-nil gentlemen, to whom King .laines granted a charter 
for the " planting, ruling, ordering, and governing of 
New England in America," we find two persons con- 
spicuous in energy and adventure, Sir Ferdinand 
Gorges and Capt. John Mason. Gorges was an officer 
of the English navy, intimate with Raleigh, and 
sharing his daring spirit. He had learned from some 
Indians many particulars of this part of the country, 
it.s rivers, harbors, islands, fisheries, and products; 
his enthusiasm to found a colony was not abated by 
many successive misfortunes, and his faith in its final 
success never died out. " I doubt not," he writes, 
"it will prove a very flourishing place, and be replen- 
ished with many fine homes and cities, it being a 
province both fruitful and pleasant." Mason was a 
London merchant, some time Governor of Newfound- 
land, where he learned in a general and indefinite 
way of these parts, and became as enthusiastic as 
Gorges to plant a colony, an enthusiasm which ap- 
pears never to have left him amidst all the discour- 
agements and difficulties which beset his attempts. 
He was also Governor of Portsmouth, in Hampshire, 

Mason and the Laconia Patent. — The tradition 
that the first settlement at the Piscataqua was owing 
to the efforts of Gorges and Mason, or to the Laconia 
Company, of which they were members, has no found- 
ation. From " An Indenture of David Thomson," re- 
cently discovered among the papers of Hon. Robert 
C. Winthrop, with careful " Notes" in explanation by 
Mr. Charles Deane, of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, many of the doubts and uncertain dates 
and confused traditions are dispelled, and it appears 
tliat David Thomson and three merchants of Ply- 
mouth entered into an agreement, in pursuance of 
■ wliicli Thomson came over in the ship "Jonathan" 
in the spring of lt)23, and settled at "Little Harbor," 
a name whitli first appears in 1655, on the west side 
of the Piscataqua. 

These three merchants were Abraham Colmer, 
Nicholas Shervvill, and Leonard Pomerie, and with 
Thomson they were to contribute to the expenses and 
to share the profits. It is provi<led in the partner- 
ship that the colony "shall and will use their best 
endeavors (by the direction of said David Thomson), 
with as much convenience as niaye be, to find out 
. . . some fitt place to settle & Builde some houses or 
buildings for habitacons, on which they arc to begin 
with as muclic expedicon as they maye ; to the lymits 
& precincUs of which habitacons or buildings soe in- 
tended to be there erected, there shall be allotted of 

the lands npxt thereunto adjoininge, at or before the 
end of five years next ensuing the date hereof, the 
full quantitie of six hundred acres of land or neare 
thereabouts." Jenness, speaking of the landing at 
Little Harbor, says, " The site selected for the settle- 
ment was chosen with excellent judgment. From 
the Little Harbor fronting the north side of the prom- 
ontory a salt water creek runs back so far towards 
the ocean as almost to convert the inclosed point into 
an island of about six hundred acres area, whicli was 
the precise amount of land required l)y the indenture 
to be allotted to the new plantation. The soil is good, 
and among the rocks on the harbor shore is a living 
spring of fresh water. The harbor is safe and acces- 
sible at all times to vessels of light draught, and most 
couimodiously situated for the prosecution of the 
fisheries as well as for the peltry traffic with the In- 
dians of Sagamore Creek and Piscataqua River. 
Above all other advantages in those perilous times, 
the Point, rising on every side towards its centre and 
almost surrounded by water, was easily defensible 
against the assaults of savages. These considerations 
probably determined Thomson in the selection of 
this site for the new plantation, which he named, 
perhaps, from the Indian appellation ' Pannaway,' a 
name which seems, however, not to have survived the 
period of Thomson's own occupation and ownership 
of the plantation."' 

In \Yinslow's " Good News," published in 1624, de- 
scribing events apparently of the preceding summer, 
we find reference to " one Mr. David Tomson, a 
Scotchman, who also that spring began a plantation 
twenty-five leagu&s from us, near Smith's 
lies, at a place called Pascatoquack, where he liketh 
well." Thomson most likely remained at the Piscat- 
aqua until 1626, and deserves to receive the undi- 
vided praise as the founder of this settlement, while 
Mason had nothing to do with its beginning. In a 
deposition of several aged persons, including Edward 
Coleord, taken at Piscataqua Aug. 25, 1676, they make 
oath and affirm that "Capt. John Mii-son did never 
settle any government nor any people upon any land 
called the province of New Hampshire, on the south 
side of Piscataqua River, either by himself or any of 
his agents to this day." 

After the Laconia grant, on the 17th of .November, 
1629, active measures were taken to found a colony, 
but without immediate success. Mason, who was one 
of the company, bought the shares of two of his 
associates and sent over some men and set up two 
saw-mills ; but these and most of iiis operations were 
upon the east side of the river, in the territory which, 
in 1647, was incorporated as Kittery. The first ship 
which came out in the interests of the Laconia Com- 
pany was the " Warwick," which sailed from London 
the last of March, 1630, with Waller Neal, Governor, 
and Ambrose Gibbons, factor; but, instead of be- 

I First Planting of New Hampshire, p. 6. 



ginning, tliey found a permanent settlement bad been 
made at tlie mouth of the Piscataqua for several years. 
On the 22d of April, 1635, Mason obtained for 
himself, after discouragements and failures on the 
part of the previous company, a grant of the lands 
"between Naurakeag and Piscataqua," which, "with 
the consent of the Council, shall henceforth be called 
New Hampshire." It seems that after this grant 
Mason had great hopes and plans ; he calls his whole 
grant on the Piscataqua " my country of New Hamp- 
shire, or Mannor of Mason Hall ;" he doubtless had 
large expectations of some manor hall, with its sur- 
rounding estates, and of an inflowing fortune, but 
death put an end to all his dreams, leaving to another 
generation only an inheritance of lawsuits, which, 
amidst the perplexing grants to successive companies 
and individuals, given with little geographical knowl- 
edge, disturbed, convulsed, and embittered the settle- 
ment for many years. It was this high hope and this 
grand residence in the future which formed the only 
reality of a Mason's or manor hall at Little Harbor. 
There never was any such building. The settlers 
who came over in the " Warwick" doubtless occupied 
the houses at Little Harbor which were built by 
Thomson, and by common report one was of suffi- 
cient importance to give it the designation of the 
"large house," but the "Great House," which ap- 
pears so frequently in early records, and the one more 
likely to which this pretentious title would be given, 
was a house built by one Chadbourne in 1631, which 
stood on what is now the corner of Court and Water 
Streets, and by reason of the rising ground from this 
spot to where St. John's Church stands being cov- 
ered with wild strawberries, the settlement was com- 
monly called Strawberrij Bank until the year 1653, 
and familiarly so ever since, while by the inhabitants 
and the neighboring towns it was long known simply 
as " The Bank." The most serious thing we have to 
regret at the present day is that instead of " New 
Hampshire," a name it seems Mason designed to give 
to this region, and which was confirmed by a com- 
mission in 1679, we did not preserve either for the 
State or the town the far more interesting Indian 
name of Piscataqua.' 


PORTSMOUTH.— ( Couthmed.) 

The Church of Kugland— Early Rectors and GoYernore— Anecdotes of 
Mather— Settli'd Conchisions~The Laconia Company — Death of Ma- 
son — Abandonment of the Settlement by his Widow — Under the Juris- 
diction of the Massiichusetts — Claim of the Mason Heirs — Rich.ard 
Gibson— Pulpit Supplies— The name Portsmouth— Pews and Seating 
—Early Laws and Rulers. 

The Churcli of Eng-land.— It has been charged 
against the early settlers here that they were fishermen, 

1 See "Notes 
Charles Deaue. 

Indenture of David Thomson and others," by 

or that they came merely for business purposes. Many 
of them doubtless found the fisheries the most profitable 
enterprise, and Smith sets forth the importance of that 
occupation and says, " Honorable and worthy country- 
men let not the meanness of the word fish distaste you, 
for it will afford as good gold as the mines of Potassie or 
of Guiana, with less hazard and charge, and more cer- 
tainity and facility." They were fishermen, but there 
were some very humble fishermen on the shore of tire 
sea of Galilee who have played quite an important 
and respectable part in the history of the world, and it 
is true that the reason for the settlement was chiefly 
commercial ; the colony, as most of the colonies in 
North America, except Plymouth, were sent over by 
merchants or came themselves to trade, and many of 
the troubles, the misfortunes, and want of prosperity 
in this settlement was owing to the fact that the pro- 
prietors had so little personal supervision over the 
settlers. They did not come to establish religious 
liberty for themselves, nor did they make a constant 
talk about their piety, but there is every reason to 
suppose that their general character was as good as 
that of their neighbors in the Bay Colony. They 
were, however, supporters of the Church of England, 
and therefore bitterly denounced by the Massachusetts 
Colony. In spite of the assertions which have been 
handed down generation after generation and repeated 
without examination and without reflection that this 
w;is merely a business settlement, a worldly and un- 
godly colony, while the saints were all at " the Bay," 
it is easy to show that the purpose of the founders 
was to make this a branch of the Established Church 
of England, and that this runs through all the charters. 
In the one to Gorges, in 1639, we find granted to him 
"full power, license, and authority to build and erect 
or cause to be built and erected soe many chlirches 
and chappelles there on to the said Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges, his heirs and assigns shall seeme meete and 
convenient, and to dedicate and consecrate the same 
according to all the ecclesiastical laws of this our 
realme of England," defining furthermore all his 
rights and privileges to be the same that the bishop 
of Durham had in the kingdom of England. In the 
earliest efforts made by the city of Bristol, the first ' 
inducement held out is " to plant the Christian relig- 
ion," and that "the one of traffic, be it never so pro- 
fitable, ought not to be preferred before the planting 
of Christian faith." One of the first expeditions 
under Gosnold which reached our coast carried with 
it a chaplain. Royal orders and instructions were 
issued requiring religious worship to be conducted as 
in the Church of England. Gorges' son Robert, who ar- 
rived in Massachusetts in 1624 to take superintendence 
of the churches to the great dismay of the settlers 
there, brought with him a clergyman of the English 
Church. One of the Puritan writers, referring to a 
settlement on the coast of Maine, rejoices " that one 
Episcopal colony is terminated, and its anticipated 
influence to advance the interests of the national 



church on our soil is hastily prevented;" and speak- 
ing of tlic settlement at Exeter, "thus the Granite 
State cDniment-ed its cxisteTU'e under the auspices of 
energetic and honorable ])roprietor», who proposed to 
give it the durable impression of Episcopacy as the 
efficient liandmaid of royalty." In another place, 
referring to the eftbrts of Gorges at colonization, we 
find " his great preferences to have it done by sons of 
Episcopacy rather than by those withdrawn from its 
])roteetion and rewards." Another royal charter says, 
"Our will and pleasure is that the religion now pro- 
fessed in the Church of England, and ecclesiastical 
government now used in the same, shall be ever here- 
after preferred, and with as much convenient speed 
as may be settled and established in and throughout 
the said province and premises and every of them." 

Gorges him.self, in defending his con>pany against 
various charges before the House of Commons, says, 
" I have spent £20,000 of my estate and thirty years, 
the whole flower of my life, in uew discoveries and 
settlements upon a remote' continent, in the enlarge- 
ment of my country's commerce and dominions, and 
in carrying civilization and Christianity into regions 
of savages."' All these are testimonies that the aim 
of the proprietors and settlers was quite as truly re- 
ligious as usually characterizes such enterprises. But 
their religious views were Episcopalian, and just at 
this period bitter strife reigned between Puritans and 
Episcoi)alians, and the strife in the old country was 
transferreil to these shores. All the proprietors in- 
terested in the settlement were of the Established 
Church, and it was only natural that all the settlers 
who came out under them should be zealous in that 
faith. Gorges and Mason, Godfrie and Neal, Gibbons 
and Chadbourne and Williams, and all the names 
which a|)pear on the colonial records were doubtless 
of this faith, and the colonies at the Piscataqua and 
the bay were carried on with the same spirit that two 
rival and highly-excited parishes would be at the 
present time, only intensified by the more bitter theo- 
logical hatred of that day. The leader of the Massa- 
chusetts colony even rejoiced at the death of Mason, 
as a ])roof of the Almighty's retribution upon the 
Episcopal settlement at the Piscatacpia and his favor 
towards them. Governor Winthrop writes, "The last 
winter ("ai)t. Mason died. He was the chief mover 
in all attempts against us, and was to have sent the 
General Governor, and for this end was providing 
shii>s ; but the Lord in mercy taking him away, all the 
business fell oir sleep." Among the earliest inven- 
tories of the colony's goods we find mention of ser- 
vice books, of a flagon, and of cloths for the coui- 
niunion-table, which show that provisioDS for worship 

1 In Miuotrs will wo And instructions to couvej one thousand acres of 
his estnte liore fur and towards tlie maintenance of an honest, godly, and 
religious preacher of God's word, in some church or chapel or other 
puMic pliu-e upixnntpil fur divine worship and service within ttie county 
01 New Hamiwhire.Hnd also proTi^ons for and towards the maintenance 
of a free graninmr school fur the education of youth. 

were not neglected, and of what form the worship 

Early Factors, or Governors. Anecdote of Ma- 
ther. — .\fter the departure of Thomson, and until the 
arrival of those sent out by the Laconia Company in 
1630, our information about this settlement is slight 
and indefinite. Then came Neal as Governor, after 
his departure Godfrie, with Warnerton at Strawberry 
Bank, then Williams as Governor in lfi.34. The colony 
began to extend over Great Island and along the bank 
of the river. A rude fort was built on the northeast 
point of Great Island, " about a bow-shot from the 
water-side to a high rock, the site of the present Fort 
Constitution. Under Williams, who is spoken of as 
a gentleman, a discreet, sensible man, accomplished 
in his manners and acceptable to the people, the 
first attempt at any combination for order and defense 
was made. It is related that Neal went on a journey 
of discovery to the White Mountains and the lakes, 
and gives a somewhat glowing account of them: 
" The summit was far above the clouds, and from 
hence they beheld a vapor like a vast pillar, drawn 
up by the sunbeams out of a great lake into the air, 
where it was formed into a cloud," but their hopes of 
mines and precious stones were dimmed. At another 
time Neal forbade a man who was about to begin a 
settlement at a point a short distance up the river. 
The dispute which arose was about to be settled by 
the sword, when a wiser thought suggested to each it 
would be braver not to fight, and so the place, known 
to the present generation as Nancy Drew's, was called 
Bloody Point, not on account of what actually hap- 
pened, but what might have occurred in the event of 
a duel. Just before Neal left some trouble arose be- 
tween him and the Governor of the Massachusetts 
Colony. It was charged against Neal that he did not 
call to see the Governor in Boston on his way to 
England, but Neal urged that he had not been well 
entertained the first' time that he was there; that 
letters he had written had been opened in the Bay, 
and except he were invited he would not call. Win- 
throp says the letters were opened " because they were 
directed to one who was our prisoner, and had declared 
himself an ill wilier to our government." But politi- 
cal honor was rather low at that day, and if, even at 
a later period, England's prime minister confessed 
that he had no scruple in opening the letters of a 
political rival, the conduct of Massachusetts' Governor 
can be excused. Yet the incident shows that no 
papal inquisition ever exceeded the scrutiny of all 
persons or documents which came into the neighbor- 
hood of the Puritans. Warnerton seems to have been 
a wild and dissolute character. Winthrop says he 
lived very wickedly and kept the Piscataqua men 
under awe of him, while Warnerton, trying to collect 
a debt from one of the Bay Colony, called liim rogue 
and knave, but added they were all so at the Bay, and 
he lioped to see all their throats cut. Whether he 
ever did anything worse than opening letters does not 



appear, but tlie incident reveals the general feeling 
that the two settlements cherished towards each other. 
All the early Puritan representation of this colony 
were in the same strain, and in return the bitterness 
of the eastern settlement against the Massachusetts 
was quite as great. 

A Piscataqua man being in England in 1632 said 
of the Massachusetts planters, "They would be a 
peculiar people to God, but all goe to the Devil ; they 
are a people not worthy to live on God's earth ; fel- 
lows that keep hoggs all the week preach there on 
the Sabbath ; they count all men out of their church 
as in a state of damnation." 

John Josselyii, of Black Point, writes of the 
founders of Boston : " The chief objects of discipline, 
religion and morality, they want. Some are of a 
Linsie-woolsie disposition, of several professions in 
religion, all, like the JJthiopeans, white in the teeth 
only, full of ludification and injurious dealing and 
cruelty, the extremist of all vices. Great Syndics or 
censors, or controllers of other men's manners, and 
savagely factious among themselves." 

In 1631, Thomas Dudley, afterwards Governor of 
Massachusetts, writing to the Countess of Lincoln in 
England, says of some of the settlers there, "Heare- 
ing of men of their own disposition, which were 
planted at Pa.scataway, went from us to them, whereby 
tho' our members were lessened, yet we accounted 
ourselves nothing weakened by their removeall." 
These first reports and prejudices in regard to this 
colony were repeated and spread without investiga- 
tion and without confirmation. We find Cotton 
Mather, in the " Magnalia," recording an anecdote 
which conveys the same impression, and the locality 
of which, tradition has ascribed to the South Parish 
of this town : " There were more than a few attempts 
of the English to people and improve the Parts of 
New England which were to the Northward of New 
Plymouth, but the Designs of theire attempts being 
aim'd no higher than the advancement of some 
worldly Interests, a constant Series of Disasters has 
confounded them until there was a Plantation erected 
upon the nobler Designs of Christianity ; and that 
Plantation, tho' it has had more Adversaries than 
perhaps any upon Earth, yet having obtained help 
from God it continues to this day. There have been 
very fine settlements in the Northeast Eegions, but 
what is become of tliem ? I have read that one of 
our Ministers once Preaching to a congregation there 
urged them to approve themselves a Religious People 
from this consideration. That otherwise they would 
contradict the main end of Planting this Wilderness, 
whereupon a well-known Person then in the assembly 
[note assembly, which is a perfect translation of the 
Greek word ' church' in the New Testament] cried 
out, ' Sir, you are mistaken ; you think you are 
Preaching to the People at the Bay ; our Main End 
was to catch Fish.' Truly 'twere to have been 
wislied that something more excellent had been the 

main end of the settlement in that brave country, 
which we have, even long since the arrival of that 
more Pious Colony at the Bay, now seen dreadfully 
unsettled no less than twice at least by the Sword of 
the Heathen after they had been replenished with 
many Hundreds of People, who had thriven to many 
Thousands of Pounds, and had all the force of the 
Bay, too, to assist them in the maintaining of their 
settlement." To any one who has investigated the 
history of these colonies this story is seen to be a 
capital piece of irony upon the cant of Puritanism, 
and the person in the pew evidently thought the 
preacher was ignorant of the design of this settle- 
ment, and wanted to call his attention to the fact that 
those to whom he was preaching were not banished 
nor self exiled for religioiis opinions, but were on the 
loyal and Established Church side. 

Settled Conclusions. — It seems that at this day it 
will never be possible to establish to the satisfaction 
of the careful historian several dates, and to explain 
several events in the early settlement of the Piscat- 
aqua, on account of the confusion arising from the 
first patents, which seriously complicated the dif- 
ferent ownerships, from the absence of sufiicient trust- 
worthy evidence, and from statements of the first 
writers, made without investigation, and repeated 
until they have been believed to have the authority 
of truth ; but enough appears determined from 
the recovery of the indenture of David Thomson 
and careful research into the conflicting patents 
to regard it henceforth as settled that the credit of 
founding the Piscataqua colony belongs entirely to 
Thomson, and that he had nothing to do with the 
Laconia Company ; that this colony was permanent, 
and that tlie one at Dover was several years later; 
that after the settlement by Thomson passed into the 
hands of the Laconia Company, the efforts and inter- 
ests of Mason really begin ; that the references to 
"Mason Hall," or "Mason's Manor Hall," wliich in 
so many records give such a pretentious sound to this 
settlement, do not apply to any building at Little 
Harbor, and if to any to a house called the "Great 
House," built by Chadbourne in 1631 at Strawberry 
Bank, but belong rather to the ambitious claims of 
his descendants at a much later date, and that the 
animosities and invectives which disfigure all early 
intercourse between the Massachusetts and the Piscat- 
aqua may be traced first to religious differences, and 
next to the overlapping and conflicting demands of 
successive grants given to different companies or in- 
dividuals without any accurate knowledge of the 
boundaries of this new realm. 

The Laconia Company. — Thomson removed from 
the Piscataqua to the Massachusetts in the latter part 
of 1626, and died there soon after. The government 
and progress of the Piscataqua for the next few years 
are involved in some obscurity. No claims appear 
from the heirs of Thomson to the property at Little 
Harbor, nor is it fully shown why he entirely aban- 



doncd his interests there, or vvlio had charge of them 
until the Laconia Company sent out its agents in 
1G30. Mason obtained a })atcnt on the 7th of No- 
vember, 1629, of which no use was made, but ten days 
later the Laconia grant appears, and some active 
steps were at once taken to increase and make of 
some value the colony at Little Harbor. The bark 
"Warwick" arrived in the harbor of the Piscataqua 
on the i'th of September, 1G31, bringing over some 
settlers, and came again the following winter with 
supplies and probably more settlers. Owing to some 
uncertainty about the patent under which they had 
begun operations, the association obtained a new 
grant on the 3d of November, 1631, covering both 
sides of the Piscataqua. The Laconia Company had 
in the beginning of its association obtained a charter 
for a large tract of land about Lake Champlain in the 
present State of New York, and was called Laconia 
from the great lakes included in the grant, and the 
secret of their operations at the Piscataqua was that 
from this point by an easy journey they could reach 
the lakes. With this idea they obtained possession 
of the buildings and interests of Thomson at Little 
Harbor, and for a while carried on their adventure 
with great hopes.' But the distance proved much 
farther than they in their ignorance of the country 
had supposed, and the ditliculties insurmountable, and 
after many and great eflbrts, without any appreciable 
success or any return for their large and constant ex- 
penditures, all the Laconia association's interests at 
Little Harbor were abandoned. 

Death of Mason. — Mason, however, evidently pre- 
served his faith in the ultimate profits from all in- 
vestments at this j)lace, and on the 22d of April, 
1635, obtained a grant by the Plymouth Council of a 
very large tract which covered both his former char- 
ters and was to extend sixty miles from the " first 
entrance of Pascataway Harbor," to take in " the 
South halfe of the Isle of Shoulds," all which was to 
be called by the name of JNw Hampshire, together 
with ten thousand acres on "the South East of the 
River of Sagadehock," to which was to be given the 
name of Masonia. In the midst of all the expecta- 
tions from the settlement of such vast possessions 
Mason died, as we have seen, in the latter part of this 
same year, leaving for his heir an infant grandson. 

Abandonment of the Settlement by His Widow. 
— For a time Mason's widow attempted to carry out 
her husband's plan in regard to the colony, and evi- 
dently with as great a faith in its ultimate success. 
One Francis Norton was sent out in 1638 to look 
after her interests, but she soon wearied of the large 
and constant expenditures and the deferred income; 
the settlers so far away, and soon conscious that the 
authority and .oversight of the former proprietor were 
gone, began to take advantage of their situation to 
look out chiefly for their own interests, to divide the 

1 Se« Jennefl' " Hiat. Planting of Mew Ilampiibire," p. 32. 

property among themselves for their wages, and Mrs. 
Mason, if she did not abandon her legal right, evi- 
dently in despair gave uji all hope of carrying on tin- 
plantation, and ceased to provide for its needs. 

Under the Jurisdiction of the Massachusetts.— 
The only government which appears in this colony 
from its settlement until tbe year 1640 was that of 
the stewards, or as they received sometimes the more 
dignified title of Governor; such were Neale, .loce- 
lyn, and Norton. There was no idea for a long time 
of any self-governing state, or any rule a|)arl Irom 
that of the home sovereignty; they went on as loyal- 
ists and members of the Established Church, with 
perhaps as much quiet and order as other settlements, 
but as their numbers increased, and the resolution to 
make a permanent colony became more fi.xed, efforts 
appear towards the establishment of a more formal 
and authoritative government. In this year a com- 
bination was entered into with Francis Williams, 
Governor, and Ambrose Gibbons and Thomas War- 
nerton, assistants. But for some time previous to this 
the way had been preparing for the Piscataqua to 
come under the jurisdiction of the Massachusetts. 
The latter colony soon found that the charter of Mas- 
.sachusetts Bay was not as extensive as they had sup- 
posed, and had hardly become established before they 
began to reach out towards and covet the lands cov- 
ered by the patent to Mason ; the doubtful expressions 
in which these grants were conveyed made it easier 
to force an interpretation in agreement with their 
desires, and the more flourishing and powerful condi- 
tion of the Massachusetts would have accomplished 
the purpose even earlier were it not for the different 
political and religious sentiments which prevailed at 
the Piscataqua. For several years, amidst all kinds 
of plottings and quarrelings, ambitious schemes and 
desire for greater protection, efforts at union were 
made and repelled, until it was finally accomplished 
in 1641, and the Piscataqua passed under the juris- 
diction of the Mas.sachu.setts. Hugh Peters, an agent 
of the latter, after spending some time here, in the 
spring of that year reported to Governor Wintlirop 
that the Piscataqua people were " ripe for our gov- 
ernment; they grone for government and Gospel all 
over that side of the country. Alas! poore bleeding 
soules." From 1641 for a period of almost forty 
years, or until the commission of Cutt, the first Pro- 
vincial President of New Hampshire, under whom 
the new government began on the 21st of January, 
I6I5, the sway of the Miissachusetts over this settle- 
ment was complete. But it was not harmonious. It 
was entered into out of the most selfish considerations 
on each side, and preserved amidst constant conten- 
tions, oppositions, and open revolts. In 16.')1 the 
residents at Strawberry Bank o|)enly rebelled and at- 
tempted to escape from this jurisdiction, and again 
in 1664. There was a constant detestation of the 
union, which for prudential rctsons they felt it neces- 
sary to abide by, and all the time they saw the in- 



fiiience of a party whose faith they bitterly opposed 
gaining ground among, them. Their indignation ap- 
pears in their petitions to their sovereign. In July, 
1665, we find one headed by the distinguished Cham- 
pernowne, and signed by the leading settlers, which 
sets forth among other grievances that " five or six 
of the ritchest men of this parish [meaning of course 
those who had become prominent under the power of 
the Massachusetts] have swaied & ordered all offices 
both civill and military at their pleasures ; none of 
yo'' Hono" peticonrs, though Loyall subjects, & some 
of them well acquainted with the Laws of England, 
durst make any opposition for feare of great fines or 
long imprisonment, & for want of estates could not 
peticon home to his Ma*"* for relief, which the con- 
trary party well knoweth, have kept us under hard 
servitude and denyed us hi our publique meeting the 
Common prayer, Sacram'^, and decent buriall of the dead, 
contrary to the Laws of England." They also plead 
that they have been denied the benefit of freemen, 
that their lands have been taken away from them, 
and their grants disowned. Another ))etition about 
the same time asserts " to theire great greife" that 
the sway of the Massachusetts has kept them from 
the good they expected, and so prays that they may 
be joined to the province of Maine, so " that they 
may be gov"^ by the knowne lawes of England, and 
enjoy the use of both the sacramts w"*" they have 
been too deprived of," and they particularly mention 
Joshua Moody, Richard and John Cutt, and a few 
others, who were evidently leaders of the Puritan 
party and stanch upholders of the Massachusetts. 
By the year 1677, however, the Puritan influence had 
so far overcome the Church of England power that a 
petition with many names and much weight appears 
against any change, saying that they voluntarily sub- 
jected themselves to the Massachusetts government, 
and have not repented of it, that it has been a long- 
enjoyed and desired benefit which they fear to lose. 
" Wee are men y' desire to fear y" Lord & y* King, & 
not to medle with them y' are given to change, as 
well knowing what confusions, distractions, & Damage 
changes of governm" are not unusually attended 

The most eflectual petition, however, was probably 
one from Mason and Gorges, praying for a Governor 
for the province of Maine and New Hampshire, on 
account of the injustice of the Massachusetts, " their 
violent intrusion and continued usurpation." This 
petition was received the 9th of January, 1677, and, 
as we have' seen, the commission of President Cutt 
was sent out in December, 1679. 

Claim of the Mason Heirs. — While all the in- 
trigues and animosities in regard to the rule of the 
province were going on, another element of disturb- 
ance and angry feeling was thrown into this colony, 
the claim of the Mason heirs. It was, perhaps, the 
shadow of this impending difficulty which persuaded 
some to seek alliance with the Massachusetts, think- 

ing thereby to gain their favor in the courts. Mrs. 
Mason, soon after her husband's death, was discour- 
aged at the constant outlay required by the settlers, 
and gave up the whole enterprise. It was but natural, 
as she heard of the colony's growth and of a more 
stable government, to- assert her claim to this region, 
and to seek some return for the great outlays Mr. 
Mason had made. But a few years of neglect would 
inevitably make vast changes in a new settlement 
even with the most honorable stewards and laborers, 
and in the midst of such conflicting grants there was 
easy opportunity for fraud of every kind, while the 
very accumulation of unpaid wages would in a brief 
period make the settlers feel they had earned all the 
possessions. As a matter of history, it was fifteen 
years before we find any protest from the attorney of 
Mrs. Mason against cutting timber on her lands along 
the Pascataway, and eighteen years before the first 
petition of Joseph Mason to the magistrates and 
deputies of the General Court in Boston, relating the 
expenses Mason had been at under the Laconia 
patent, and praying for some redress against the 
encroachments upon his property by the inhabitants 
of Strawberry Bank. Of course, each year, as the 
prosperity of the settlement increa.sed, the more de- 
termined grew the heirs of Mason to recover their 
estate here, and in the lapse of time the statements 
of his expenditures were greatly exaggerated, and 
the necessity of maintaining their case led to the 
most bitter accusations and the most intense feeling 
on all sides, and what was at first a simple claim was 
aggravated by an appeal to all the political and re- 
ligious interests which had been aroused just at that 
period both in England and in this settlement. In 
March, 167-4^75, Robert Mason, the grandson and 
heir of John Mason, asserts his title to New Hamp- 
shire. He rehearses in a long petition the history of 
the settlement, the expenses of Mason, the unfaith- 
fulness of the agents, the inability to recover any- 
thing through the General Court of Massachusetts, 
and his own vain attempts and costs to recover his 
estates here. Then, again, as the hope strengthened 
that his Majesty would appoint a President for New 
Hampshire, the claims of Robert Mason are reasserted 
at great length, with the added argument of a royal 
and church interest and fidelity from the beginning, 
and rehearsing the unjust laws which had been passed 
to confirm to the colonists the lands upon which they 
have been settled for years without any attempt at 
alienation, and what he himself had expended. Of 
course these claims were met by counter claims and 
charges, and all the fault was surely not on one side. 
As early as 1676 we find the depositions of several 
old settlers, whose testimony cannot all be worthless, 
and who on oath " doe affirm that Capt. John Mason 
did never settle any government nor any people upon 
any land called y° province of New Hampshire, on 
the south side of Pi-scatqa River, either by himselfe 
or any of his agents to this day. And whereas Mr. 



Robert Mason, liis grandchild, by liis pelition to his 
iiKi'' charges ye Governors of y° Massachusetts or y" 
I'xistoiiers, as he calls thcin : ffor taking away their 
govi-rni' in a way of hostility; burning of their houses 
ami banishing their people out of their dwellings, 
thoy doe allirine the same to be positively false." 
This fruitful source of discord embittered the whole 
colony long after the appointment of the first Presi- 

The First Church.— The early religious interests 
of till' l'iscata<iiia were all centred in the Establisiied 
Church of iMigland. All those of any prominence 
were of tliat faith, and of course the settlers they sent 
over were of the same, and in the inventories of goods 
belonging to them we find provisions for that wor- 
ship which doubtless was observed at Little Harbor 
and at the '' Great House," which stood on what is now 
the corner of Court and Water Streets ; but it was 
not until after the death of Mason that we find them 
taking any steps for the erection of a church. On the 
25th of May, 1(540, we find the grant of the glebe land 
in Portsmouth as follows: " Divers and sundry of the 
inhabitants of the Lower end of Pascataquack, whose 
names are hereunder written, of their free and volun- 
tary mind, good will and assents, without constraint 
or compulsion of any manner of person or persons, 
have granted, given, and contributed divers and .sev- 
eral sums of money towards the building, erecting, 
and founding of a parsonage house with a chapel 
thereto united, as also fifty acres of glebe land which 
is annexed and given to the said parsonage." We 
find in this same grant the names of the church 
wardens (and as significant of the early Episcopal ele- 
ment the officers of the vari(nis old churches in Ports- 
mouth are to this day called wardens), and that Mr. 
Richard Gibson has been chosen to be the first pastor. 
This first church was erected near where the Univer- 
salist Church now stands, and probably in the year 
1638, for there is a tradition thatGibson preached and 
baptized in it in the month of August of that year. 

Richard Gibson. — Richard Gibson was educated 
at Magdalen College, Cambridge, from which he took 
the degree of A.B. in \li'M>, and in that year appears 
as the minister of a colony at the Saco River, to which 
he had been brought by Mr. Trelawney. In seeking 
for some furllier information concerning this clergy- 
man, the writer of this sketch was brought into cor- 
respondence with an aged gentleman residing at 
Ham, Plymouth (England), Mr. Collins Trelawney, 
a descendant of the one who had a grant of land near 
Portland, and who cherishes a hope that it is not too 
late to recover the estates which belong to his family 
in that region, including the whole city of Portland, 
a far more gigantic scheme and forlorn hope than the 
attempt of the Mason heirs. 

Tlie ministry of Gibson appears not to have been 

one of perfect peace, for in the Maine " Records" we 

find him complaining against a man for calling him 

a " base priest," and he says that he is much dispar- 


aged thereby in his ministry ; so that it is evident 
the Episcopal settlements here and along the coast of 
Maine were not without some elements of Puritanism, 
as, on the other hand, in the Massachusetts there 
constantly came to the surface some elements of 
Episcopacy. Mr. Gibson, between the years 1038 and 
1642, preached at the Saco settlement, at the Shoals, 
and at Strawberry Bank. In the latter year he was 
summoned by the General Court of Ma.ssacluiselts for 
the crime of marrying and bajitizing at the Isle of 
Shoals according to the ritual of the Church of Eng- 
land. Winthroji's account of the nnitter runs thus: 
"At this General Court appeared one Richard Gib- 
son, a scholar, sent some three or four years since to 
Richmann's Island to be a minister to a fishing plan- 
tation there belonging to one Mr. Trelawney, of Pli- 
mouth, in England. He removed from thence to 
Pascataquack, and this year was entertained by the 
fishermen of the Isle of Shoals to preach to them. 
He, being wlwllij addicted lo the hierarchy and dis- 
cipline of England, did exercise a ministerial function 
in the same way, and did marry and baptize at the 
Isle of Shoals, which was soon found to be within our 

Gibson wrote to the minister at Dover, asking for 
help in opposition to the jurisdiction of the Puri- 
tans ; but they were stronger in the contest, and he 
answered the demand of the marshal, and in 1642 
appeared before the General Court. Either because 
the court recognized the fact that it had no authority 
in the case, or because he submitted himself to the 
favor of the court with the determination to leave the 
country, he was dismissed without fine or imprison- 
ment, and soon after. This was one of the first fruits 
of the efforts of the Puritans to settle a country where 
freedom to worship God as he pleased should be every 
one's privilege. 

Gibson is everywhere spoken of as accomplished 
and scholarly, but no gifts nor graces could count for 
anything while he was an open defender of the Eng- 
lish Established Church. 

Pulpit Supplies. — Soon after the union with the 
MassachusetUs we find in those records this item : " It 
was ordered that the elders should be desired to take 
the Ciire of the inhabitants of Strawberry Bank into 
their consideration and then help for providing a 
minister for them." One was soon found, who, being 
a Puritan, it wiis easy for Winthrop to consider "a 
godly man and a scholar," — a Mr. Parker, of Ply- 
mouth, — but he was not an ordained clergyman. 
After his departure we find one after another supply- 
ing for a short time, the Episcopal element heartily 
and voluntarily cojitributiug to their support rather 
than have no services, and this continued until the 
year 1658, when the long and eventful ministry of 
Joshua Moody begins. 

The Name Portsmouth. — In May, 1653, we find 
this petition to theCivneral Court at Bostoji: "Whereas 
the name of this plantation att present beinge Stra- 



berry banke, accidentally soe called by reason of a 
bauke where straberries was found in this place, now 
Your petitioners' Humble desire is to have it called 
Portsmouth, being a name most suitable for this 
place, it being the river's mouth and a good harbor 
as any in this land." 

The Cutt Brothers. — Some time before 1646 there 
came from Wales tliree brothers, Robert, Richard, 
and John Cutt, who were to have a large influence in 
all the affairs of this colony. Maj. Cutt, a. descend- 
ant, when at the siege of Louisburg, met an Eng- 
glish officer by the nameof Cutts, and upon becoming 
acquainted, they found they had sprung from the 
same family ; so thereafter the major added an s to 
his name, as did all the descendants of the family in 
Portsmouth. Robert settled at Great Island, and was 
a strong Episcopalian and royalist. Richard settled 
first at the Shoals, and became owner of most of Star 
Island in its day of greatest prosperity, and after 
making his wealth removed to Portsmouth and was 
interested in all its affairs. John settled at Straw- 
berry Bank, where he came into possession of the 
Great House, 'and was a merchant of prominence, 
honor, and esteem. At the time of his prosperous 
business course the principal part of the town was 
built about the Point of Graves. 

A New Meeting-House.— On the 27th of August, 
17")7, John and Richard Cnlt, with Pendleton, Seavey, 
and Sherburne, were commissioned by the town to 
build a new meeting-house, not now a chapel, but 
still the term warden is employed. The settlement 
was so widely scattered and embraced such a great 
reach of territory that it is not surjjrising there was 
even at this date some difference of opinion as to 
where the new church should be located. After a 
long discussion and the appointment of referees to 
hear the reasons of all parties, the following conclu- 
sion was reached : " Wee whose names are under 
written, being deputed to consulte and determine the 
difference betvpeene the inhabitants of Portsmouth 
concerning the placinge of there meeting-house, upon 
the arguments aledged on either side doe judge and 
alsoe conclude all reasons weighed that it is upon all 
respects considered the meatestand most commodious 
place to erect a meeting-house is the little hill ajoyn- 
inge to Goodman Webster's poynt." The tradition 
has it that Goodman Webster kept a place of enter- 
tainment, and in that day the location of the meet- 
ing-house near by miglit be judged not altogether 
without its conveniences. Doubtless the importance 
of New Castle and the travel by that road had some- 
thing to do with determining the situation ; at all 
events the new meetiug-house, the second place of 
worship in Portsmouth, was built on that " little bill" 
just beyond the South Mill Bridge, on "the crotch of 
the roads" (as an old record has it) leading to the 
pound and Frame Point, or what is now just by the 
parting of the roads leading to New Castle and the 
South Cemetery, while the old chapel was converted 

into a house for the minister. Of this building there 
is a description minute enough to reconstruct it, and 
to this came the inhabitants from the wide domain of 
the town without any too tender regard for distances 
or for storms, from Rye, Greenland, New Castle, and 
Warrington, to hear the word and tell the news. 

Cage and Pillory. — This new meeting-house did 
not stand alone, but there were soon added those other 
appointments which were then regarded as a necessary 
addition to the church. On the 25th of September, 
1662, it was ordered, " That a cage be made or some 
other means invented by the selectmen to punish such 
as sleepe or take tobacco on the Lord's day out of the 
meeting in time of the public services." The cage, 
stocks, and pillory were built near the meeting-house. 
The pillory was a frame erected on posts, with holes 
and movable boards, through which the head and 
hands of the offender were put; the stocks was a ma- 
chine constructed of wood, with holes through which 
the feet of the offenders were passed and their bodies 
thus confined. In 1669 ])ermission was granted to one 
Fryer, of New Castle, " the towne's right of twenty 
foote square of land neare the meeting-house to sett 
up a house & keep wood in for to accommodate him- 
self & family in winter time when he comes to meet- 
ing." It was cu.stomary in the early days of New 
England for small houses, called Sabba-day houses 
or noon houses, to be built near the churcli, a few 
feet square, with a large fireplace, where the worship- 
ers went before, between, and after services to warm 
themselves or to replenisli their foot-stoves with coals. 

Pews and Seating. — In the increasing prosperity 
of the settlement the new meeting-house was soon 
filled to overflowing, and we find a record in 1660 that 
the selectmen, in order to regulate the confusion occa- 
sioned b}' the crowd, " placed the women in their seats 
as commodiously as the room will aftbrd." From time 
to time leading parishioners were granted permission 
to build, at their own cost, seats or pews for themselves 
in various parts of the house, seats and pews of vary- 
ing length and breadth, so that the aisles, or alleys as 
they were called, ran among the seats, and it was not 
until 1693 that the pews were made according to one 
regular order. We find the choice of a sexton to ring 
the bell and make clean the meeting-house for four 
pounds a year; and a man engaged by the town at 
twenty shillings per annum " for to look after the de- 
meanor of the boys at meeting ;" and a vote that five 
or six persons should have liberty "to build a pair of 
stairs up to the westward beame within the meeting- 
house, and a pew upon the beam," for their own use 
and at their own charge ; that " strangers are not to 
be discommodious to the meeting-house;" and that 
no boys should be suffered to sit on the stairs or above 
stairs, and that no young men or young women oflfer 
to crowd into any seat where either men or women 
are seated. 

Early Laws and Rulers, — After the erection of 
New Hampshire with a royal province, under Presi- 



dent Cutt, we trace the operations of an established 
and anthoritativc government throuirh the acts of a 
General Assembly. We find it framing a code of laws, 
comprising sixteen "capital," twenty-seven "crim- 
inal," and forty-five "general laws." Here is what 
constitnted drunkenness in that day : " By drunken- 
ness is to be understood one y' lisps or falters in his 
speech by reason of overmuch drinke, or y' staggers 
in his going, or y' vomits by reason of excessive 
drinking, or y' cannot, by reason thereof, follow his 
calling." Here is the law against scandal or malicious 
gossip, or the dealers in false news: "That w' p'rson 
soever, being 16 years of age, or upwards, shall wit- 
tingly or willingly make or publish any lie w""" may 
be tending to y" damage or hurt of any p'ticular 
p'son, or w"' intent to deceive & abuse y" people with 
false news or reports, shall be fined for every such 
default l(».s-., and if y" p'tie cannot or will not pay y" 
fine, then he shall sit in y" stocks as long as y" Court 
shall tliinke meete; & if the offenders shall come to 
any one of Councill & own his offense, it shall be in 
y° power of any one of y' Councill afore"* to execute 
y" law upon him where he liveth, & spare his appear- 
ance at y' Court; but in case when y" lie is greatly 
p'nicious to y' Comon Weall, it shall be more severely 
punished, according to y" nature of it."' 

President Cutt died in 1682, and was succeeded 
temporarily by his deputy, Richard Waldron, a 
prominent and active man in the colony, and a zeal- 
ous friend of Mas«ichusetts, until the appointment 
and arrival of Cranfield as Lieutenant-Governor and 
commander-in-chief, and with powers greatly exceed- 
ing any of his predecessors. His commission begins 
thus, " Whereas our colony of the Massachusetts 
(alias Massathusetts Bay), within our dominion of 
New England, in America, hath taken upon them- 
selves to exercise a government and jurisdiction over 
the inhabitants and planters in the towns of Ports- 
mouth, Hampton, Dover, Exeter, and all others y° 
towns and lands in our Province of New Hampshire, 
lying and extending itself from three miles northward 
(if Jlerrimack Kiver into the province of Maine, not 
having any legal right or authority so to do, the said 
jurisdiction and all farther exercise thereof we have 
thought fit by the advice of our Privy Council to inhibit 
and restrain for the future. . . . Now know ye, that we, 
reposing especial trust and confidence in y' prudence 
courage, and loyalty of you, the said Edward Cran- 
field, Esq., out of our especial grace, certain knowl- 
edge, mere motion, have thought fit to constitute and 
appoint yiiuour Lieutenant-Governorand commander- 
in-chief of all that |)art of our province of New Hamp- 
shire," etc. His commission has also these words, 
" and above all things we do by these presents will, 
require, and command you to take all possible care 
for the discountenance of vice and encouragement of 
virtue and good living, that by such example the in- 

> See Hojt'8 " Notes on the L«wa of New Hnmpehlre." 

fidels may be incited and desire to partake of the Chris- 
tian religion ; and for the greater care and satisfaction 
of our said loving subjects in matters of religion, 
we do here by will, require and command that liberty 
of conscience shall be allowed unto all Protestants, "m*/ 
that such especialli/ as shall be conformable to the rites of 
the Church of England shall particularly be counte- 
nanced and encouraged." This is the exception which 
is always understood with liberty of consience, es- 
pecially to favor our own, and such an exception 
gives unbounded liberty of persecution to a narrow 
and bigoted ofiicial. In " liberty of conscience" and 
a desire to establish it there is not anything to choose 
between Puritan and Episcopalian in this period of 
excited controversy ; neither knew what it really 
meant, each claimed it only so far its it suited his own 
interests or prejudices; so history everywhere gives a 
partial and false impre.ssion by the emphasis which 
the writer lays upon the injustice done to those with 
whom he happens to sympathize. In the " Notes on 
the Laws of New Hampshire," above quoted from, we 
find (page 10) this passage: " The Rev. Mr. Moodey, 
the only minister in Portsmouth durifig the adminis- 
trations of Cutt and Cranfield, refused to baptize the 
children of some of his parishioners according to the 
ceremony of the English Church, though often and 
earnestly requested." Liberty of conscience seems to 
have been interpreted by him to mean intolerance of 
any conscience but his own. Yet no one who has 
read the history of this period with any freedom from 
bigotry would venture to say there was any less in- 
tolerance on the part of Cranfield, while, if enlight- 
enment of conscience by a pure and noble life could 
be counted upon, Moodey was by far the more ac- 
ceptable life. 

Governor Cranfield left the province in May, 1685, 
and was succeeded for a short time by Walter Bare- 
foote, his deputy, until the commission of Dudley in 
May, 1686, and he in turn was followed by Andros 
from December, 1686, to April, 1689. Then for a 
period of eleven months the province was without 
any government until it was reannexed to the prov- 
ince of Massachusetts on the 19th of March, 1690. 
During this period, as is shown by the careful paper 
of Mr. Charles W. Tuttle on " New Hampshire with- 
out Provincial Government," the attacks of Indians, 
especially the tragedy at Dover, in which the vener- 
able Richard Waldron, one of the most i)rominent 
men in these settlements, and a number of the inhab- 
itants were slain, and the dangers from the French 
revealed the weakness and insecurity of these sepa- 
rate colonies, and forced them for self-protection to 
join with the Massachusetts, under whose rule the 
Piscataqua remained until Samuel Allen was com- 
missioned as Governor of the province, Aug. 13, 1692. 
His son-in-law, Usher, was appointed with him as 
Lieutenant-Governor, a man, as we shall see, particu- 
larly objectionable to the people on account of his 
arbitrary interest and action in the Mason claims. 



Partridge, the Earl of Belmont, Dudley, and William 
Vau^han successively administered the government 
of this province, either as Governors or Lieutenant- 
Governors, until the commission of John Wentworth 
as Lieutenant-Governor, signed by the distinguished 
Joseph Addison as Secretary of State, was published 
to the province on the 7th of December, 1717, and 
the more settled history, government, and prosperity 
of the province begins, as well as the longer reigns 
of its rulers.^ 


PORTSMOUTH.— ((7<)»(/"i,«;.) 

The Mason Claims — Theological Movements — Early Clergymen — Cran- 
field and Moodey — Imprisonment of Moodey — Mr. Moodey's Interest 
in Harvard College— His Death. 

Mason Claims. — During all this period, to the gov- 
ernment of which we have briefly referred, and even 
to a much later date, the petitions and efforts of the 
Mason heirs were fruitful of the most constant and 
serious disturbance to the province, and of course with 
a legal if not an equity claim. In 1681 we find a pe- 
tition, signed by most of the prominent settlers, setting 
forth that " the great matter of difficulty now amongst 
us is referring to Mr. Mason's pretensions to the pro- 
priety of the lands we possesse, some countenance to 
his clayme whereunto he hath gotten in yo' Maj''" 
Commission under the broad Seal, which we cannot 
but thinke has been by inderect meanes and untrue 
informations (in w""" he abounds) obtained. Wee are 
informed y' he has no authority, Authentique, Origi- 
nall, or Duplycate, of any grant for the soyle, nor 
hath he in any measure attended the scope of such 
grant (if any such had been made to him), viz.: the 
peopling of the place and enlarging yo"^ Maj'^* Do- 
minions, both which have been vigorously attended 
by the present Inhabitants. The vast expense of es- 
tate is mostly if not merely a pretence. An house 
was built in this province, but the disbursements laid 
out were chiefly in the Neighbouring Province of 
Meyn, on the other side of the River, and for carry- 
ing on an Indian Trade in Laconia, in all w"'' his 
grandfather was but a partner, however he would ap- 
pear amongst us as sole proprietor." The petition 
states at length how Mason has tried to substantiate 
his claims by the signatures of persons of no influence 
or account in the province, and adds, " These sub- 
scribers are the generality of the whole province, y' 

1 John Wentworth was the son of Samuel Wentworth, the first of the 
name in Portsmouth. He lived on the soutli side of what is called 
Puddle Dock. At that time the vicinity of the Point of Graves was the 
business part of the town, and in 1670 is the record that Samuel Went- 
worth was licensed with ** libertie to entertaiu strangers and sell and 
brew beare." In 1727 the town granted permission to build a bridge 
over the cove or dock, now called Liberty Bridge, but at that time the 
cove e.\tended fartlier into the town, so that at high tide boats passed 
over Ple;isaut Street to the South Creek or mill-pond by the Universalist 

are householders and men of any principles, port, or 

This is met by a counter petition from Mason, re- 
questing all the acts of tlie Governor and company of 
the Massachusetts Bay to be declared void and illegal, 
and that " the petitioner may not be any longer kept 
out of his inheritance by the continuance and prac- 
tices of evill minded men." 

After Cranfleld assumed the government here and 
had looked into thisdisturbing element, we find him 
writing that "Mr. Mason hath much misrepresented 
y°. whole matter, both as to y" place and people. . . . 
Instead 'of being ready to owVi Mr. Mason as their 
Proprietor, they are very slow to admit of any person 
except their Sovereign Lord, the King, to be their 
Lord Proprietor." In the same paper he adds, 
" Touching Ecclesiastical Matters, the attempting to 
settle y' way of y' Church of England, I perceive 
wilbe very grievous to the people. However, Mr. 
Mason asserted y' their Inclinations were m"'' y' way. 
I have observed them to be very diligent and devout 
in attending on y' mode of worship w"" they have been 
brought up in, and hath been so long settled among 
them, and seem to be very tenacious of it, and ain 
very thankfull for His Maj"'' gracious Indulgence in matters." 

In 1691, Robert Tufton Mason, to whom the estate 
of his brother, John Tufton Mason, had descended, 
sold his whole claim in the province of New Hamp- 
shire to a merchant in London, Samuel Allen, for the 
sum of seven hundred and fifty pounds, a paltry sum 
after the statements of expenditures and the pros- 
perity of the colony, or a proof that the confidence 
in his legal claim or the hope of recovering anything 
had hearly vani.shed. One of the chief reasons for 
Usher's unpopularity was his attempt immediately 
upon arriving to secure into his own possession all the 
papers relating to the Mason claims: For some time^ 
through the determined opposition of Pickering, a 
man very prominent in the early history of the settle- 
ment in both church and State, he was prevented, 
and at last after succeeding, and after many discus- 
sions and legal attempts, a peaceful solution of the 
long standing contention was about reached when 
Allen died and his son carried on the strife. Again, 
in 1746, John Tufton Mason, still claiming a title to 
the realm of New Hampshire, sold it in fifteen shares 
to twelve persons prominent in the province, who at 
once released to all the towns the lands which came 
under the old grants, and Mason's claim forever fell 
asleep. Two or three conclusions are evident from a 
careful review of the whole matter, — that Mason was 
not the original founder of this colony, but the one 
who carried on the original settlement by Thomson 
to a successful issue; that he was one who by a long 
and generous interest showed his unwearied faith in 
its final success ; that he doubtless spent large sums 
upon this colony without any encouraging returns; 
that after the settlement was by his heirs for a long 



time abandoned there is every reason to suppose the I 
wiigcs of liis colonists and their labors to build up the j 
province iUirly entitled them to most of tlie posses- 
sions liere, and that most of tlic claims made by suc- 
ceeding generations of heirs were manifestly exorbi- 
tant and unjust. But, on the contrary, when in 
"Notes on an Indehture of David Thomson and 
others," recently recovered among the papers of the 
Winthrop family, it is said, "New Hampshire has 
but little cause to cherish his (Mason's) memory ; and 
he would probably have been forgotten but for the 
accidental revival of his name by the claims of his 
heirs, who used them as an instrument to annoy and 
perplex the settlers on the soil, who had acquired a 
right to their homesteads and farms by long undis- 
turbed jiossession," we think we find iiere the old 
sjiirit of the Massachusetts to belittle the character of 
the settlers at the Piscataqua, for there is no reason 
to suppose that Mason was not an honorable, loyal, 
generous, and good man. 

Theological Movements.— The change in the Pis- 
cata(|iui Irom Episcopacy to Puritanism, which was 
made during one of the most excited ecclesiastical 
periods in history, finds its only explanation in an 
understanding of the ecclesiastical parties of England 
and New England. That vast theological movement 
which spread over Europe in the sixteenth century 
under the name of the Reformation reached England 
in the reign of Henry VIII. Convocation after con- 
vocation for arranging articles of faith broke up with 
only a wider separation. During the next reign of 
Edward VI. a committee of bishops and divines trans- 
lated and arranged from the Latin of the ancient 
liturgies enough to form the Book of Common Prayer, 
whicli substantially in its present form was adopted 
in 1548, and ordered to be read throughout the king- 
dom. The Established Church of England was a 
compromise between Papacy and Calvinism, the faith 
of Rome and Geneva, the two great rival centres of 
theology for that day. It was, and was intended to 
be, neither one thing nor another, but so admirably 
proportioned to the tastes of the discordant factions 
that in it the Romanist might find enough of his old 
ritual to make him think he was still coming to mass 
and the Puritan enough of change to make him think 
the church bad been purified, and, ils a matter of his- 
tory, "even those who were addicted to tiie Romish 
communions made no scruple of attending the Es- 
tablished Church. Her doctrinal confessions," says 
Macaulay, "set forth principles of theology in which 
Calvin or Knox would have found scarcely a word to 
disprove. Her prayers and thanksgiving, derived from 
the am'ient liturgies, are very generally such that Car- 
dinal Pole might have heartily joined in them. Ut- 
terly rejecting the doctrine of transubstantiation, and 
condemning as idolatrous all adoration paid to the 
sacramental bread and wine, she yet, to the disgust of 
the Puritan, recjuired her children to receive the me- 
morials of divine love, meekly kneeling upon their 

knees. Discarding many rich vestments which sur- 
rounded the altars of the ancient faith, she yet retained 
to the horror of weak minds the robe of white linen 
which typified the purity whicli belonged to her as 
the mysterious spouse of Christ." And yet, as history 
found, in the very concessions which gave her birth 
were the elements which forbade perpetuity, and by 
the gradual development of which she is now break- 
ing to pieces. 

When Mary came to the English throne, through 
her leaning to Catholicism, the ancient liturgies of the 
mass were revived, and the Book of Common Prayer 
abandoned. Under Queen Elizabeth the service ac- 
cording to the Book of Common Prayer was restored. 
During her reign the thirty-nine articles were pre- 
pared by a convocation of the clergy, and at the same 
time a vote was taken in the Lower House upon throw- 
ing out the ceremonies, and they were retained only 
by a majority of one, showing how nearly balanced 
the Puritans and Episcopalians had become. After 
these articles were adopted the clergy were ordered to 
subscribe to them, and those who refused were termed 
Non-conformists. Elizabeth liked more and more 
the ritual of Rome, and felt more and more that the 
Reformers had gone too far in cutting off forms and 
observances; while on the other hand the Non-con- 
formists, many of them leaving on account of perse- 
cution, came back from the homes of the Reformation 
whither they flqd still more embittered against all 
forms, and persecution was returned by persecution. 

When James came to the throne the Reformers ex- 
pected from him some fiivors, because he had been 
reared in Scotland and because he had twice sworn 
and subscribed to their Confession of Faith, and once 
said in the General Assembly of the Puritans that he 
praised God he was born to be king of such a church, 
the purest in the world, and that the service of the 
Church of England was an ill said mass in English. 

But we have all found that the promises and pro- 
fessions of a man before gaining office and his per- 
formances afterwards are rarely in accord. So when 
James became king his demeanor towards the Puri- 
tans entirely changed. He was himself a man of 
free living to say the least, liked mirth and sports, 
and could not bear the severe discipline of the Re- 
formers. He had learned also in Scotland that with 
all their complaints against the Romanists the Pres- 
byterian clergy of the Scotch Kirk had quite as much 
of the spirit of popery as the Romish priests, and 
that they were bent upon a union of church and State 
even more complete than at Rome, only it was to be 
of their ruling, and moreover he found that the Puri- 
tans were tending to a democracy sure to be his over- 
throw. "A Scotch Presbytery," said King James, 
" agrees as well with monarchy as God and the devil." 
So James as monarch began a violent opposition to 
the Puritans. Still the parties had not come to an 
open rupture, and James called a council to harnio- 
nize the differences. The subjects of greatest dispute 



were the cross in baptism, the ring in marriage, the 
use of the surplice, and bowing at the name of Jesus. 
Some clianges were made in the Common Prayer; 
each party went away more than ever dissatisfied. 
At this long reach of yearS it is impossible to enter 
into or portray the intense excitement which pervaded 
every class in England. The kingdom, about equally 
divided, was hastening on to the temporary rule of 
the Puritans during the establishment of the Com- 
monwealth. Persecution on the side of the Estab- 
lished Church was met by raillery on the side of the 
Reformers. All the innocent amusements of life 
were classed with the guilty by the indiscriminating 
and stern Puritans. The sports of the English people 
came particularly under their ban, and when the 
king gave countenance to dancing, archery, and may- 
poles on Sunday after worship, the wrath of the Puri- 
tans was beyond control. Bear-baiting, then a favorite 
sport, particularly called forth the censure of the Puri- 
tans, and if with any of that humane instinct which 
at the present day characterizes the movement against 
cruelty to animals it had been well, but the Puritans 
opposed it not because it was wrong in itself or tor- 
tured the animals, but simply because their opponents 
indulged in it : as Macaulay has so pointedly ex- 
pressed it, " the Puritans hated bear-baiting not be- 
cause it gave pain to the bear but because it gave 
pleasure to the spectators." 

All the forms of the church which had been en- 
deared by generations of worshipers became the butt 
of the Puritans. The altar was removed from the 
v.'all and placed in the middle of the church, and 
thenceforth denominated the communion-table, while 
the papists irreverently termed them oyster-boards. 
The sermons of the Puritans, their long prayers and 
endless discourses, became the ridicule of the Ritual- 
ists. Queen Elizabeth used to say that two or three 
preachers were sufficient for a whole county, while 
the Puritans found not a little compensation for their 
exile in listening to sermons of indefinite length 
whenever they pleased. 

To add to the theological bitterness came also a 
political warfare, for it was deemed by the reformers 
that the spirit of liberty could not coexist with mon- 
archy, that Episcopacy was the natural enem}' of de- 
mocracy, and the same rancor they bore towards their 
spiritual head, the pope, was turned against their 
political head, the king. 

The turbulence and bitter personalities which filled 
all England, both in church and State, are equaled 
but two or three times in history. 

Now it was at the very culmination of these trou- 
bles that our settlements were made, the Bay Colony 
by the Puritans, Maine and New, Hampshire, the 
Piscataqua by the adherents of the Established 
Churches. The first chapel on Pleasant Street was 
built, and Richard Gibson, the first minister of the 
Piscataqua parish, preached in it the very year (1638) 
that Episcopacy was abolished in England, and the 

glebe with its chapel and parsonage was given by the 
inhabitants to the wardens and their successors for- 
ever, just on the eve of the civil war in England. 
Can any one at all acquainted with the bitterness of 
party feeling, either in politics or theology, fail to see 
a sufficient explanation of the constantly repeated 
charges against the Piscataqua settlement that it was 
begun and carried on simply in the interests of trade, 
and by men who had no religion, for to the Puritans 
Episcopacy was no religion ? On the other hand, does 
not the same height of party feeling lead us to sup- 
pose that the supporters of the Established Church 
at this point did everything with reference to its 
perpetuity, if for no other reason because it was, even 
though weak, an open testimony to their cause in the 
very face of Puritanism ? No one can wish to ques- 
tion the purity of life or the praiseworthy sacrifices 
of many of the Puritans, or that the first settlement 
of the Plymouth Colony was made singly in the in- 
terests of religious liberty; but the spirit of coloniza- 
tion at that time pervaded all classes about alike, and 
the character of the various settlements soon became 
much the same. 

One of the Hiltons of our Dover settlement, first 
settled at Plymouth, writes from there in 1621, and 
after speaking of the pleasant climate,- fertile lands, 
plentiful timber, and abundant fruits, goes on to say, 
" We are all freeholders, the rent day doth not trouble 
us, and all those good Blessings we have in their sea- 
son for taking. Our Companie are for part very 
, religious, honest people ; the word of God sincerely 
taught us every Sabbath, so that I know not anything 
a contented mind can here want." Nothing could 
better reveal than this private correspondence the 
actual character of the colony, — persons who felt a glad 
' sense of release from their persecutions, from the re- 
' straints and taxes and formalities of an old commu- 
1 nity, and who were equally pleased with the devout- 
ness of their simple worship. 

There was an additional reason why the Bay Colony 
should regard this colony with distrust, and follow it 
with all the misrepresentations born of the bitter con- 
i flict in England. Puritanism had not yet quite gained 
1 the supremacy, and until it did there runs all through 
the history of that settlement a fear of Episcopacy, 
lest perchance they should themselves be brought 
under its sway. Elements of the Established Church 
constantly come to the surface, and call forth such a 
feeling of indignation, wrath, and anxiety as can now 
hardly be appreciated. 

When Robert Gorges, son of Sir Ferdinando, came 
to the Massachusetts Bay, with a learned and worthy 
minister of the English Church to begin a settlement, 
and other families, they found no peace. Attempts 
; to found Episcopal Churches in Massachusetts proved 
j constant failures. At Salem Common Prayer was read 
for a while, but Maverick and Skelton, and Black- 
stone and Lyibrd, and other clergymen of the Estab- 
lished Church found no reception for their views and 



little toleration for their efforts. The Massachusetts 
Colony was constantly in dread lest the king should 
impose the ceremony of the Church of England upon 
them, and, either with or without just reason, con- 
stantly suspected Mason and Gorges and the settle- 
ment at the Piscataqua of inducing the king to do so, 
anil charged them with misrepresentingthe Bay Colony 
to the government of EngUuid. 

On tlie other hand, the settlements along the Maine 
coast and at Piscataqua were strictly in the interests 
of the Established Church ; and without inaking any 
claims for the special godliness of their members, the 
testimony is ample that though the kind of religion 
was different from the Bay Colony, there was just .is 
much interest in the kind. When the expedition 
under Popham reached the Maine coast in 1607, as 
soon as they land they listen to a sermon from their 
preacher, Richard Seymour, and as soon as they dis- 
embark they build a church. 

It is easy to see, therefore, that all the heat of 
ecclesiastical troubles in the old country was repro- 
duced in these neighboring settlements. The ques- 
tion then arises. How did the Episcopal parish here 
]iass so rapidly and completely under the control of 
the Puritans? The solution is not afar. In the first 
jilace, as in the Bay Colony some elements of Episco- 
pacy appear, so there were doubtless some of Puri- 
tanism already here from the beginning. Next, with 
the greater influence and fear of the Massachusetts 
colony, all her efforts were directed towards hasten- 
ing the supremacy of Puritanism. We find a record 
that a merchant of London writes to John Winthrop, 
.Tr., "there are honest men about to buye out the 
Bristoll men's plantations on Piscataqua, and doe 
propose to plant there five hundred poor people ;" and 
a Uttle later Bristol merchants who had bought the 
patents of Edward Hilton sell them to purchasers by 
the encouragement of Massachusetts, "in respect they 
feared some ill neighborhood from them ;" where- 
upon one of the Puritan historians writes, "As these 
new proprietors were of Puritan preferences and 
principles, such a consideration must have been very 
welcome to the Bay authorities, who naturally wished 
to be surrounded by those who labored for the .same 
great cause of reformation." 

To the ecclesiastical enmity which separated the 
colonies at the Bay and at the Piscataijua there 
be added a political animosity also, arising from the 
feeling on the part of some that the Bay Colony had 
assumed here a jurisdiction which never justly be- 
longed to it, a feeling which seems to have remained 
deep-seated and active even to the time of the ap- 
pointment of the first Governor of the separate prov- 
ince of New Hampshire. 

In ll)t;4 the king appointed commissioners to visit 
all these colonies and collect testimony in regard to 
the many complaints which had reached the court. 
The appointment of it created great opposition by 
the Bay Colony, and great consternation at the Pis- 

cataqua. The religious and political difi'erences ran 
so high that the commissioners found hard work and 
ill treatment awaiting them. John and Richard Cutt, 
who seem to be the leading selectmen of Portsmouth, 
send a messenger post-haste to Boston for advice, 
saying that although "our people the five to one are 
in their hearts for the Bay, yet they have fears that 
the king's commissioners will gradually take advan- 
tage u|)on us by secret seducing the ignorant and ill 
affected, then will openly prevail with the rest;" but 
when the commissioners came and held their meet- 
ing at Portsmouth, one Henry Sherborne (the same 
who was a church warden), when it was demanded 
who would be under the immediate government of 
the king and renounce the Massachusetts, "the sayd 
Henry Sherborn sayd, ' one and all for the King,' or in 
words to that effect." 

Such are the incidents which reveal to an impar- 
tial consideration the true condition of the. colony, 
its various divisions, its theological and political ex- 
citement, and its personal animosities. 

In the light of this historical sketch we find then a 
far safer and more sufficient explanation of the early 
matters of our settlement than it has been customary 
to give. All the charges that it was made only in 
the interests of trade, and that it was wholly irre- 
ligious, or, as Winthrop says, that it was the usual 
manner (some of them) of the colonists here to coun- 
tenance all such lewd persons as fled from the Bay 
here, as if our settlement was composed of that class 
of persons, fall to the ground. The accusation has 
the common sound and taint of the party feeling 
which ran at that time so high. Many early settlers 
both at the Bay and here were of the highest class of 
colonists who ever left a mother-country, and many 
were of that restless nature moved by the numberless 
motives which till all new settlements. As human 
beings they were pretty much the same, as worshipers 
they were widely apart and greatly embittered against 
each other, but the settlement at the Piscataqua I 
have satisfactorily shown was planned and supported 
enthusiastically in the interests of Episcoi)acy. 

In the light of this historical review we find the 
only true explanation of another point which has 
been as steadily misunderstood or misrepresented. If 
the first parish and church were Episcopal, how is it 
that all the .services after the departure of Gibson 
were by Puritan ministers, and that the chapel, par- 
sonage, glebe land, and all the appointments for pub- 
lic worship were transformed with seemWigly so little 
public or long-continued opposition to the Puritans? 

In the first place we must give up all those sug- 
gestions which, if they did not show themselves as 
too partisan, would be too absurd, such as that the 
forms of the deed were expressed according to the 
Church of England, and appropriate church terms 
were used because no other were at hand ; that the 
deed was piirjmaehj drawn so as to leave the form of 
worship to be decided from time to time. Would 



anybody have reasoned thus if a Catholic priest had 
heen chosen, or the glebe land come under the Ro- 
manists' patronage, or that the adherents of the Es- 
tablished Church, in assenting to the worship they 
were powerless to prevent, did ever see in the change 
any perversion of the original intention and employ- 
ment of the gift? We all well know that churches 
are never thus indifferently founded, and that the 
denominational spirit is not so readily transferred, 
and does not so readily die out. If we could ask 
Walford and Sherborne, the first wardens, or any of 
the little congregation of churchmen who, in that 
little log chapel on Pleasant Street, saw the Puritan 
minister, Parker, officiate in the winter of 1642 with- 
out robes, and without the Book of Common Prayer, 
whether there was in that any perversion of the pro- 
visions for the maintenance of a church, can there be 
any doubt what their reply would be? 

The parish had been gathered, the chapel and par- 
sonage built, and the glebe land set apart with no 
other thought than that the worship according to the 
Established Church of England would be perpetual 
in the Piscataqua settlement, but the proprietors and 
supporters of the settlement died, and their estates 
came into new hands. Some of the leading church- 
men of the colony went elsewhere or died, and of 
course many of the settlers were as willing to su|)- 
port the worship of one church as another, and some 
were earnest for Puritanism. The Bay Colony, as we 
have seen, was far more populous and prosperous, and 
even reached as far as England to see that their neigh- 
boring settlers were of the same faith. The jurisdic- 
tion of Massachusetts was established over the Piscata- 
qua settlement just at that time, and the very year the 
chapel was built Episcopacy was abolished in Eng- 
land. If all the records which a sectarian zeal made 
way with were extant, we should doubtless find more 
open opposition to the rule and worship of the Puri- 
tans than we do, but the Episcopalians could no longer 
support public services, and their numbers were soon 
almost lost in the rapid increase of Puritans. In se- 
cret, without a doubt, they trusted that the Established 
Church would soon be triumphant, the combination 
with Massachusetts be dissolved, and the king confirm 
to them all the rights of their chapel and worship. 
That time never came. It remained for them to wor- 
ship in their own chapel under other forms or to have 
no public worship at all. They did the former, and 
even Sherborne himself became much interested in 
subsequent ministrations of the South Parish, and 
in the building of the Second Church. 

The Puritans, too, could not as I see have done or 
been expected to do otherwise. There was the un- 
used chapel and parsonage and glebe land ; perhaps 
no one thought of objecting to their worshiping in it. 
When Sunday came round, as a company of travelers 
in distant lands and of divers faiths, they were all 
glad of some kind of worship, and went to what they 
had. As to their appropriating it as their own there- 

after, that was what either side was doing to the other 
whenever it could during that long period of ecclesias- 
tical anarchy, and justice from one bitterly excited 
sect towards another is something wdiich is still 
remanded to a Sunday's meditation rather than to 
the consideration of a parish meeting. 

I find not so much fault with what the Puritans 
did at the time as their explanations of it afterwards, 
when a calmer survey of history, or a little medita- 
tion upon the golden rule, ought to have taught 
them better, not so much with what they did in the 
heat of theological warfare as what they attempted 
to justify in the calm of Christian worship. ' 

With the departure of Gibson in 1642 the public 
services of Episcopacy in the Piscataqua settlement 
came to an end. We shall find that it was almost 
precisely a century before they were again opened, 
i but not so as to have any historical associations 
[ with the first parish and chapel of their faith on 
Pleasant Street; all the worshipers there had become 
a part of the South Parish, and yet it is but a fair 
i concession to the tenacity with which we know per- 
sons hold to their inherited or adopted faith to regard 
j it as quite probable that during that century Episco- 
pacy did not quite die out among the descendants of 
I the early worshipers. 

The most important incidents in the recorded his- 
j tory of this settlement now follow for a time the two 
, or three principal pastorates. Joshua Moodey began 
t his ministrations in the year 1658, and the next year 
I was regularly settled as the minister of the town. 
j He was born in Wales in 1632, and brought by his 
father to this country the following year. The family 
lived for a time at Ipswich, and removed to Newbury 
in 1635. Mr. Moodey graduated at Harvard in 1653, 
and began the study of theology. He preached in 
the new meeting-house in Portsmouth with so much 
approval that a subscription was taken for his main- 
tenance for a year, and then he was called to be the 
minister, yet such was the division of sentiment on 
account of Puritanism and Episcopacy, preventing 
any permanent and harmonious action, that he was 
minister of the town for twelve years before a church, 
meaning thereby a body of communicants, was gath- 
ered. The Episcopal element, though small, was so 
important and influential that in regard to all matters 
pertaining to the minister's support it had to be re- 
garded, and it persistently opposed everything which 
tended to the strict organization of Puritanism. The 
history of the formation of the church is still plainly 
preserved in Mr. Moodey's own handwriting, and 
runs as follows : 

'* Portsmouth, N. E., Anno 1671. 
" After many seriouB endeavors well had lieen need by ye then minister 
of ye place (since the pastor of ye Church tliere) in piiblig, & hy seveiall 
of ye Inhaliitants in Private ; ye Lord (witliout wlioee presence and Bless- 
ing man builds but in value) was pleased at length to lay ye foundation of 
an House for himself in this place, of j-e Beginning and progress whereof 
here follows a brief but true account. In ye winter of ye foregoing 
year [viz.,ltj70] there were severall meetings togetlier of ye minister with 
sevMl of ye Inhal>itants (who weremembersof other congregations) in ye 

g ra 

3 ^ 



country & by proviilenco Bettlod IiiliabitdiitH In Portumo', to discourse 
and confer about ye gfonto worke and iieceBsnry Duty of entering Into 
Clinich Fellowsblp, yt themselves might enjoy all ye ordinnnces of ye 
Lord's Ilonse, A tlieyr litlle ones also might be laid near God's Altars, 
and brought nji under yo Instruction & Discipline of his House. Nor 
couM tliey yt were members of other cliurcli^s any longer satisfy them- 
selves to live without ye enjoyment of those edifying & strengthening 
ordiruinces yt tbeyr soules had in some measure formei-Iy tasted ye good 
of, tho' now for some yeares been kept from ; others also, well affected to 
ye worke, professed theyr longings after those futt and marrowed things 
in God's luuise,and theyr readiness tojoyne with yue in helping to build 
if they shonlil be found fitt for ye same.' 

" Hereupon sev'll assembled in I'rivate & sought ye Lord by fasting & 
prayer yt, bee would discover to us a right way (there being many feares 
and discouragements before us) for oni-selves and little ones (Kzra viii. 
-\,'i'l, 'J3),an<l wee hope wee may say hee was ontroatedof us, asyeEvent 
hath in some measure (blessed bee his name) made nnmifest." 

TlicM lolldws all account oC private meetings, which 
were cijntinneil several days, to iliscnss tlie subject and 
arrange the conditions of cliurcii nieinbei'ship ; meet- 
ings of inquiry as to relations of one to another, so 
that they could freely unite in the same society; of 
consent to several sermons delivered l)y Mr. Moodey 
upon the subject in the latter part of 1G70 and begin- 
ning of 1671; of a committee appointed to "acquaint 
the (.'ivill" authority of their purpose ; of an invitation 
sent to other churches; of their attendance with the 
civil authority; of a sermon by the pastor, and the 
ordination ol'the pastor by several of the elders, and 
of the ordination of a deacon by imposition of hands 
and prayer. 

The nine persons who were embodied and formed 
the tirst communicants were Joshua Moodey, Mr. 
John Cutt, Mr. Richard Cutt, Elias Stiteman, Mr. R. 
Martyn, James Pendleton, Samuel Haines, Mr. John 
Fletcher, and John Tucker. So widely were they 
scattered that Stileman was from New Castle, and 
Haines from Great I'ay, at Greenland. 

Cranfield and Moodey. — It seems from the lan- 
guage of Cranfleld's commission that one of the prin- 
cipal objects of his appointment was to settle the 
serious difliculty constantly reappearing in the colony 
in regard to the claims of the heirs of Mason. His 
descendants, under the lead of Robert Miuson, Esq., 
one of Cranfleld's Council, came to reassert their right 
to most of the laud here, which had been greatly im- 
proved, and the titles to whicii having been derived 
frtim the government of Massachusetts Bay, the 
judges in England had set aside. The most serious 
disturbances the colony had yet known now began. 
Cranfleld's residence wa.s at Great Island, now New 
Castle, where a number of tiie leading colonists lived. 
Of course, Cranfield and Mason became at once ob- 
jects of bitter hostility to all the settlers, who, without 
any or with no good legal titles, began to fear the 
loss of their possessions. The home government had 
decided that on account of great expenses which the 
ancestors of this Robert Mason had incurred upon 
their grant of land at the Piscataqua he had a claim 
upon the estates here. JIason agreed with the home 
government to demand nothing for the time past, nor 
molest any one in the time to come, provided the 

tenants would pay him sixpence on the pound on a 
just and true yearly value of all their estates. If no 
settlement could be made upon these terms, the cases 
were to be sent to England for decision. It is 
to see the tumult into which the colony was thrown, 
it being determined almost unanimously that the 
claims of Mason would not be satisfied. Each house 
became the seat of a secret conspiracy. All conver- 
sation was about the claims of Mason and the un- 
popular Governor at Great Island. The result of it 
\yas that Cranfield could not settle the difficulties, ad- 
just the claims, nor resist the wide-spread opposition, 
nor, as it has generally been represented, obtain any 
personal advantages from the office. Complaints were 
made against him, and listened to by the government, 
that he had attempted to settle himself cases which 
ought to have been sent to England, and he left the 
province in 1685. Whether ft was because Cranfield 
was sincerely desirous to favor the Established Church, 
or whether he used this plea to cover up plans for 
self-aggrandizement, or whether it was because the 
Rev. Mr. Moodey, as one of the most influential men 
of the settlement, was in the way of his success, Gov- 
ernor Cranfield soon came to an open rupture with 
Mr. Moodey. A ministry of twenty-four years at the 
time Governor Cranfield came, and steadily increas- 
ing in favor and influence, had given to Mr. Moodey 
a sway in all local as well as parish matters which 
could not easily or safely be disputed, and that Mr. 
Moodey was not unwilling to use it appears from a 
letter of one Chamberlain, secretary of the province 
and justice of the peace, wherein it is stated that Mr. 
Moodey was "archbishop and chief justice too."' 

1 In one of Cranfleld's letters he says, '* I found Mr. Moodey and his party 
so troublesome that I believed myselfe unsafe to continue longer amongst 
them till I had the continuance of a ffrigott and full instructions to re- 
duce them to better understanding." Capt. Bareftiot also shows the 
general feeling of the church party towards the Puritan element and 
the acts of the Ma-ssachusetts by writing, " I have beene an inhabitant 
about five and twenty years, during wc*" time I have not only made my 
observation upon y humors and carriage of this people, liut by the 
means of some of my neare relations being married into yo wealthiest 
familyesin this country, I have been thoroughly informed of the intreg'" 
and designs of the faction and malignant party who managed all pub- 
licke affaires here whilest this pr()vince Wiw under the Massachusetts 
jurisdiction, & very unwillingly submitted to a change of government 
wii his Mtijty by his Royal Commission hath establislied, A although 
Massachusetts exercise noe authorit/in this province, yet they influ- 
ence things as they please, there being a strict confederation between y* 
ministers and church members of this province and those of y» Massa- 
chusetts Collony, who Governe and sway y« people as they please, noe 
pope ever acted wtf» greater .Arrogance than these preachers who enflame 
the people to their fantastick humors and delMiuch them from theire 
duty it obedience to his Mi^esty & his Lawes, A are ever stirring them 
up to disloyalty A intermeddling iu all civill affaires." 

And again Cranfield writes, " When the charfer shall be maile void it 
will be necessary to desolve their University of Cambridge, for from them 
all the severall cidonys in New Kngland arc supplyed the people. 
Loukeing upon their Teachers little less than Apostles, it is increilible 
what an influence they have ovcrthe vulgar, A do make it their busiueas 
dayly to excite and stir them up to Itel>eIlion, being profeat Enimies to 
the King's govmt A Church it is to lie feare<I this people will never bee 
reclaimed until tho University of England supply these Culonys, the 
not nipping them in the budd may prove of great inconvenienov«. By 
taking away their Univorsily (which will also lie forfeited with their 



The occasion for an open rupture between the head 
of the State and the head of the church came in 1684. 
In that year one of the leading characters of Great 
Island, George Jaffrey, a constable, and a prominent 
merchant, was brought before the court for some 
evasion or infringement of the revenue laws, but for 
some reason legal proceedings against him were 
stayed, and he seemed about to escape. Mr. Jaffrey 
was, however, a member of the church worshiping 
at the old South, and it came to the ears of Mr. 
Moodey that there had been some false swearing in 
the matter, and when the State let Mr. Jaffrey go 
the church took him up. Mr. Moodey brought Mr. 
Jaffrey before the church for discipline, against the 
command of the Governor, and in the end obtained 
from him an open confession of his wrong, a confes- 
sion so sincere that, instead of provoking him, it led 
Mr. Jaffrey to be afterwards an active, useful, and 
leading man in the church. Thereupon a short time 
after Governor Cranfield issued an order that after the 
1st of January ensuing all the mini-sters within the 
province should admit all persons of suitable years 
and not vicious or scandalous in their lives to the 
bles.sed sacrament of the Lord's Supper, and their 
children unto baptism ; and if any persons desired 
the sacrament, or their children to be baptized ac- 
cording to the liturgy of the Church of England, it 
be done accordingly under penalty of imprisonment 
of the clergyman refusing and the loss of all the 

charter) the Eflfect will come, for all othe?- wales will be ineffectual!, the 
fountaine being impure." 

And still once more Cranfield writes, "The experience I have had in 
this small governm* plainly discovers no true obedience nor good can be 
expected upon y^ regulation of the Massachusets Colony if the Assem- 
blymen or other persons in publick trust doe consist of the Congregated 
Church members, the ministers giviugit as doctrine that the Oath of 
Supremacy, & all other oaths that are not upprovetl of by the Ministers 
& Elders of their Churches are unlawful in tliemselves, therefore 'tis my 
bumble opinion that it will be absolutely necessary to admit no person 
into any place of Trust but such as take y*" Sacrament & one conformable 
to the Rites of the Church of England, for others will be so influenced 
by their ministers as will obstruct the good settlement of this place, & I 
utterly dispair of any true duty and obedience paid to his Majty untill 
their Colledge be supprest and their Ministers silenced, for they are not 
only Rtiimies to his Maj'y & government, but Christ himself, for of all 
the inhal>itants of this Province, being about four thousand in number, 
not above three hundred Christened by reason of their Parents not being 
members of their Church. I have been this 16 months persuading the 
ministers to admitt all to the Sacrament &-Baptism that were notvitious 
in their lives, but could not prevail upon them, therefore with advice of 
the Councell made this inclosed order. Notwithstanding they were left 
in the entire possession of their churches and only required to adminis- 
ter both Sacraments, according to tlie Litiirgie of y^ Churcli of England, 
to such as desired them, which they refuse to doe, and will understand 
Liberty of Couscience given in his Maj" Commission not only to exempt 
them from giving the Sacrament according to the Book of Coraon Pi-ayer, 
but make all the Inhabitants contribute to their Maintenance, although 
they refuse to give them the Sacrament & Christen their Children, if it 
be not absolutely enjoyned here, & in other Colonies, that both Sacra- 
ments be administered to all persons that are duly qiuilified, according 
to the form of the Comon Prayer, there will be perpetual disseutions 
and a total decay of the Christian Religion." 

What an admirable illustration of the confusion most rulers would 
create when they meddle with theological subjects of which they are ig- 
norant, and the blindness of that bigotry which is seeking to establish 
foi' itself the very thing it is condemning in othei-s I 

profit of his spiritual benefices. This was in accord- 
ance with a statute of Queen Elizabeth, but it was 
also in conflict with a later statute granting liberty of 
conscience unto all Protestants, — a provision as we 
have seen plainly made in Cranfield's commission, 
and also in conflict with a provision of the church in 
not permitting one who was not in holy orders to 
administer its sacraments, and Mr. Moodey had not 
been ordained to the Church of England ritual. In 
spite of all this the arbitrary and enraged Governor 
sent word to Mr. Moodey soon after that on a follow- 
ing-named Sunday he should attend worship at his 
church and receive the sacrament according to the 
service of the Established Church. The order reads 
very much like the reported command of one of our 
colonels in the late war, ordering out a battalion of 
men to be baptized, so as not to be surpassed by a 
revival in another regiment. The Governor sent also 
to Rev. Seaborn Cotton, of Hampton, saying that 
when he had prepared his soul he would come and 
demand the sacrament of him, as he had done at 
Portsmouth. Whether the Governor ever prepared 
his soul is not a matter of history, but without wait- 
ing for that the minister of Hampton at once fled to 
Boston. It was not so with the more courageous 
minister of Portsmouth. Mr. Moodey refused to 
obey the Governor, saying, " I told the marshall I 
durst not, could not, should not do it," whereupon 
complaint was made against him of violating the 
statute of Queen Elizabeth ; " that the said Joshua 
Moodey, being the present minister of the Town of 
Portsmouth, in the province of New Hampshire, . . . 
by the duty of his place is by laws and statutes of the 
said realm of England required and commanded to 
administer the sacrament of the Lord's Supper in 
such manner and form as is set forth in the Book of 
Common Prayer and administration of sacraments 
and other rites and ceremonies in the Church of 
England, and shall use no other manner or form than 
is mentioned and set forth in the said Book. Whereas 
the said Joshua Moodey in contempt of the said Laws 
and Statutes hath wilfully and obstinately refused to 
administer the sacrament of the Lord's supper, ac- 
cording to the manner and form set forth in the said 
Book of Common Prayer unto the Hon. Edward 
Cranfield, Gov. of his Maj. in the Province of N. H., 
and others of his Maj'. Council of the said Province, 
and doth wilfully and obstinately use some other form 
than is by the said statutes ordained, Therefore, &e., 
doth pray that the said Joshua Moodey being thereof 
convicted according to the Law, may suffer such pen- 
alties as by the said statutes are made and provided." 
In another information against Mr. Moodey praying 
for judgment against him that he might suffer the 
penalties of the statute we find this expression: " The 
said Moodey having for many years had the appear- 
ance & reputation of a minister of God's word." It 
seems that the justices were divided in their opinion, 
two holding that he was not liable to the penalty on 



account of the liberty of conscience granted to all 
Protestiiiits licrc, and four holding that ho was. Mr. 
Mdodcy liinisoir, at the (Juarler Sessions the rjth of 
Fehruary, lOSl, upon examination i)leadcd " his not 
being ordained, having no maintenance according to 
the statute, and therefore not obliged to do that work 
which the statute required. Besides, these statutes 
were not made for these places ; the known end of 
their removal hither being that they might enjoy 
liberty in these foreign plantations which they could 
not have by virtue of the statutes at home, and were 
allowed to have here, esi)ecially our commission 
granting liberty of conscience." But it was all to no 
purpose, for the Governor had determined upon his 
inipri.sonment, and to the prison at Great Island Mr. 
Moodey went. 

There is preserved a letter of one Williaiu Vaugbaii, 
who was im])risoncd about the time, containing a jour- 
nal with comments of current events. He writes, 
" Aliove all, our minister lies in prison, and a famine 
of the Word of God is coming upon us. No public 
worship, no preaching of the word. What ignorance, 
profaneness, and misery must needs come." Under 
date of Feb. 10, 1684: 

" The Sabbath is come 

to come to us. . . . Motions h 
up ami preach on the Loi'd'e 
ni^ht, or ttiat neislibornjinist*. 
or ttiat the people might codx 
could. But notiiing will do; 
tians, to have a minister put i 
jtlace by one means or other. 

u preaching at the Banlc nor any allowed 
LVe been made that Mr. Moodey may go 
day, though he come down to prison at 
rfi might be permitted to come and preach, 
down to the prison and hear, as many as 
an unparalleled example amongst Cbris- 
nt and no other way found to supply his 
Good Mrs. Martin was buried, being not 

able to live above one Sabbath after the shutting up of the doors of the 

How many would die for that reason now? Mr. 
Martyn, one of the first seven members of the church, 
was also imprisoned, and this journal is authority for 
the remark that the Governor said to him, " I want 
money and will have it." "But," said Martyn, "I 
have none." Then said the Governor, " I will take 
you home," adding also that Martyn was a church- 
member, and he would watch him and all such and 
be sure to pay them off if he could catch them. In 
April, after they had been " nine Lord's days without 
a sermon," Mason, in absfence of Cranfield, gave leave 
for any minister to come and preach at the Bank, 
whereupon Rev. Samuel Phillips, of Rowley, came 
for two Sundays, the l.'.tli and 20tli of April. 

We find this item under date of September 12th : 
" Mr. Joshua Moodey, being to take a journey out of 
the Province, was forced to give a recognizance of 
£2(10 to return in three weeks, if alive and well." 

Mr. Moodey underwent imprisonment with a cour- 
ageous spirit, and writes during his confinement : 

" I told the court that I should go to prison with much more peace 
than they sent mo thither, and particularly applied myself to llnby, a 
church-memlH^r, and toM him that I had done nothing but what ho was 
by solemn covenant engaged tu-maintaiu, and wished him to provide 
against the day when these thingv should be overhauled. . . . But 
blessed be God for Jesus Christ. I am ipiiel anil at peace. Thus I have 
many things tliat are matter of re|>ei)tai)ce and shame to me, yet in this 
matter I am aliundaiitly s;itisfied in my lot, and hope sitall be a gainer. 

and that the cauao of Christ will gain by my sufferings. Only inethiiiks 
I find it a hard matter to suffer In aright manner. Soninthiug of stout- 
ness of spirit, some other sini^iter ends are apt to creep in and spoil suf- 
fering work. The Lord grant that I may have grace so to carry it as not 
to lose aught that I have done and do now suffer ! I beg your hearty 
prayers for me, that with Integrity and sincerity I may cheerfully and 
patiently bear my cross till the Lord shall give me a discharge." 

There is another letter dated "From the jirison, 
27th 1st Mo., 1684," i.e., March 27, 1684, in which he 
writes to Rev. Mr. Phillips, of Rowley, urging him to. 
come to Portsmouth and |>reach : 

"Oh, consider that my poor flock have fasted about forty tlaye, and 
must now be an hungered! Have pity upon them, have pity upon them, 
and thou, my friend! And when you have taken your turn we shall 
hope for some other. You will thereby not only visit mo in prison, but 
feed a great multitude of the hungry and thirsty little ones of Christ, 
which will be accounted for at that day. Pray come early enough in 
the week to give notice to the people. (I do also in behalf of my dear 
and tender wife, t^auk you for yours to her.) Now pray for me, that I 
may have an humble heart, and that my whole soul, body, and spirit may 
bo sanctified and kept blameless to that day." 

Mr. Moodey was once allowed to leave the prison 
and make a short visit to his family. He was released 
alter thirteen weeks' imprisonment under a strict 
charge to preach no more within the province on 
penalty of further imprisonment, whereupon he re- 
moved to Boston, and was at once called to be assist- 
ant minister with Rev. John Allen at the First Church, 
and at once occupied a prominent place, and was held 
in the highest regard during the eight years of his 
ministry. Mr. Moodey seems to have followed the 
course of the justices who condemned him with a 
keen vision, and he interpreted the disasters which 
befell them as a divine retribution for his imprison- 
ment, and in the church records he writes of them as 
follows : " Not long after Green repented, and made 
his acknowledgment to the pastor, who frankly 
forgave him. Roby was excommunicated out of 
Hampton Church for a common drunkard, and died 
excommunicated, and was by his friends thrown into 
a hole near his house for fear of an arrest of his car- 
cass. Barefoot fell into a languishing distemper, 
whereof he died. Coffin was taken by the Indians 
at Cochecho, 1689, his house and mill burnt, himself 
not being slain but dismissed. The Lord give him 
repentance, though no signs of it have yet appeared." 

While Mr. Moodey was at Boston he became a 
fellow of Harvard College, and upon the death of 
Rev. John Rogers, the president, the distinguished 
honor of that office was offered to him, but de- 

It had doubtless been greatly owing to Mr. Moodey's 
interest in educational matters that in May, 1669, the 
inhabitants of Port-^mouth sent to the General Court 
of the Massachu.setts the following address, to which 
Mr. Moodey's name is appended : 

" To the much Jfrm^ the Getteral Our/ o/ /A« MasMochuteUs anemlUd at 
BosToii, 20 Uay, lCfi9: 
"The humble aildrc«8 of the inbabitauta of the town of Portsmouth 
humbly sheweth that seeing by your means (under God) we enjoy much 
peace and quietness, and very worthy deeds are done to us by the favor- 
able aspect of the Government of this Colony upon us, we acrept it 
always and in all places with all thankfulncm. .\nd tlio' we have 



articled with yourselves for exemption 
never articled witb God and our own c 
gratitude which to demonstrate wiiile w 
of the sinking College in its present lo 

publique charges, yet we 
'iicps for exemption from 
? studying, tlie loud groans 
ite came to our ears. The 

relieving of which we account a good worU for the house of our God, 
and needful for the perpetuating of knowledge, both religious and civil, 
among us and our posterity after us, and therefore grateful to yourselves, 
whose care and study is to seek the welfare of our Israel. The premises 
considered we have made a collection in our town of £G0 per annum 
(and hope to make it more), which said sum is to be paid annually for 
these seven years ensuing, to be improved at the discretion of the Hon* 
overseers of tlie College for the behoof of the same and the advancement 
of good liter ature there, hoping withal that the example of oui-selvea 
(which have been accounted no people) will provoke the rest of the 
country to jealously (we mean an holy emulation to appear in so good a 
work), and tliat this hon'i Court will in their wisdom all meet vigorously 
to act for divestingthe sad omen to poor New England ; if a College begun 
and comfortably upheld while we were little should since now we are 
grown great, especially after so large and profitable an harvest, that 
this country & other places have reaped from the same. Your accept- 
ance of our good meaning liereiu will further oblige us to endeavor the 
approving ourselves to be your thankful and humble servants. 

"John Cutt. 

" Richard Cutt. 

"Joshua Moodey. 
" in the name and behalf of the rest of the subscribers in the towne of 

This address from the inhabitants of the town of 
Portsmouth was presented by Mr. Richard Cutt and 
Joshua Moodey, May 20, 1669, and gratefully ac- 
cepted; and the Governor, in the name of the whole 
met together, returned them the thanks of this court 
for tlu'ir pious and liberal gift to the college therein. 

The town of Portsmouth had then become the 
richest town, and the occasion of the subscription 
was a general collection for the purpose of erecting a 
new brick building at Harvard College. Dover gave 
thirty-two and Exeter ten pounds for the same pur- 
pose. This interest in Harvard College and the rec- 
ollection that besides the election of Mr. Moodey to 
its presidency, Dr. Langdon, of the North Parish, 
was also called to the same office at a later period, 
Dr. Peabody, of the South Parish, fulfilling the same 
duties temporarily at a still later period, and that Dr. 
Stiles, of the North Parish, was called to the same 
office at Yale College, show how greatly the strength 
and substantial character of our parishes were due to 
their appreciation of and demand for an able, culti- 
vated, and learned minister, and how greatly the 
congregations have departed from so general and 
dee|) an interest in true scholarship. 

Mr. Moodey and Witchcraft.— But the one thing 
for which Mr. Moodey deserves the highest credit, and 
which shows a mind enlightened and liberal beyond 
the current opinions of his day, is tlie part he took 
in the witchcraft delusion, a delusion which, as we 
shall see at another time, hardly found any spread or 
reception in our settlement. While he was settled 
over the First Church in Boston, Salem was very 
much excited upon the subject, and Philip English, 
an eminent merchant of Salem, with his wife, were 
sent to the Boston jail by reason that the one at 
Salem was crowded with the victims of this terrible 
persecution. Mr. Moodey took an early occasion to 
call upon them and invite them to his church (they 

having the liberty of the town by day, on condition 
of returning to the jail at night), and preached from 
the text, "When they persecute you in this city flee 
ye into another," in which he justified every attempt 
to escape from the forms of justice when justice was 
violated in them. After service he visited the pris- 
oners and advised them to flee, and offered himself to 
assist Mrs. English to escape. After much reasoning 
he induced them to go, and had provided, with the 
consent of the Governor, for their escape from the 
prison at midnight. They reached New York and 
remained until the danger was over, and yet so uni- 
versally was witchcraft believed in, even by many of 
the best, that Mr. Moodey was severely denounced 
for opposing it. 

Death of Mr. Moodey. — The long ministry of Mr. 
Moodey over the parish at Portsmouth created an 
attachment which is revealed by the words of tender- 
est sympathy while he was ministering to the First 
Church at Boston. He writes that during his resi- 
dence there " the church were often visited by the 
pastor, and kept up theyr private meetings, and so 
held together, tho' some removed and others were 
taken away by death." 

In a letter to' Increase Mather, then in England, he 
writes, "If you can, in all your opportunities of wait- 
ing on his Maj'^ find a season to thrust in a happy 
word for poor N. Hampshire, who are under lamen- 
table circumstances Mason is dead, but his sons 
survive, and possibly may be worse than hee. You 
know how the poor people have been unreasonably 
harassed, and to raise one family on the ruins of half 
a dozen considerable Townes looks hard. 'Tis my 
affection to my people that has drawn this hint fro. 
mee. I leave it to your consideration and pray for 
God's presence to be with you." And again he writes, 
" If something could be done for the poor province of 
N. Hampshire & Mein, it would be a good work." 

The year after Mr. Cranfield drove Mr. Moodey 
to Boston he was himself removed from his office here, 
and though the opportunity was offered, and Mr. 
Moodey constantly expressed the deepest interest in 
the parish here, it was not until 1693 that he returned. 
The explanation is very easy and satisfactory, if only 
we keep in mind the Episcopal element, which has 
been so steadily ignored, and which must have been 
brought to the surface, and probably was more impor- 
tant and influential than it had been since the minis- 
try of Gibson. The want of harmony in the parish 
was doubtless such as to make him question the use- 
fulness of his ministry, although never without the 
cordial, earnest support of a large portion of the par- 
ish. In July, 1688, Mr. Moodey wrote to Mather 
upon the subject, " I need exceedingly your advice 
about going lo Portsmouth, which is vehemently 
urged by my church and people, and the next week 
we are to take counsell about it. The church is dear 
to mee, and I could bee glad to be with them, but the 
circumstances of my removing hence and being there 



lire tremendous to mee. Pray for mee daily." At 
leiigtli he removed his pastorate here, and continued 
it Cor lour years, wlioii a dangerous illness seizing him 
from his wearying labors he went to Boston for medi- 
cal advice, and died there on Sunday, July 4, 1(597. 
His funeral .sermon was preached by Cotton Mather, 
from the text, " Looking steadfastly on hira they saw 
his face as it had been the face of an angel," in which 
for all the virtues and gifts of a clergynum he is placed 
among the foremost of liis day. "The church of 
I'ortsMJouth," he says (a part of the couTitry that very 
nuirli owed its life unto him), "crys out of a deadly 
wound in iiis death." 

That Mr. Moodey had an impressive nunncr, which 
left an inHuenee upon his hearers, I should judge from 
a trifling incident, that during the time of rebellion 
under Cranficld, one Wall Iron, talking by the road with 
another of the subject, said he had been thinking of a 
sermon he heard that Mr. Moodey preached at Dover, 
and his text was " in the time of adversity consider." 
That he hesitated not to bring all the influences of 
religion upon the politics of his day may be judged 
from the deposition during the Corbet cons|nracy of 
one who testified Corbet had said Mr. Moodey's 
])rayers were but babblings, but withal he must be 
regiirded a.s a man of distinguished abilities, ceaseless 
industry, fervent piety, and during a long ministry 
in a difficult field resolute in his sense of right, full 
of kindness and sympathy, foremost in every good 
work, devoted to his parish, and fkithful unto the end.' 


PORT.SMOUTH.— ( r...,(,-,.i.«/.) 

Sepnratioa of the Town of New Castle — Tlie Parisli—LitUoboliii— Prom- 
inence of New Castle— Prominent Inliabitiints— Tlie Sheafs Family— 
The Juffri-y Il..use, 

Separation of the Town of New Ca§tle.— Until 
the year 16i>3 there was but one place of worship, the 
old South Meeting-house, for the inhabitants within 
the limits of Portsmouth, New Castle, Rye, Greenland, 
and a part of Newington. 

From the settlement at Odiorne's Point in 1G23 
the way wa-s easy across the beautiful waters of the 
Little Harbor to the Great Island (as New Ca-stle is 
even still frequently called), with its small and plesis- 
ant beaches, it.s higher rocks, and its securer defenses 
by nature from the attacks of the Indians. One finds 
at the present time graves in all parts of the island, 
and although, by reason of the inconveniences of the 
ferries and in the growth of the colony, Portsmouth 
became more prominent and engrossed nearly all the 
history of the settlement, we must not forget that tor 
a number of years Great Island was of more impor- 
tance and the most populous and aristocratic part of 

I See chapter 

the town. Here were the Governor's residence, the 
fort called William and Mary, on the site used ever 
since for the same purpose, the prison where Moodey 
and others were confined, the houses of several <>i' 
the most wealthy and influential settlers, mansions of 
note for their day. 

In the year 1693 there appears the following record : 

" To the Honorable, ye Lieut. Governor ami Otuncile of thin their Majentiei 
Province of New Uampnlnre : the Iinmbli; petition of the luhal^itanta of 
the Great Island humbly ehewcth: 

" That whereas we, being part of ye towne of Purtsmo', anil having 
found for many years great Inconveniences arit-iniJ: thereby in regard of 
the distance we are from the banck, and no way to it hut by water, 
whereiu there is great difficulty at any time, but sometimes more espec- 
ially to the hazard of our healths and lives, in going up to attend llie 
publike worship of God at Strawberry banck and having many poore 
people amongst us, both men and women and children, wliich have no 
convenience of passage, by which means ye greatest part of our jieople 
cannot enjoy ye hearing of ye word preached to them, wcli causeth 
many times ye breach of ye Sabbath, and ye dishoner of Goil's holy wor- 
ship; as also, our Island being ye mouth of ye harbor and Inlet Into ye 
province, having the King's fort placed here, and all the stores of am- 
munition, wh. is of great Consequence and ought at all times to be care- 
fully attended and look! after ; but if the Inhabitants of this Island nnist 
be coufyjied to attend their duty at Strawberry banck upon every pub- 
like ocation, the King's fort is left destitute of assistance, and lyes ex- 
posed to ye Burprizall of yeenemieaud our owue destruction; we there- 
fore, the Inhabitants of ye Great Island, being a competent number to 
make and uphold a towueship, do tiumbly bt^g aud desire of this honor- 
able board ye Governrand Councill that we may be constituted a Towne- 
ship by ourselves, aud (hat you would grant us the previleges and 
iinnnities as their Majestys have bin grationsly pleased to allow sutch a 
Towneship, . . . and ye petitioners shall ever pray.'* 

This petition is signed by a number of persons, 
among whom we find names still common at New 
Castle. Of course there was considerable oppositi(m 
on the part of Portsmouth to the petition. The select- 
men appeared before the Council and confessed it was 
inconvenient for the inhabitants of Great Island to 
go to meeting at the Bank, and that the fort and 
stores ought not to be at any time deserted ;' but there 
should be a minister settled on the island rather than 
a separate town. 

The Council, however, decided that Great Island 
should be made a township, and divided from the 
Bank, taking in Little Harbor and a part of Rye^ 
and on the 30tli day of May, in the filth year of the 
reign of William and JIary, 1093, the charter of the 
town of New Ctistle was given. It is written on 

; parchment in black letter, or old English, and pre- 
served with great care among the town papers. 

• The early records of New Castle, beginning in the 
year the town was chartered, and for a long time sup- 
posed to be lost, have recently been returned from 
England in a state of good preservation, and written 
with accuracy and distinctness beyond our own. 
From these records it appears that a meeting-hcmse 
had been erected at least as early sis 1693, tor in De- 
cember of that year an order was put on " ye Meetiug- 
House" for a town-meeting to agree with a "minister 
and discorse other things Necessary for the towne's 

I Benefitt." The record of the meeting runs thus: 
" The Town niett on the 20th December at the Meet- 

' ing-House and by the Inhabitants ; then to discorse 



a minister were chosen ' a committee of five to join 
the selectmen to discorse and agree with a minister 
for tlie whole year next ensuing.' " The result was 
that Mr. (Benj'e) Woodbridge was engaged to be the 
minister for a year at a salary of sixty pounds and the 
contribution of strangers. Whence he came and 
when and why he left there is no record, but he is 
mentioned two or three times in a strange book writ- 
ten about that time and printed in London in 1G98, 
to which we shall soon refer, and called Mr. Wood- 
bridge, a divine. I judge there was some trouble in 
regard to the salary, as this is a trouble which seems 
to run through the record, or the inhabitants felt that 
they had not been suflBciently consulted, for soon after 
Mr. Woodbridge was settled his advice was asked in 
regard to a successor. He named three clergymen, 
and of course the parish did not agree upon any one 
of them ; but in 1694 Mr. Samuel Moodey was " dis- 
coursed," and called by the at a salary of sev- 
enty pounds, finding himself housing and all other 
things on his own charge. This Mr. Moodey was a 
.son of Joshua Moodey, the minister of Portsmouth, 
and was graduated at Harvard in 1639. He remained 
until the latter part of 1702, or early in 1703, and 
thereafter appears at the Shoals, where he is spoken 
of as " a man of piety and a pathetic and useful 
preacher." The last record in regard to him is on a 
matter of salary, the town agreeing to pay him not all 
in money, but part in provisions, and thereafter he is' 
spoken of as the late pastor. 

At a town-meeting held on the 24th of May, 1703, 
it was voted to settle Mr. John Emerson, at a salary 
of sixty-five pounds and the contributions of stran- 
gers ; and also to build a minister's house, " when the 
town is able," and to fence in the land belonging to 
the " ministry," and to pay the minister the freight 
on his house goods. Altogether they seem to have 
begun with Mr. Emerson with a good deal of enthu- 
siasm, perhaps because of his distinguished presence 
and gifts', which won promises they could not make 
good in money, for in 1710 Mr. Emerson complains 
to the town of the poor house in which he has lived 
ever since he came among them, and puts them in 
mind of their promise to build a parson's house. 
This seems to have led to some difiiculty, which re- 
sulted in the loss of their minister, for although the 
town voted to build a par.sonage, Jan. 18, 1710, the 
vote was not carried into effect for two years, and 
on the 17th of September, 1711, Mr. Emerson in- 
formed the town that he being sickly of the "ague, 
and the town not agreeing with him, he thinks 
it absolutely necessary for his regaining his health 
to move farther from the sea." He left in 1712, 
and in 1715 was settled over the South Parish of 
Portsmouth. When he left New Castle application 
■was made to the president of the college and the minis- 
ter at Cambridge to procure a minister suitable for the 
place, and in 1712, November 24th, it was voted " that 
Mr. William Shurtleft" shall be ye minister in this 

town, and that he be called to office and ordained 
here," and in the same year it was voted " that ye 
Reverend Mr. William Shurtletf shall have sixty-five 
pounds per year for his annual salary during the time 
he lives single, but when his family increases by mar- 
riage it is voted that he shall have eighty pounds per 
year." In 1732 he gave up the parish at New Castle, 
and on the 21st of February, 1733, was installed over 
the South Parish, where he had a ministry of great 
prosperity for fourteen years. 

The first meeting-house at New Castle, built in or 
before the year 1693, gave way to another in 1706, 
which was furnished with a bell of fine tone sent 
over from England, decorated with a beautiful altar- 
piece, and supplied with a silver communion service, 
to which was added a splendid silver cup, the bequest 
of a sister of Sir William Pepperell, and on the pul- 
pit was a large folio Bible with illuminated letters, 
printed at the University of Oxford. This meeting- 
house was, perhaps, as a whole, finer than the first old 
South at Portsmouth, standing at the same time. 

In tliese early records there are votes at the town- 
meetings which show the same general characteristics 
of the inhabitants in regard to social and religious 
customs that we have already noticed. We find the 
same order as to seating the townspeople in the 
meeting-liousc. We find it ordered " that one house- 
holder or more walk every Sabbath day in sermon 
time with the constable to every Publick House in 
ye town to suppress ill order, and If they think con- 
veiniant, to private Houses also." We find the same 
votes in regard to the entertainment of strangers, 
and giving their names to the selectmen if they re- 
main more than a few days. We find it ordered, " for 
the prevention of fire or other dangers which may hap- 
pen by smoking in theMeeting-House, that every per- 
son soe smoking at any meeting in the Meeting-House 
be fined." We find it ordered, " for the prevention of 
charge coming on the town by some certain noted com- 
mon drunkards, that the names of such persons be given 
by the selectmen to every publick house in the town 
in a paper, and a fine to be infiieted on whomsoever 
shall sell any drink to persons so noted and named." 
We find a vote that all the inhabitants shall pass the 
ferry free on Sabbath days and on all other public 
days ; and we find many votes at various meetings 
about 1720, and thereafter, in regard to building a 
bridge over Little Harbor, which was built, fell into 
decay and disuse, was swept away by the tides. An- 
other was built upon its site, of which within a few 
years almost the last traces have disappeared, and 
now, after the lapse of a century, the old discussion 
is renewed, and soon a third bridge will span the 
Little Harbor. Thus do the ways of travel return to 
their former courses. 

Lithobolia. — The most remarkable incident in the 
history of Great Island is connected with one of the 
few cases of witchcraft in our neighborhood, and 
while one instance of the appearance of the witches 



at Little Harbor is in all the accounts, this, the far 
more extraordinary, has been almost entirely lost 
slight of. There are two roads that lead into the an- 
rient villufie, one by the water and the other a little 
fartlier inland. About a third of a mile east by 
soiilli of the last bridge, on the latter road and very 
near to it, perhaps, indeed, on it, as the highway has 
l)eon opened since the building disappeared, and on 
the land now owned by Mr. .Tohn Locke, there stood, 
MS early certainly as 1G.SG, a large mansion with a 
gambrel roof, a hall extending through the lower 
story, with several spacious chambers above. The 
bouse belonged to one George Walton, called a 
planter, and among the inmates was one Richard 
Cliamberlain, a prominent public functionary under 
Oranfield, being variously styled justice of the peace, 
Secretary of State, clerk of the court, etc., and near 
by was a friend of his, also |)rominent in provincial 
matters, Capt. Walter Barefoot. When Chamberlain 
went home to England he wrote a book, which was 
]irinted in London in 1G98, of which the following is 
the name and its explanation : " Litliobolia ; or the 
Stone-throwing Devil. Being an Exact and True 
Account (by way of Journal) of the various actions 
of infernal Spirits or (Devils Incarnate) witches, or 
both, and the Great Disturbance and amazement they 
gave to George Walton's family, at a place called 
Great Island, in the province of New Hampshire, in 
New England, chiefly in throwing about (by an In- 
visible hand) stones, bricks, and brickbats of all sizes, 
with several other things as hammers, mauls, Iron 
("rows. Spits, and other domestic utensils, as came 
into their Hellish minds, and this for the space of a 
quarter of a year. By R. C, Esq., who was a sojourner 
in the same family the whole Time, and an Ocular 
witness of these Diabolical Inventions. The Contents 
hereof being manifestly known to the Inhabitants of 
that province and known of other provinces, and is 
upon record in his Majestie's Council Court, held for 
that province, 4to. Dedication 2 pp. 16, London : 
Printed and are to be sold by E. Whitlock near 
Stationer's Hall, 1698." 

Litliobolia is a Greek word, .signifying a throwing 
of stones, and is the title given to this book because 
it describes the intervention of supposed evil spirits 
whose manifestations took that form. The belief in 
witchcraft was then almost universal even among 
legal minds best trained to the examination and sift- 
ing of evidence. So easy is it for persons to see 
what they believe they will see therefore the book 
begins with a charge against the skeptical, incredu- 
lous, and infidel spirit of the age which should ven- 
ture to disbelieve such well attested things, as with 
equal rea.son one might as well deny his very .senses, 
infidelity being always nothing more than therejjroaeh 
of not accepting the belief of the majority, no matter 
how much stronger or higher our taith may be in 
something different. The malicious acts of these 
fiends ceased about the time the Governor arrived, so 

that he insisted upon it that it was only the waggery 
of some unlucky boys, but this Chamberlain regards 
as impossible after the sight and testimony of so 
many persons. preternatural 
occurrences were sup|)Osed to be caused by the ma- 
liciousness of a neighboring woman, who pretended 
that some land of her field had been taken into the 
bounds of this George Walton, and who had been 
heard to say with much bitterness that Walton 
should never quietly enjoy that piece of ground. 
It would often be*a source of grim satisfaction to 
many if they could thus call all the c^vil spirits to 
their aid in tormenting those who have infringed 
upon their rights. This true narrative, the writer 
says, is set down to rectify the depraved judgments 
and sentiments of such unbelieving persons as reject 
the operations and being of witches, and convince 
all who hear jivithout prejudice by the testimony of 
eye-witnesses almost every day for a quarter of a year 

One Sunday night, about ten of the clock, this 
Richard Chamberlain, justice of the peace, lodging 
at the house of George Walton, heard many stones 
thrown and hit with great noise. against the top and 
all sides of the house. Walton and his neighbor, 
Amazeen, an Italian, had gone to examine the gate 
between their houses, which had a habit of being 
swung off the hinges and cast upon the ground, and 
as they returned to the house they were assaulted 
with a peal of stones, taken, as was supposed, from 
the rocks hard by the house (thus always, in spite of 
their belief in the supernatural and omnipotent 
agency, persons try to let the attendant circumstances 
make it easier for the divine agency) and by human 
hands as agents. 

Everybody in the bouse was aroused by the strange 
alarm, and all looked out as sharply a-s possible, it 
being a bright moonlight night, but could make no 
discovery. Then a shower of stones, some of them 
as big as the fist, came into the entry of the house, 
whereupon they withdrew into the next room, none 
being hit save two youths. " Praised be Almighty 
Providence," says Richard Chamberlain ; for cer- 
tainly the infernal agent, constant enemy to man- 
kind, had he not been overruled, intended no less 
than death or maim. Forthwith they began a search; 
they searched the hall, they searched the cellar, and 
of course the shower of stones began to diminish, 
but when they came into the room " these unfriendly 
lapidary salutations" were renewed. The windows 
were broken, and yet the stones had a way of coming 
apparently from the inside, forcing the bars and cast 
windows out, and themselves falling back into the 
room. One stone they took out of the glass of the 
window where it lodged itself in the breaking of it, 
in a hole exactly fit for the stone. Sometimes they 
scratched the stones, and found that the .same ones 
were taken up and thrown at them again and again. 
After four hours of fright Chamberlain concluded 



to go to bed (thus do the powers of nature overcome 
the supernatural, and we go to sleep even in the pres- 
ence of demons), but soon he was again awakened by 
another battery, when it seemed. as if shelves, pic- 
tures, books, and everything had been knocked down, 
and upon all the household rushing to his room, they 
found a stone weighing eight pounds and a half, 
which had burst open the door. Soon after the mani- 
festations ceased for that night. It was a disturbed 
night for the household, and in the morning each one 
had some strange experience to relate, which probably 
lost nothing in the relation. That day while the men 
were at work in tlie field, and with Mr. Woodbridge, 
the divine, now present to see, the stones came jump- 
ing and tumbling on the grass, and upon one person 
skeptically asserting he was not persuaded, but that 
the boys at work did throw them, the devil rewarded 
his infidelity by a blow with a stone upon the boy, 
which convinced the one and set the boy a-crying. 
That night Chamberlain began to play upon a musical 
instrument, perhaps to drive away his fears, — as boys 
whistle in the night, — when a great stone came rumb- 
ling into the room, which, he says, was on a much 
different account than in the days of old, and of old 
fabulous enchantments, his music being none of the 
best ; and while many gathered at the house on ac- 
count of the marvelous thing, just as the stones were 
being thrown about, two youths saw a black cat in 
the fields, which was shot at, but missed by its chang- 
ing places, and being immediately at some distance, 
and then out of sight. 

The next Monday Walton went by water to a place 
called Great Bay, and as the men were at work in the 
woods felling wood, there came another shower of 
stones, which they gathered into a pile under a tree, 
and returning after a time found they had disappeared, 
and were again thrown about. Once again, (•eturning 
from Great Bay with a load of hay, about midway in 
the river lie found his boat in a sinking condition by 
the pulling out of the stopple in the bottom, — "a con- 
trivance, a combination," says Richard Chamberlain, 
" of the old serpent to have doomed my good landlord 
and his company." At one time, after a number of 
prominent persons gathered there had been won- 
drously affected by these strange things, they offered 
themselves to give testimonies, which Richard Cham- 
berlain, Esq., then wrote down, and several signed a 
paper attesting the truth of their being eye-witnesses 
of at least half a score of stones that evening thrown 
invisibly into the field and entry and hall and cham- 
ber of George Walton. Among these we find the 
Governor of West Jersey and the Deputy Governor 
of Rhode Island and other persons of note. Strange 
sounds sometimes attended the throwing of the stones, 
and besides the stones strange things flew about, and 
familiar things strangely changed their places. 

One of the worst days was Friday, the 4th of Au- 
gust, when the fence between Mr. Walton and the 
neighbor who was supposed to be the witch was 

maliciously pulled down to let their cattle into his 
ground, and when he and his servants went to put it 
up again they were pelted with above forty stones. 
Walton was hit divers times, and all that day as they 
were reaping it ceased not, and there fell above one 
hundred stones. Sickles were bent, and Mrs. Walton 
going out to make most diligent observation, to dispel 
the incredulity of some and confirm her own belief, 
met with a severe blow from the Unseen Power; and 
Mr. Woodbridge, the divine, and Mr. Jaft'rey, the 
merchant, were all hit and injured. 

Thereafter the stony disturbances grew less, and last; 
of all they ended with Mr. Walton, who, going in his 
boat from the Great Island to Portsmouth, to attend 
the Council which had taken cognizance of the matter, 
he being summoned thither for examination, as if to 
have a final fling at him (all such things generally 
ending upon proper examination), the devil hit him 
sadly with three pebble-stones as big as one's fist. 
One gash broke his head, which for evidence Cham- 
berlain saw him show to the president of the Council, 
and from the stroke of another he complained after- 
wards to his death. 

The " Lithobolia" closes thus : " Who that peruses 
these preternatural occurrences cau possibly be so 
much an enemy to his own Soul and irrefutable 
Reason as obstinately to oppose himself to, or con- 
fusedly fluctuate in, the Opinion and Doctrine of 
Daemons and Spirits and Witches ! Certainly he that 
do's so must do two things- more. He must temerani- 
ously unhinge or undermine the best Religion in the 
world, and he must disingenuously quit'and abandon 
that of the three Theolbgick Virtues or Graces, to 
which the great Doctor of tlie Gentils gave the pre- 
cedence — Charity — through his unchristian and un- 
charitable incredulity." 

So it was the faith of that day that if witchcraft and 
a belief in the devil went, Christianity went too ; still 
they have gone, and Christianity remains. 

Prominence of New Castle.— At Great Island re- 
sided Cranfield and Barefort, and here was the Gov- 
ernor's house. Here, too, lived Robert Cutt, the royal- 
ist Episcopalian, wliose Puritan brothers, Richard and 
John, at the Bank, took such a prominent part in our 
early history. Here lived Pendleton, Stileman, and 
Fryer, three leading persons in early church matters, 
and the first two among the seven names of those who 
became members at the organization of a church in 
1671. Here lived Theodore Atkinson, for a long 
time foremost in all provincial matters; Richard 
Chamberlain, holder of several offices, and author of 
" Lithobolia ;" Charles Story, secretary of the prov- 
ince. Here we first find the name of Tobias Le^r, 
whose descendant became a somewhat eminent diplo- 
matist, and the private secretary of Washington. . 

It would be a serious omission, and would leave this 
sketch quite incomplete were luot to mention another 
name whose descendants have held a prominent place 
in the town until the present day, — 



The Sheafe Family. — On an ancient monument 
within tlie dioi'ese of Nort'ollc, of St George, Norwich, 
is this inscription : 

" Here are Vjurieti under this 8tone, 
Tlionms Shcfl' iiml his wife, Marion; 
Soiuet.vnie we warr us yee now bee, 
'And now wo are as beo sliall yee ; 
Wliei efore of yniir chalite. 
Pray fur us to tlio Trinito. 

"Obyt. Mccclxxxxiii." 

Here, at C'ranlirooic, Kent, in England, we first find 
tlie Siieafe family, of whom it is believed .Jacob Sheafe 
came to America with Rev. Henry Whitfield, and 
died in Boston. His son, Sampson Sheafe, came to 
Great Island in 1675, and here was the beginning of 
the family in thi.s neighborhood. He had at New 
Castle housing, wharf, and lands, was one of his 
Majesty's Council, and collector of customs at Ports- 
mouth. His descendant, Mrs. White, was, in 1821, 
the sole member of the ancient church in Newcastle. 
The Jaffrey House.— This brings us to another 
and the last name ol' persons living at Great Island 
who had a conspicuous place in civil as well as eccle- 
siastical matters. In 1677, after Sampson Sheafe had 
returned to Boston, he contracted with one George i 
Jall'rey to go to Great Island and take charge solely i 
of his goods, housing, orchard, and land, and to do no 
other business, in consideration of forty pounds lawful , 
money of New England for two years, and to be found j 
and allowed " good and sufficient meat and drink, 
washing and lodging." In 1682, Jaffrey was tried for 
an attempt to defraud the revenue, and this matter 
brought him into conflict with Rev. Joshua Moodey. 
It seems he was afterwards forced to flee and his house 
was taken by the government, for there is a record, 
dated May 16, 1684, ordering the "General Assembly 
to convene at Great Island, at the house late in 
sion of George Jaffrey," and, again, "the talk is that 
his [George Jaffrey's] house must be court-house and 
prison both, and standing so near the Governor, it is 
judged suitable for both these ends, that he may have 
the shorter journey to Court, and the prisoners may 
be always under his eye." And last of all there is a 
note in the journal of Rev. John Pike : " George 
Jaflrey,Sr.,of Portsmouth, one of the Council, journey- 
ing from Boston to Piscataqua on a very cold day, 
was taken sick and died at Ipswich. A man of singu- 
lar understanding and usefulness among us." The 
following description of the old Jaffrey house is from 
an account of it, partly a history, partly a fancy, by its 
present owner, and perhaps one day to be published: 
On Jaffrey's Point, which has been corrupted into 
Jerry's Point, stands this house, wellnigh two hun- 
dred years old, "substantially as he (Jatlrey) built 
and left it, anil since he himself somewhere says of 
his dwelling, that us any one might through his 
clothing see the general outline of his form, and 
through his form his soul, so his house was only a 
little farther removed from his essential nature." 
His house so near the sea was even nearer when it 

was built. There is a succession of garmetits which 
a man wears who is in any degree free to choose, and 
which reflect his being, and the spot where he fixes 
his abode is one of them. The sight of the sea must 
have been to George Jaffrey a necessary condition of 
healthful activity. From no window of his house is 
it hidden. And it is etjually open to the sun, which 
goes round it in winter and over it in summer. He 
built it low to be out of the wind ; at the same time 
he chose a situation where no height was needed to 
bring into view all he wished to see, and he wisely 
spread it over a wide area of ground for comfort, con- 
venience, and because land was cheaper than air. 
The modern architect knows only how to put floor 
over floor, as is necessary in large towns, but the lines 
of buildings in the country should be horizontal and 
irregular. Under the roof, which he hung so low, he 
put many rooms, in no way resembling one another, 
all being of various forms, sizes, and heights. I'ou 
seem to be in ii different house as you step from one 
room to another. In the centre, and to crown the 
whole, he built the huge chimney-stack, with fire- 
places on every side, wide enough for a whole family 
to gather in, deep-mouthed, where you hear the wind 
roar in winter, and the swallows beat their wings in 
summer, and where children may stand and look up 
at the stars and sky, — a bringing, as it were, a 
piece of out of doors into the very heart of the domes- 
tic inclosure. Others btiild chimneys as a convenience 
for their houses, concealing and thrusting them out 
of the way as much as possible, but he evidently built 
his house as only an adjunct to the chimney, account- 
ing ample hearthstones of more consequence than 
rooms. This was the primary idea in the plan of the 
old mansion, and around this firm, capacious column 
of brick it grew as the ship grows from the keelson. 
When all was finished and he sat down by his open 
fires, now in one room, now in another, he grew more 
j and more thoughtful ; " the affairs of the world sounded 
j more and more distant." 

The old mansion has seen its contemporaries fall 
away, and generation after generation pass on. Busi- 
! ness and fashion were lured to our more flourishing 
town, and for many years few have gone through the 
fishing village to enjoy and rest in the beauties of 
the shore bcyon<l, to be lulled by the rote of the sea, 
full of rest and unrest, or to feel the friendship of 
the light-houses as they send out from every point 
their guiding rays over the deep. We begin to go 
back in many things to the choice of our fathers. The 
dust-laden travelers of summer from our heated in- 
land may be glad of the sea anywhere, and throw 
themselves down where others have chosen for them, 
without variety and without beauty, and in their 
want of knowledge think it is all grand ; but one 
may go a good while along our coast before he finds 
any views more charming and enrapturing than those 
from the very sites of the old mansions at Great 




PORTSMOUTH.— {(7oH</«.ierf.) 

Manners and Social Life — Temperance — Use of Tobacco — Social Cus- 
tiini3 — Church Pews ami Customs — Observance of Sunday — Cost of 
Living— Early Laws— The Isles of Shoals. 

Manners and Social Life.— While colonies vary 
very much in the purpose of their settlement and 
the character and plans and religious views of their 
leaders, the average settler is pretty much the same 
always. It is true of both the Bay and the Piscata- 
qua that they had a very large number, during the 
early years, of settlers of the very highest moral and 
social standing, merchants and citizens of the best 
quality of England's culture; it is true the religious 
views of the colonies differed ; it is true that they 
were equally attached to their faith ; it is true that 
some members of each partook of that coarse, wild, 
and profane character wliirh belongs to all new set- 
tlements, and it is true that the settlement here came 
so early under the sway of the Bay Colony, was sub- 
ject to their worship, and controlled by men. of pre- 
cisely the same character with themselves, that it 
was not possible for anything but prejudice to suggest 
or keep alive the tradition of a substantial difference. 
This is perhaps the most suitable place to notice 
some of the customs, social and religious, which found 
an observance during the first part of our history, 
and being much the same in the various settlements,' 
may give some idea of the social life in all. 

One cannot fail to mark the expressions of friend- 
ship or of religion which are found at the opening or 
close of business communications. The letters from 
one merchant to another seem incomplete without in- 
quiries about health, family, or asking the blessing of 
God upon their enterprises. Of course it is as possi- 
ble for good manners to conceal the intentions or dis- 
position of dishonesty, just as the forms of religion j 
may advance the schemes of hypocrisy, but it is not 
generally so, and these expressions, even though the 
common epistolary form of that day hardly belong to 
a'chiss of men utterly without the sentiment of relig- 
ion, abandoned to trade beyond .all other settlers. ] 
Thus Thomas Eyre,^f the Laconia Company, writing 
to Gibbins, closes his letter with this sentence, " I 
commend you and your wife, who by this I hope is 
with you, to the protection of the Almightie." 

Mason, sending to Vaughan an invoice of goods 
shipped to the company, finishes the letter with 
" Thus we commende you to God." Gibbins, writing 
back, says, " At large I wil write, if God wil, by the 
next. Thus taking my leave, I commend your wor- 
ship to Almighty God." Not less frequent are the 
expressions of friendship from the families of the 
proprietors to those of the factors, " With my kind 
love to you and wife and daughter." Aud Mrs. Ma- 
son writes to " her loving friend," Ambrose Gibbins, 
And while these expressions abound, there is no rea- 

son to suppose they are suggested by any other than 
business relationship. Nevertheless even at that day 
there was a spirit of overreaching and dishonor in 
trade, which seems as old as trade itself, coming con- 
stantly to the surface. Ambrose Gibbins says, in a 
letter to Mason, "The merchants I shajl be very cau- 
tyous [cautious] how I deale w" any of them while I 
live. In Mass. a woman is excommunicated from the 
Boston. Church for charging mechanics who worked 
on her husband's home with extortion, and a man is 
fined £5 for taking upon him to cure the scurvy by a 
water of no value, which he sold at a very dear rate." 
Temperance. — In matters of temperance early set- 
tlers are not apt to be the best examples. Yet there 
is nothing which shows so well as history the progress 
the temperance cause has made. Ttie convivial hab- 
its of one hundred, two hundred years ago would not 
be endured for a moment anywhere. Any one who 
will take the trouble to look up the social life of the 
English or Scotch, or of our own land, beyond the 
present or century, is amazed at the custom of in- 
toxication or excessive drinking. While amopg the 
greatest of the evils we have still to deal with, the 
change has been very marked, and the excited and 
unfounded statements that we are intemperate be- 
yond all other people, or that, proportionately, the 
vice is greater in our day than in the past are made 
in utter ignorance and the extremest party or fanati- 
cal zeal. All these settlements were well supplied 
with aqua vitij, as it is spelled [aqua vitir, water of life), 
being the common name of brandy, or the spirit of 
wine. It comes in all the inventories as a part of the 
goods, and sack, the name of a Spanish wine now 
called sherry, is not infrequently in the accounts. 
We find it ordered by the court of Exeter that " no ' 
wines or strong water shall be sold by retail to the 
English but by Thomas Wardle," from which it would 
appear there were no restrictions upon the sale of 
liquor to the Indians, as the Arabs at the present day 
deem it all honorable to overreach the Christian infi- 
dels in any way; but in 1654, "Roger Stearne, of 
Hampton, is impowered and ordered to sell wine of 
any sort and strong licquors to the Indians as to their 
(his) judgment shall seeme meete and necessary for 
their relief in just and urgent occasions, and not oth- 
erwise," and there is a record of the House of Depu- 
ties of Massachusetts in 1654 as follows: "Whereas, 
it is judged most comely, convenient, and conducive 
to the dispatch of public service that the deputies ot 
the General Court should diet together, especially at 
dinner, it is therefore ordered that the deputies of the 
General Court the next ensuing year, viz., 1655, shall 
all accordingly dine together, and that Lieut. Phil- 
lips, the keeper of the said Tavern, shall be paid for 
the same by the Treasurer for the time being by dis- 
counting the same in the custom of wine." In 1658 
it is declared that "this Court doth expect that all 
the inhabitants of Piscataqua doe attend the observ- 
ance of our laws, in particular those concerning the 

13 & 
@ M 

=3 ® 

@ ^ 



selling of strong liquors, and good order to be kept in 
ordinances." As early as l(i37 the Legislature of the 
Bay Colony, perceiving the deadly effects of intein- 
jicrance, passed tlie severest laws, with probably no 
greater enforcement and no more beneficial effects 
than in the last few years; but the best step in tlie 
temperance cause was when the Governor, in 1()30, 
believing, from what he had seen of the custom of 
drinking liealths in England, that it was contrary to 
religious obligation, "restrained it at his own table, 
and wished others to do the like, so as it grew by little 
and little to disuse." The extent of the evil is shown 
by the eftorts to suppress it, e.ij., we find in 1634, at 
Koxbnry, for drunkenness, a man was ordered to be 
disfninchised, wear about his neck and so to hang upon 
his outward garment a D made of red cloth and set 
upon white, to continue this for a year, and not to 
take it off at any time wlien lie comes amongst com- 
jiany." With us, instead of being disfranchised, the 
drunkards are those in whom the politicians have the 
deepest interest. " Persons who keeji homes of en- 
tertainment are forbidden to allow tippling after nine 
o'clock at night." 

In Londonderry, at the close of the last century, the 
evil was so great that at the installation of a clergyman 
a hogsiiead of rum was drank, and in one part of the 
house in which the minister lived was a tavern where 
spirits was sold and drank on Sunday by members of 
the church, and .<*o wide-spread was the custom that 
oil a fast-day, when the minister was supposed to be 
free to indulge in some special topic, he was widely 
denounced for preaching upon temperance. 

Use of Tobacco. — The use of tobacco, then com- 
paratively novel, but a habit which has a fatal ten- 
dency to make its subjects ungentlemanly and rude, 
and to forget how disagreeable it may be to others, 
early became subject to legal restrictions. In 1646 
we find, " Whereas there is great abuse in taking to- 
bacco in a very uncivil manner in the streets, if any 
person or persons shall be found or seen doing so 
hereafter he shall be subject to punishment;" and, 
again, "any person or persons who shall be (()Und 
smoking tobacco on the Lord's day going to or coming 
from the meeting within two miles of the meeting- 
house, be shall be fined." Within two miles was 
coiistrue<l to have no bearing on such as liad a mind 
to smoke in the meeting-house, and so the loud snap- 
ping of tobacco-boxes after loading the pipes; the 
clinking of flint and steel, followed by curling wreaths 
of smoke, were not infrequent in the house of worship. 

Thus early, too, we find tlie habit widely prevalent 
among the students at Harvard. Capt. John Under- 
bill, who Wius a conspicuous figure in the early settle- 
ment, went so far a.s to say " that having long lain 
under a spirit of bondage lie could get no assurance, 
till at length as he was taking a pipe of tobacco the 
spirit set home U|)on him an absolute |ironiise of full 
grace, with such assurance & joy that he had never 
since doubted of his good estate, neither should he 

whatever sins he might fall into," and "that as the 
Lord was pleased to convert Saul while he was per- 
secuting, so he might manifest Himself to him while 
making a moderate use of the good creature tobacco," 
— the only instance, I doubt not, since its discovery 
wherein it has been a means of grace. 

Social Customs. — Some of the customs and morals 
or immoralities of these early times may be gath- 
ered from the regulations passed in the interests of 
good order and religion. It was ordered "that no 
young man that was neither married nor hath any 
servant, and be no public officer, should keep house 
by himself without consent of the town where he first 
lived ; and that no master of a family should give 
habitation or entertainment to any young man to so- 
journ in his family but by the allowance of the in- 
habitants of the said town where he dwells," — this 
was that a strict watch might be kept over the ways 
of each person. 

It was ordered that Maverick, an E|>iscopal clergy- 
man on Noddles Island, and his family move into 
Boston, and entertain no strangers longer than one 
night, out of fear that he might countenance and har- 
bor the enemies of the Puritans, but the order as to 
his moving was countermanded at a later date. 

At an important Synod held at Newton, May, 1637, 
it was resolved, "Though a few women might meet 
together for prayer and religious conversation, yet 
large companies of them, as sixty or more, who con- 
vened weekly in Boston, taught by a particular one 
of their number in doctrine and exposition of the 
Scriptures, were disorders." 

A man accused of swearing w'as to have his tongue 
put in a cleft stick. A member of Harvard College, 
being convicted of speaking blasphemous words con- 
cerning the Holy Ghost, is sentenced to be publicly 
whipped before all the scholars, sus|)ended as to 
taking his degree of Bachelor, sit alone by himself 
in the hall, uncovered, at meals during the pleasure 
of the president and fellows, and be in all things 
obedient, doing what exercise is appointed him by 
the president, or else be finally expelled from the 

In 1648 the wearing of long hair was condemned as 
sinful. The Governor, Deputy Governor, and mag- 
istrates entered into an association to prevent the 
growing evil. Forasmuch as the wearing of long 
hair, after the manner of ruffians and barbarous In- 
dians, has begun to invade New England, contrary to 
the rule of God's word, which says " it is a shame for 
a man to wear long hair, as also the commendable cus- 
tom generally of all the godly of our nation until 
within these few years, we, the magistrates, do de- 
clare and manifest our dislike and detestation against 
the wearing of such long hair, ils against a thing un- 
civil and unmanly, whereby men do deform them- 
selves and offend sober and modest! men, and do cor- 
rupt good manners." 

In 1638, in Mas.sachusetts, the court taking into 



consideration the extravagance which prevailed 
through the country as to costliness of attire and 
following new fashions, ministers, as the particular 
duty of their profession, were called upon to urge a 
reform in this respect on their congregations; "but," 
it is added, "little was done about it, for divers of the 
elders' wives were in some measure partners of this 
general disorder." What would a settler of 1638 
think of the disorder now ! In 1642 the General 
Court require that the children whose parents neglect 
to educate them shall have the particular attention of 
the selectmen where they live, so they shall learn to 
read and understand the principles of religion as well 
as the capital laws. In 1643, ordered that all parents 
and masters do duly endeavor, either by their own 
ability and labor, or by employing such sclroolmas- 
ters or other helps and means as the plantation doth 
aiford, or the family may conveniently furnish, that 
all their children and apprentices as they grow capa- 
ble may, through God's blessing, attain at least so 
much as to be able duly to read the Scriptures and 
other good and profitable printed books in the English 
tongue." In 1647 there is a long resolution in regard 
to the Bible in schools, so that the pupils may exercise 
greater vigilance against papacy, " it being one chief 
project of y' ould deluder Satan to keepe men from 
the knowledge of ye Scriptures, as in former times 
by keeping y" in an unknowne tongue, so in these 
latter times by persuading from ye use of tongue." 
The use of the Bibles in schools was to make each 
one read it for himself, the cardinal Protestant idea, 
and the greatest object of education to enable each 
to be able to read it, whence utterly ignoring the 
original idea, and entirely wresting it from its pur- 
pose, by a long custom it has come to pass that some 
not able to distinguish between a custom and a prin- 
ciple insist upon the idlest form of reading a few 
verses of the Scriptures as an essential part of our 
common-school system. 

Church Pews and Customs. — We have referred 
to the old South Church being for a long time without 
any pews. The church at Hampton had at first but 
one pew, and that for the use of the minister's family, 
the rest of the house being furnished with seats for 
the accommodation of the people. Each man was 
obliged to build his own pew, keep it in repair, to 
maintain all the glass against it, and he must build 
on the spot assigned him. In the town of Stratham 
there was an exception, where by a vote of the town 
"Mr. Andrew Wiggin shall have liberty to set in what 
seat he pleaseth in the meeting-house," while the 
general law was "that when the committee have 
seated the meeting-house, every person that is seated 
shall sit in these seats, or pay five shillings per day 
for every day they set out of these seats in a disor- 
derly manner to advance themselves higher in the 
meeting-house. Persons were seated in church ac- 
cording to their rank or station in life or society, and 
Mr. was at that time a title of great distinction, to 

which a very small proportion attained. Even in 
the beginning of the present century it was usual in 
the Scotch Kirk for the minister to bow from the 
pulpit to the lords according to their rank as they 
sat in the front seats, and there was often a rivalry 
entirely unbecoming the equality of souls before God 
as to who should have the first bow ; and in one 
parish the custom was given up, and inasmuch as 
they could not judge of themselves as to point' of 
honor and descent, the minister was appointed to 
forbear bowing to any the lairds from the pulpit for 
the time to come. The distance persons walked for 
worship is almost incredible in our degenerate day. 
They came on foot from Rye, New Castle, and Green- 
land to the Old South Church over the bridge, and it 
was no uncommon thing for women to walk six or 
eight miles, and sometimes carry an infant child. 
Before the town of Bedford was set off its inhabitants 
for some time attended worship at Londonderry. 
They performed the journey on foot, and generally 
carried one or two children a distance of twelve 

At a regular parish meeting held June 4, 1705, it 
was voted " that in consideration of their number, the 
distance they had to travel, and the dangers to be 
encountered in their attendance upon public worship, 
the inhabitants of Greenland be permitted to enjoy 
their own regular instituted means of grace, and that 
one hundred pounds be paid yearly, out of the town 
stock, as their proportion for the support of the min- 
istry during their maintenance of an able minister 
among them, and no longer." In want of a bell, a 
drum gave notice of the time of gathering for public 
worship. By an ancient law a penalty of forty shil- 
lings, by way of a fine, was attached to every town not 
provided with a drum to call the people to meeting. 
There is an order of public worship in Boston as fol- 
lows : " It begins by ringing of a bell about nine of 
the clock or before." The pastor prays a quarter of 
an hour. The teacher reads and explains a chapter. 
A psalm is dictated by one of the ruling elders and 
sung. The pastor preaches a sermon, and sometimes 
gives an exhortation without notes. The teacher 
closes with prayer and benediction. Services begin 
at two in the afternoon, and proceed in tlie same 

When a minister exchanged, the ruling elder said 
to him publicly, after the psalm was sung, " If this 
present brother hath any word of exhortation for the 
people at this time, in the name of God say on." 
Before departing in the afternoon one of the deacons 
said, " Brethren of the congregation; as God hath 
prospered you, so freely offer ;" then the magistrates 
and chief gentlemen first, and then the elders and all 
the congregation of men, and most of them that were 
not of the church, all single persons, widows, and 
women in absence of their husbands, went up one 
after another one way, and brought their offering of 
money or chattel to the deacon's seat, and passed by 



another way to their seats. Persons were appointed 
to liiive inspection of tlie audience during the puljlic 
exorcises, wliose l're(|uent rounds kc|it tlic children in 
order. The badge of tlieir oflice was a pole with a 
knob on one end and a tuft of feathers on the other; 
with the one they rapped on the men's heads, and 
with the other they brushed the ladies' faces when 
they caugiit tliem napping. Music in. these early 
days, as in the latter, was deemed a necessary part of 
worship, and iiad its attendant criticisms and disalfec- 
tions. The custom was from the earliest days to 
deacon the hymn, the precentor or leader of psalm- 
ody reading two lines and all singing tliem, and so 
on to the end ; but the singers wanted to break up 
the old iiabitof "lining" or "deaconing" and have 
it all their own way. At Stratham the matter was 
settled l)y a compromise, tlie deacon by vote of the 
town to read iialf the time; but still he complained 
of the bass viol, saying "they had got a fiddle into 
the churcii as big as a hog's trough ;" while at Lon- 
donderry tlie precentor and choir both kept on at the 
same time, one reading and the other singing, until 
the latter gained the victory and sang the reader 

Observance of Sunday.— The observance of Sun- 
day was strict and general, but hedged round by so 
minute and constant command of the law that it is 
questionable if its true helpful keejnng was ever so 
great as now. Those were good times for dull min- 
ister, when every seat in the church was filled, with- 
out regard to weather or the difficulty of traveling, 
by the tenor of the magistrate more tlian the fear 
or love of the Lord, and they were pretty serious 
times for such lus some of you who would forsake the 
sanctuary for a walk, a drive to the beach, or a sail 
to the slioals, or the enjoyment of a cigar. In Octo- 
l)er, 16G8, the court ordered 

" Tlmt wIiHtsoever person in this jnrisdiction Blmll trnvcll upon tho 
Lnnt's day, eillier on liorselmclve or on foote, or by boats, from or out of 
tlieir owne towne to any unlawful a-ssembly or meeting not allowed Ity 
law, are hereby declared to be pruplmners of tlie Subatli, and shall be 
pi-ocpoded against as the persons that propbatie tlie Lord's ibiy by doing 
servile workc." 

In 1082 it was enacted, — 

" For prevention of the proplianation of the Lord's day that whoso- 
ever sliull, on tlio Lord's day, be found to do unneeessary servile labor, 
travel, simrts, or frequent ordiniiircs in time of putdic worship, or idly 
simggle Hbrond. the person so otfetiding shall pay a line of ten shillings, 
IT be set in the stoclts an hour; -and for discovery of such persons it is 
I'lered that the onstalde, with some other meet person whom he shall 
>'lioose, shall in the liniu of public worship go forth to any suspected 
place within their precincts, to find out any oflTeiider as above." 

The restrictions of the Bay Colony, which of course 
all came in force here, were exceedingly severe and 
minute. It was ordered 

' t.i the end the Sabbath may bee cehdtmteil in a religious manner, that 
.til that inhabite the plantation, both for the general and t>artlcular em* 
plo.vnients, may surcease their lalHtr every Saturday thniughout the 
yeare at three of the cluck in the afternoone, and that they !<|tend the 
rest of the <lay In catechizing and pre|iaracon for tlie Sabbath as the 
minister shall direct." 

Whoever neglected to attend worship on Sabbath, 
fast, or thanksgiving without sufficient cause was 
fined five shillings. For fast especially this law 
would at the present time be a source of goodly in- 
come to the city treasury. If profanation of the 
Lord's day were done proudly and with a high hand 
against the authority of God, it was to be punished 
with death. There is a record of an agreement with 
some Indians who came under the jurisdiction of 
Massachusetts in 1G44, wherein the following conver- 
sation takes place: " Will you worship the only true 
God who made Hea-ven and earth and not blaspheme? 
We do desire to reverence the God of the English 
and to speak well of Him, because we do see He doth 
better to the English than other Gods do to others. 
Will you refrain from working on the Sabbath? It 
is easy to us ; we have not much to do any day, and 
we can well rest on that day." 

In 1630 it was ordered that a man be whipped for 
shooting at fowl on the Sabbath day. Those were 
fortunate days for the clergy, when any disrespect to 
them or their office was a matter of legal punishment, 
although a clergyman deserving of real respect never 
had so much — if not enforced, at zeal — as at the 
present time. In 1C82 it wiis enacted that " whoso- 
ever shall behave himself contemptuously toward 
the word of God preached or any minister thereof 
called and faithfully dispensing the same in any con- 
gregation, either by manliest interrupting of him in 
his ministerial dispensation or falsely charging him 
with teaching error, such offender shall pay a fine 
of 20s., or sit two hours in the stocks." There is a 
story on record of a minister in Bedford, this State, 
who had a neighbor with whom he was not on the 
best terms. One Saturday they came to sharp talk 
about their fences and cattle, which was heard by 
others, who predicted the neighbor would not be seen 
any more at church, but the next Sunday he was 
punctually there. After service they said, " We 
thought you would not be at meeting to-day after such 
a quarrel yesterday with the minister." "I'd have ye 
to know," was the reply, "if I did quarrel with my 
neighbor yesterday I did not quarrel with the gospel." 

Games, sports of all kinds, at all times met with 
little favor, but on Sunday particularly with the 
severest censure. It was one of the matters by which 
the Puritans were especially distre.s.sed that King 
James permitted and encouraged dancing, archery, 
May-games, and May-poles, and any harmless recrea- 
tion on Sundays after divine service. Wlien a May- 
pole was set up at a plantation afterwards called 
Braintrce in 16'2ij. it was a serious annoyance to the 
settlers at New Plymouth, who called it "an idoll.yea, 
they called it the calfe of Horeb," and stood at defiance 
with the place, naming it Mount Dagon, threatening 
to make it a woful mount and not a merry mount; 
and in 1(528, Endicott causes the May-pole to be cut 
down, and rebukes them for iheir profaneness. In 
1631 the court ordered all who have cards and dice 



in their houses to destroy them before their next 
session. In a proclamation of King Charles in 1633, 
besides ■permission for these sports, it is ordered " that 
women shall have leave to carry rushes to the church 
for decorating it according to their old custom." It 
is only within very recent years that any flowers and 
decorations and the observance of any days were per- 
mitted in the churches of the Puritan descendant, 
and still by many are regarded with fear and trembling 
and serious objection. 

Even as early as 1638 some of the colonists began 
to be alarmed about their degeneracy in matters of 
religion, and a fast was observed by reason of prev- 
alence of smallpox and fevers and decay of religion 
in the churches, which was ascribed to the spread of 
Mrs. Hutchinson's views. 

In 1634 there was a discussion at a lecture in Bos- 
ton about women's wearing veils. Cotton took the 
ground that whenever such a custom is not indicative 
of female subjection it does not come under apostolic 
command. Endicott took the other side, and in 1634 
various regulations were passed against costly dress 
and compliance with unstable fashions tending to in- 
jure the Commonwealth. 

The settlement at Plymouth seems to have had 
greater privations in some respect than that at the 
Piscataqua, for in 1623, in a state of famine, as de- 
scribed by Governor Winslow, when he had seen men 
stagger from faintness for want of food, Capt. Miles 
Standish was sent here for food, where he was hos- 
pitably received and amply supplied; and in 1631, 
the very day before an appointed fast was to be ob- 
served, a ship bearing provisions came in, and the 
fast was changed to a thanksgiving day, whose re- 
ligious observance then had a meaning. " In the 
absence of bread they feasted themselves with fish. 
The women once a day as the tide gave way re.sorted 
to the mu.s.'sells and clam bankes, where they daily 
gathered their families' food Vith much heavenly 
discourse of the provisions Christ had formerly made 
for many thousands of his followers in the wilder- 

Cost of Living. — We have, however, abundant 
evidence from the correspondence between Mason and 
liis agent here that our own settlement was at times 
in great straits for provisions, and shared the priva- 
tions which are the attendant of almost all early col- 
onies. Separated from the friends and comforts of 
an old laud, in dread of savage attacks, and doubtful 
about the bread of to-morrow, we cannot enter into 
their hardships while we enjoy the fruits of their 
sacrifices. The cost of living and the pay of labor 
seem to our rates exceedingly trifling, for we find an 
agreement between an innkeeper and the deputies of 
the General Court, by which they were to be provided 
with breakfast, dinner, and supper, with wine and 
beer between meals, with fire and beds at the rate of 
Ss. per day; but such as only dine to pay 18r/. for 
dinner, with wine and beer betwixt meals, and by 

wine is intended a cup each man at dinner and supper 
is no more," but where would one get the Ss. or 18(i. ? 

Early Laws. — Marriage, when it was celebrated, — 
a rare event in the early settlement, — was performed 
by a magistrate, or by persons specially appointed 
for that purpose. Governor Hutchinson, in the His- 
tory of Massachusetts, says he believes there was no 
instance of marriage of a clergyman during their first 
charter. Ambrose Gibbins, writing to Mason, says "a 
good husband with his wife to tend the cattle and to 
make butter and cheese will be profitable, for maids 
they are soone gonne in this countrie." 

In 1680 there was set forth a code of province laws 
of the General Assembly in Portsmouth, wherein, as 
in the Bay Colony, many of the Mosaic laws, es- 
pecially those against sensuality, were reproduced in 
all their severity ; the one against witchcraft, as we 
shall see, was little needed in our settlement. Here are 
two showing the relation of parents and children : " If 
any child or children above sixteen years old of com- 
petent understanding shall curse or smite their natu- 
ral father or mother, he or they shall be put to death, 
unless it can be sufficiently testified that the parents 
have been very unchristian, easily negligent of ye 
education of such children, etc." "If any man have 
a rebellious or stub'borne son of sufiicient years and 
understanding, viz., 16 years of age or upwards, wch. 
shall not obey ye voyce of his father, or ye voice of 
his mother, yet when they have chastened him will 
not hearken unto them, etc., such son shall be put to 
death or otherwise severely punished. There is a law 
which severely punishes any one who shall wittingly 
or willingly make or publish any lie wch may be 
tending to ye damage or hurt of any particular per- 
son, or w"" intent to deceive and abuse the people with 
false views or reports." " For preventing deceite in 
trade y' all men may be on a certainty in matters of 
contracts and bargains, it is ordered that all contracts, 
agreem", or covenants for any specia whatsoever shall 
be paid in the same specia bargained for, any law, 
usage, or custome to the contrary notwithstanding," 
and yet so wise have some of our Legislatures grown 
by two centuries they have come to maintain that 
deceit in trade is the best thing, and any certainty in 
matters of business or trade the worst thing, for a 

These are some of the customs and laws which re- 
veal the condition of our early settlers ; grown to a 
populous community, and with the lapse of many 
years, these customs of society and of worship have 
all been changed, the sumptuary laws and the strict 
laws for the surveillance of individuals, the inspec- 
tion of houses, the punishment of profanity, or in- 
temperance, or sensuality, or the breaking of the 
Sabbath have become dead letters, but society en- 
dures, worship knows no failure, and schemes of re- 
form of every kind fill the air and enlist the prayers 
and sacrifices of all good wishers to humanity, and 
the dishonesties of trade, the sins of impurity, the 



decline of interest in religion are common compliiints 
and common fears. Tlio severe oversight possible in 
11 small colony is laid aside in a tliickly-settled neigh- 
borhood, where, even with the deepest synipatliies or 
interest, one liardly knows the persons living next 
him. The causes of danger or suflering of that early 
day have passed away with the resources of our vast 
land, extending tiirough all zones, and the idea of in- 
dividual opportunity, of persoiuil liberty and religious 
IVccdoni, with which these colonies began, has widened 
beyond all conceptions of that day, and into a license 
which is big with dangers. No law of the State com- 
])els us to worship or mark the boundaries of Virtue's 
path ; it is all left to the individual conscience. A 
divine idea, we Americans are wont to boast, and 
leading to divine things when rightly received, 
rightly interpreted, and rightly understood. If each 
one of our society to-day uses his liberty for the best 
things we are doubtless better otf than when our an- 
cestors were hedged about by so manifold restrictions, 
but if he does not we are still far from safety or moral 

The Shoals. — The Isles of Shoals were of course 
visited even earlier than the mainland. " Among the 
rcmarkablest Isles and mountains for landmarks," 
writes Capt. Smith, "are Smith's Isles, a heape to- 
gether, none neare them, against Accominticus." He 
evidently desired these islands to perpetuate his name 
and adventures, but after other patents divided New 
England he writes again, " But no lot for me but 
Smith's Isles, which area many of barren rocks, the 
most overgrowne with such shrubs and sharp whins 
you can hardly pass them, without either grass or 
wood, but three or four short shrubby old cedars." 

The Isles of Shoals were included in the grant of 
the Laconia Company of 1()31, biit upon the failure 
of that venture the grant was divided in 1(;3.5 by a 
line which has continued to the present day, Gorges 
taking the northern half as a part of the province of 
Maine, and Msison the southern, as a part of the 
province of New Hampshire ; but some settlers re- 
mained there permanently and increased to quite a 
flourishing colony. 

For a long time the islands were a kingdom and 
government by themselves, and had a ccmstantly in- 
creasing prosperity, so that the number of inhabitants 
ran up to about six hundred, and even with a semi- 
nary of some repute, to which some families on the 
mainland sent their sons to be educated. It was here 
that the three brothers Cutt first settled, removing to 
Portsmouth in 11)47, but still carrying on business at 
the .^hoals. The islands came under the sway of the 
Mii-ssachusctts about 1652, but a strong clement of 
royalty and E[>iscopacy for a long time renuiined. In 
1.S24 the population had fallen to sixty-nine, and 
within a few years it has entirely disappeared, and all 
the islands passed under the ownership of the pro- 
prietors of the large and flourishing hotels which 
year by year attract summer visitors. 


poirrsMOurn.— (c«.i>i»K«/.) 

The Navy-Yard— The "Falkland"— Tho " Bnngor"— The "America"— 
TliB Mluislrjr of Rogers— The Ilnlf-Way Covenant- A New Parish. 

The Navy- Yard. — It was because the early gov- 
ernment of this settlement saw, on account of the ex- 
tensive and fine timber lands and the advantages of 
the deep and never-closed harbor, an admirable loca- 
. tion for ship-building that Portsmouth was chosen as 
a place for building ships for the Royal Navy, and at 
a later date by our government for one of its yardss, 
although the oflicial name is the Kittery Navy-Yard. 
As early as 16.50 there are records of timber for masts 
marked with the king's " Broad Arrow" as belonging 
to the crown. 

The " Falkland."— The first war-shij) built here 
was the " Falkland," of fifty-four guns, in 1690, and 
in 1724 still in conimi.ssion in the Royal Navy. In 
1749 a ship-of-war named the " America," of fifty 
guns, was built for the British government by Col. 
Nathaniel Meserve. When the war of the Revolu- 
tion was seen to be inevitable this site at once recom- 
mended itself to the government. Governor Lang- 
don, then the owner of Badger's Island, offered its 
use to Continental Congress, and here, in March, 17.55, 
was begun work on the frigate " Raleigh," of thirty- 
two guns, and the following May she was launched, 
and before four months had elapsed she was on the 
seas and had engaged in attacking four English vessels 
of war acting as convoy of a large fleet of merchant- 
men. It was one of the earliest engagelnents which 
gave promise of that brilliant bravery which surprised 
the world as it gained one success after another upon 
the seas, and over the ships of the greatest naval 
power in the world. 

The "Ranger." — The next ship built here for the 
Colonial government was " the Ranger," launched 
in 1777, and immediately given to the command of 
John Paul Jones, and with her he attacked and cap- 
tured the "Drake," a British vessel of greater power. 

The "America." — In 1776 the keel of the "Amer- 
ica" was laid at Badger's Island, the only ship of the 
line which the government at that time completed, and 
in 1782 this ship was given by Congress to France to 
replace the " Magnifique," one of her men-of-war, re 
cently lost in the harbor of Boston. This ship was 
captured by the British in 1794, and her name changed 
to the " Iinpetueux," and long regarded as one of the 
most valuable and beautiful vessels in the British 
navy, and yet her builder, Mr. Hackett, of Portsmouth, 
had never seen a ship-of-the-line. For a long time 
after the war little was done in the navy, but in 1798 
the frigate " Crescent" was built, then the sloop-of- 
war " Portsmouth," next the "Seanimell," and then 
the "Congress." It was not till 1800, the principal 
island, on which the buildings of the navy-yard are 
erected, that was purchased by the government and the 



various provisions necessary for a naval station ac- 
tively began. From time to time appropriations were 
made for increasing its usefulness, from time to time 
some of the finest ships were here built, and during 
the late war of the Rebellion a large body of men 
was steadily employed, and the capacities of the yard 
enlarged until it became an important station for the 

The Ministry of Rogers.— The long ministry of 
Moodey ended in 1(597, and after several attempts to 
settle a clergyman, on the 3d of May, 1699, Nathaniel 
Rogers was ordained minister of the town of Ports- 
mouth. He was born at Ipswich, Feb. 22, 1669-70, 
and graduated at Harvard in 1687. There are few 
names among the clergymen of Massachu.setts more 
eminent than that of Rogers, and the same family 
which gave the minister to Portsmouth furnished to 
Ipswich pastors of the same name for a period of over 
a century. .lohn Rogers, who was chosen to succeed 
Mr. OaWs as president of Harvard and was installed 
in 1683, is described as a man of such sweet disposi- 
tion that "the title of delicice c/eneris humani might 
have been given him, and his real piety set off with 
the accomplishments of a gentleman was like a gem 
set in gold." Of this Rogers, president of Harvard, 
our clergyman was the youngest son. Rev. Nathaniel 
Rogers was a man of great elegance in his person and 
deportment, of a most agreeable manner of preach- 
ing, and of eminent piety. He was a strict disciple 
of the Geneva .school, a term used to designate the 
hearty supporters of Calvinism, whose centre of in- 
fluence and learning was in the Swiss metropolis. 
The disturbing matters which filled the pastorate of 
Moode*' seem to have produced little irritation during 
the ministry of Rogers, and, as is often the case, those 
on either side who could find no harmony in the life- 
time of a person foremost in creating, sustaining, or 
bearing the reproach of the difficulties and animosi- 
ties after his death are glad to 'be at peace for a while. 
Rev. Dr. Stiles says of Rogers, " he was a most excel- 
lent minister; and his ministry as well as that of that 
holy man of God, his predecessor, was eminently 
owned and blessed by the great Head of the Church." 

His work was quiet, faithful, and successful, but 
although repeatedly solicited to publish some of his 
sermons he always refused, and we have nothing by 
which to judge of the character of his writings ; and 
the influence of his ministry, which in all respects 
appears the best, was unhappily greatly lessened by a 
serious disturbance in regard to building a new church, 
which for a long time embittered the whole neighbor- 
hood, and even extended throughout the province. 

After being the minister of Portsmouth for fifteen 
years, preaching in the old South, Mr. Rogers was 
directed, by a vote of the church-members, to officiate 
in the new meeting-house which had just been com- 
pleted on the northeastern corner of the glebe land, 

the site of the present North Church. Here he re- 
mained preaching with acceptance and success for 
nine years until his death, on the 3d of October, 1723, 
making a total pastorate of twenty-four years five 
months. He was buried at the "Point of Graves;" 
but the slate which was let into his monument, and 
on which his epitaph was written, has long since dis- 
appeared. This inscription was written in Latin, with 
a Hebrew motto at its close, and with marked classical 
purity and taste, and fortunately before its destruction 
was copied by one of his successors. Dr. Stiles, and 
so has come down to us. Without being fulsome it 
briefly and beautifully portrays a faithful and distin- 
guished pastor, well named in the church records " the 
good Mr. Rogers." 

The Half-way Covenant — It is somewhat re- 
markable that with a clergyman so strictly of the 
Genevan school as was Mr. Rogers his church should 
under his pastorate adopt what was termed the Half- 
way Covenant, but in the church records under date 
of April 21, 1707, we find the following: "At a 
church meeting legally convened it was voted that 
persons having a competent knowledge, and making 
a serious profession of ye Xian Religion, and being 
of a conversation void of scandal, upon ye owning ye 
covenant, and subjecting themselves to ye govern- 
ment of Christ in this church, shall be admitted to 
baptism, and have the like privilege for ye children." 
It would seem that to be well informed of Christian 
truth, and to seriously profess to obey its require- 
ments, to be of a walk and conversation free frqm all. 
reproach, to confess the creed, and to be entirely 
subject to the Head of the Church would be sufficient 
to admit one to the questionable salvation by the 
form of baptism, but such was the severity of the 
Geneva school tliat all this was only half-way. A 
man might be of an upright walk beyond question, 
a glory of example of goodness to all the world, and 
yet, being without the formal test of election, redemp- 
tion, and faith, all his goodness was unavailing, and 
even might make against him. Nevertheless this 
Half-way Covenant was for a time quite popular in 
New England, and was in use in the new parish in 
Portsmouth until it was discontinued by Dr. Putnam. 
As might be supposed, among the strict followers of 
the Geneva school it could work only mischief, and 
deadness to the spiritual life, for it is a tacit admit- 
tance of the failure of that system through its exces- 
sive rigidity, and whatever religious tenets one holds 
to, he must hold to wholly, and not partially, to make 
them efl'ectual. It might be likened, in some degree, 
to the old biblical distinction of the proselytes of the 
gate, in contrast with the proselytes of righteousness, 
the former being in the eyes of strict Jews only half 
converts, not required to observe the whole law, but 
only to abstain from certain heathen practices. 

A New Parish. — We come now to consider the 
gathering and history of a new parish. This matter 
has never had the careful investigation, or been set 



forth in the simple historical accuracy it deserves. I 
find that it is quite as simple, and far more readily 
UMilcistood tlian most ovents in the past with which 
the historian has to deal. There was, as we have 
seen, some ohjection at the time to hnilding the old 
South Church heyond the mill-dam, at the fork of the 
roads jroing to New Castle and the cemetery, and the 
matter was settled only by tiic appointment of a cora- 
mittt'c by the General Court, wliich finally located it 
tlKM-e. All the time there had been a small jiarty want- 
ing it farther up Pleasant Street. Since the building of 
that first old South more than fifty years had passed 
away, and from the building of the first chapel near the 
Universalist Church nearly .<eventy-five. The popu- 
lation, which in 1().")7 I am inclined to think was not 
far from five hundred, had increased to at least twelve 
hundred in Kiil!?, and yet they were all included in 
one parish, and their only place of worsiiip was the 
olil Soutii Church beyond the mill bridge. From 
some old records I find tliatofthis number, according 
to the same calculation. Great Island had about two 
hundred, when a separate parish was established 
there in 1693. There must still have been in the old 
|>arish, wide as its limits still were, allowing for the 
same rate of increase, although there is every reason 
to suppose it was much more rapid, at least twelve 
Imndred inhabitants, whose only home for worship 
was the old South, and all the time the settlement 
had been growing away from the church and towards 
the Bank, as this upper part of the town was gener- 
ally called. The old church was not only in con- 
stant need of repairs, but was entirely too small to 
accommodate the large and rapidly increasing parish. 
We find in the town records the following: "At a 
Generall Town-meeting held at Portsmo, thq 24th 
day of September, 1711, voted that a new meeting- 
house be built in the Town. Voted, that the new 
meeting-house be built on the corner of the minister's 
ffield, on ye place formerly appointed by ye Com- 
mittee, and that it be ye stated meeting-house of ye 
Town. Voters for the meeting-house are sixty-five; 
against, are forty-five." A committee was chosen at 
the same meeting " to carry on ye aflaire of building 
8'' House," and the selectmen were empowered to 
money by way of a town rate for the said house. 
"Tills corner of the minister's flSeld" referred to in 
the vote, was the corner of the glebe land we have 
already described, and the site of the present North 

When this vote was taken there was no tiiought 
of any division, only of building a new church for the 
whole parish, but the parishioners at the south end 
were not willing to liave it built so far to the north. 
It is said they were willing that it should be built 
on tiie spot wliere later the house of Mr. Joseph 
Haven stood, or the rise of ground near it ; but the 
parishioners at the north end were not willing to go 
so far south. Instead of compromise, the matter grew 
only more complicated and excited, and as the new 

church went up the dissensions grew wider and 

The people of Greenland, who were anxious to be 
set apart and have a parish of their own, all came to 
the aid of the north end, as the tradition was that in 
return, as soon as the new church was built, those for 
whom they voted would vote for their separation. 

While, however, a majority of twenty of the whole 
parish, meaning thereby the whole town, was thus in 
favor of the new church, and the minister, Mr. Rog- 
ers, was on that side, there is every reason to sup- 
pose that the majority was gained out of those who, 
by the increase of population towards the north, 
could not be accommodated at the old South. The 
church, meaning thereby the communicants, had at 
that day the chief authority in ecclesiastical matters, 
and after the new meeting-house was finished we find, 
under date of Jan. 7, 1714, the church voted " that Na- 
thaniel Roger.s, minister of this church, should come to 
the new meeting-house erected at the Bank on ye next 
Sabbath, "seven night, and preach there, and con- 
tinue preaching there as formerly at ye old Meetiug- 
House, and perform all other offices which appertain 
to his function." Unfortunately the record does not 
give the number for or against. We do not know 
how many church-members there vere at this time, 
the men only voting, but the number was probably 
between twenty and thirty, as there were twenty male 
members at the time of Mr. Rogers' ordination, yet 
at the beginning of the present century the tradition 
was that while a majority attending the meeting 
voted for Mr. Rogers to go to the new meeting-house, 
an actual majority of the church-members were in 
favor of retaining him at the old. Hence it came 
that the feeling grew only the more violent, because 
the parishioners at the south end claimed that unfair 
measures had been taken to gain the vote, and so they 
determined to remain at the old South. In this, and 
this is a fact of great importance, and which has never 
been set forth, they were advised and sustained by an 
ecclesiastical council, and the counsel of no less dis- 
tinguished a clergyman than Dr. Mather, Df Boston, 
whose advice and assistance the parishioners at the 
south end sought and followed. Mr. Rogers became 
much disgusted with the conduct of tiie ministers 
because they took the side of the people of the old 
church. Dr. Mather, on the other hand, blamed 
Mr. Rogers, and wondered how so good a man could 
discover so much ill humor; but all ecclesia.stical 
history shows that very good men can. The result 
of the council was", as in general, .somewhat unsatis- 
factory to all sides, and says one of the early his- 
torians, " the societies separated and did not walk in 
love till that generation dropped off the stage." 

But the ecclesiastical council did not settle matters. 
It never does, and before long the subject comes be- 
fore the council held at Portsmouth. At a general 
town-meeting held Sept. 0, 1713, the redoubtable 
John Pickering, who was warm in the cause of the 



south end, was chosen moderator. After passing two 
votes disorders arose, and the justices dissolved the 
meeting; but those wlio remained, with Piclcering at 
their head, put a number of things to vote which 
were carried, such as that the old meeting-house 
shall continue town-meeting house forever, and 
when too mucli decayed with age to be repaired, that 
a new one shall be erected inits place ; that the glebe 
land (this was tlie serious cause of the trouble), for- 
merly given by the town for the use of the ministry, 
shall wholly remain to the benefit of the minister, 
who shall officiate in said house ; that a committee 
shall wait upon Mr. Rogers to see if it be his pleasure 
to continue preaching at the old meeting-house during 
his abode in the town ; if not, that the said committee 
shall provide an able minister for the said place of 
worship, and agree with him for his salary, which 
agreement, so made, shall be ratified and fulfilled by 
the town. 

But Mr. Rogers followed the vote of the church, 
and went to the new meeting-house, whereupon the 
old parish at the south end sent at once to Mr. Emer- 
son, of Great Island, or New Castle, to be its minister. 
Then the matter came to open war, each parish ap- 
pearing before the General Assembly by a committee. 
At a meeting of the Council of General Assembly of 
the province of New Hampshire, held on the 11th of 
May, 1714, we find the following: " Upon hearing of 
all parties referring to the meeting-houses of tliis 
town, and having seen and considered the gx'ants, 
agreements, and votes of the said town of Portsmouth 
referring to the settlements of the Reverend Mr. 
Rogers, the preseilt minister of the said town or 
parish, voted that the said Mr. Rogers be established 
the minister of the said town, and be confirmed in 
the possession of the glebe land or parsonage lands 
according to the agreement with the town. It is 
further ordered and directed that his salary or main- 
tenance be raised by the selectmen from the inhabit- 
ants, and paid him from time to time as heretofore." 

The General Assembly, at its same session, goes on 
to say, "And further considering of the great increase 
of the inhabitants of the said town of Portsmouth, 
that there be two ministers, two meeting-houses main- 
tained in the said town, and that the two meeting- 
houses now in being are the houses and places directed 
and agreed upon, and to be finished and repaired at 
the expense of the whole town ; that Mr. Rogera and 
his maintenance be established as above provided; 
that the minister of the other meeting-house at the 
Mill Dam shall be named and chosen by an assem- 
bly of -all the freeholders in the said town, and have 
his salary and parsonage house provided and main- 
tained at the charge of said town. And whereas Mr. 
John Emerson has served in the congregation at the 
meeting-house near the Mill Dam for some time past, 
there be made him at his departure a present of fifty 
pounds with thanks for his services there, the said 
fifty pounds to be paid out of the town treasury, and 

to be raised at the next town tax." This present voted 
to Mr. Emerson was probably with the idea that he 
was only a temporary supply, but it was soon found 
he was to be the popular and successful minister of 
the parish permanently. This order of the General 
Assembly did not bring peace. Selectmen were chosen 
now on one side and now on another ; petitions were 
sent to the General Assembly now on one side and 
now on another. Town officers were cho.sen at the 
new and also at the old on 7th of June, 
1714; and it was left for the Governor to say which 
should serve. We find at another meeting held the 
27th July, 1714, the Indians took up so much time of 
the General Assembly that it could not further pro- 
ceed in relation to the selectmen of Portsmouth, but 
for the present voted that out of nine persons set 
down in margin (of petition) there be five picked by 
his Excellency the Governor to do the public service 
of the said town as selectmen till the 25th of March 
next. The Governor picked or chose those elected 
at the new meeting-house; and then the Assembly 
" voted a concurrence with the order of the Governor 
and Council, and considering the regularity of the 
town-meeting at the new meeting-house the 7th of 
of June, confirm the town clerk and all other officers 
then chosen and the votes then passed about the new 
meeting-house, and ordered that the officers stand as 
such until the 25th of March next, and that be the 
day for annually electing town officers." This of course 
was but a temporary matter, and as the months went 
on the town found the necessity and possibility of 
sustaining two flourishing parishes ; but the embit- 
tered feelings were not allayed by the votes of the 
General Assembly ; peace did not reign at the Bank 
or at the Mill Dam. At first the advantage seemed 
to rest with the new parish, which had the strength of 
votes, but in January of the next year we find at a 
meeting of the Council a petition appears from the 
persistent Capt. Pickering, presenting it personally, 
and the Council orders the clerk to read a summons 
to ye town of Portsmouth, to show cause if any there 
be why orders may not be given in favor of the peti- 
tioners belonging to Portsmouth, mostly residents on 
the south side of the Mill Dam ; and the Council, 
January, 1715-16, " ordered that ye Rev. Mr. Na- 
thaniel Rogers and Mr. Emerson be ye two estab- 
lished ministers of the town of Portsmouth, and that 
they be each paid one hundred pounds per annum 
out of the treasury of the town of Ports, aforesaid, 
according to the orders made by his Excellency Col. 
Dudley, the Council, and Assembly of this province 
in. May, 1714, and that the selectmen of the town 
of Portsmo. aforesaid, for the time being, give out 
their warrants from year to year to the constables for 
collecting the same and all such as are inhabitants 
[ratable at law] of s'' town in proportion, except 
those that are of the parish of Greenland : and further 
y' the P'souage liouse on ye north side of the Mill 
Dam be built at ye public charge of the town except 



as before excepted. Also y' as ye N. meeting-liousp 
was built by n public tax, ye old one be repaired, and 
botli inaiiitaiiuHl from time to time out of a joynt 
stock ; and that ye two petitions relating to this mat- 
ter I viz. I, ye petition preferred by Capt. Pickering, and 
ye petition preferred by Mr. Jart'rey, be dismissed." 

This vote of the Assembly makes each parish of 
equal im|)ortance so far as public matters were con- 
cerned ; but tlieu there arose another trouble out of 
the embittered feelings. In ])roviding the minister's 
salaries, it soenis the selectmen as they were on one 
or tlie other side would rate some of the parishioners 
in the wrong parish and so make them pay a double 
parish tax, and wardens generally find that most per- 
sons are ready to pay at least but one. The redoubt- 
able t'apt. Pickering, in the midst of the difficulty, 
added fuel to the flame by some ways that were at 
least strange. It seems tiiat a paper was signed, by 
which for certain advantages sorneof tiie parishionei-s 
at tlie new, to bring peace, agreed to contribute cer- 
tain sums for one year for the support of the minister 
at the old meeting-house, but afterwards found the 
]>aper was drawn up without limitations as to time." 
Thereupon we find in 1716, May 17tli, this vote: "For 
preventing of any future disturbance & difference that 
has or may arise in ye town of Portsmo. about ye 
minister's salary in ye town, voted, that the subscri- 
bers to & constant bearers of ye Rev. Mr. Rogers at 
ye new meeting-house be impowered and enabled by 
an act to support him there in the ministry by an 
equal assessment on themselves, & that tliey be ex- 
cused i>aying anything towards ye support of any 
other minister in ye town until named & chosen by 
an assembly of all ye freeholders of ye town accord- 
ing to an act of Gen. Assembly of ye 11 May, 1714, 
that the liearers of Mr. Emerson have ye same power 
for raising liis salary among themselves." At the 
same session there came before the Assembly the fol- 
lowing petition : " The humble petition of severall of 
ye Inhabitants of ye town of Ports"'" in behalf of 
themselves i*c others humbly shewetii ; That whereas 
upon the Removal of Rev. Mr. Rogers unto ye new 
meeting-house, we, being disposed for one year and 
no longer to support a minister at tlie old until mat- i 
ters of ye town were amicably accommotlatc, did in- 
advertently sign unto a certain in.strunient without 
reading or considering the contents tliereof, & being 
since informed that ye import of the s"" instrument 
was without any limitation of time, whereby we & 
our succe.ssors are greatly insnared to our unspeaka- 
ble hurl i*c prejudice, doe humbly Jiray tiiat ye said 
instrument may be produced, whereby the false insin- 
uations of those that insnared us may be detected, & 
that we may be released therefrom." 

Still f(»r two years longer the matter came con- 
stantly before the Council and General Assembly, 
and the whole province was ad'ected by the (|uarrel, 
until at bust the selectmen each year, with the help of 
the wardens, made out a list of each freeholder and 

the parish to which he belonged, so that no longer was 
the same person compelled to pay both, and no longer 
could any one escape ])aying to cither by claiming a 
house of worship now at the north and now at the 

The result of tlie whole trouble was that the two 
parishes were declared to be the two parishes of the 
town, and went on with a prosperity which has 
hardly known a jiause until the jiresent day. The 
north was the new parish, and made up princijially 
of the new settlers in this ]«irt of the town, while the 
trouble seems to have had little effect upon the old 
as a parish ; it called another pastor at once, paid him 
the same salary that the whole town i>aid to Mr. 
Rogers, and seems to have known no break in its his- 
tory or its influence or its strength, but there was 
no such thing as first or second parish or church 
spoken of. It was always the old meeting-house and 
the new, or the parish at the Mill Dam or the parish 
at the Bank. The vote of the majority of the church 
as a body of communicants, being the more import- 
ant legal body in that day, gave them the right to 
take with them the church records and the commu- 
nion service, perhaps a part of the old service which 
belonged to Mason and the first Episcopal t'hapel, 
and to compel Mr. Rogers to go with them, liut the 
north was never in any sense the first church of 
Portsmouth, for that, as we liaVe seen abundantly 
confirmed, was Episcopal. 

The South Parish retained the old meeting-house 
and a majority of the old parish. Whatever legal 
rights a majority vote of parish or church may con- 
fer, no going away of a part can affect the earlier 
history which belongs equally to each. The associa- 
tions which cluster around a locality can never be 
voted to another place, and around the old South 
Church clustered and always will the recollection of 
the early settlement. For a long time the history of 
the two parishes was the same, that of the church of 
Portsmouth, and when it flowed into two channels it 
was fortunately to a prosperity for each of 
which neither need be jealous. The first difficulty 
was in regard to the location of the church, the next 
was doctrinal. 

PORTSMOUTH.— (Coi.(i«H«rf.) 

Be-establisliniont of Episcopacy— Ke». Arthur BrowD-— IT. Bancroft— 
Dr. liurroiiglis— Rulers until tlie Revolution— Bcnning Wentvrorlh— 
Sir John Weutworth— Priiici|«l Nanien in the Early Settlenieul- 
Henry Sherbnrn— John Pickering— Samuel Wcntworth— Sir William 
Pepperell — The Siege of Louixburg- ChHni|>ernowno — Succeeding 
Ministers of the Old South Parish— Emerson— A Church at the Plains 
— Aljsence of the Spirit of Persecution- Witchcmft— A Sow Church 
—Sliurtloir— Clerical Anecdotes— Revival under Whilelield— Stnmg— 
Jonathan Eilwanls- Ministers of the North Parisli— The Cnivemal- 
i»t I'.iriHh- Vnri.ius Kvents— Visit of Wellington— Conclusion. 

Re-establishment of Episcopacy. — The persist- 
ency with which persons for generations cling to 



their theological inheritances, even at times without 
being able to give any reason for them, is well illus- 
trated in the re-establishment of Episcopacy in Ports- 
mouth. This element never entirely died out here, 
but was cherished in a few families or individuals, 
ready to manifest itself at any opportunity which 
promised to give it an organization and a home. It 
was stronger in the Piscataqua than any of the his- 
torians have yet acknowledged. It was clearly a part 
of the early settlers' plan to make this a Church of 
England settlement, but the ascendency of the Mas- 
sachusetts soon put all the interest here in the hands 
of the Puritans. The first minister, a strong defender 
of the Established Church, was banished simply for 
that reason, and for a long time Episcopacy seemed 
entirely destroyed. In the first quarter of the eigh- 
teenth century qui.te a serious trouble was brewing in 
regard to the boundary line between the provinces of 
the Massachusetts Bay and New Hampshire. As 
early as 1730, Col. David Dunbar was chairman of a 
commission on the part of this province to meet a 
committee of the Bay on the adjusting of this line. 
He was a native of Ireland, and appointed Lieuten- 
ant-Governor of this province in 1731, and also sur- 
veyor-general of the woods. He had been a colonel 
in the British service, and being commander of the 
fort at Pemaquid, he assumed the government of all 
the inhabitants in that part of Maine ; but exercising 
the military discipline with considerable rigor, be 
came into collision with the land proprietors, who 
applied for relief to Governor Belcher, and he issued 
a proclamation ordering the inhabitants to submit to 
the Massachusetts instead of Dunbar. The Governor 
and his lieutenant were in contention as long as Dun- 
bar remained in the country. Dunbar had command 
of the fort at New Castle, and in retaliation made 
everything as uncomfortable for Governor Belcher as 
he could. The latter came into power in 1730, as 
Governor of Massachusetts and New Hampshire, 
was ambitious, arbitrary, tyrannical, and unjust, par- 
tial to Massachusetts, and unfriendly to New Hamp- 
shire, and it is probable that reaction against his 
counsels and decisions hastened the ecclesiastical as 
well as the political opposition to his rule. 

While Dunbar had charge of the settlement of the 
boundary line, which threatened to bring the prov- 
inces into open war, one Capt. John Thomlinson, a 
merchant of London well known in New Hampshire, 
was agent for the matter of the boundary at the court 
of Great Britain; and in this Thomlinson, Dunbar 
found a zealous friend of the new church movement. 
Theodore Atkinson, one of the most prominent citi- 
zens, and whose name constantly appears in all po- 
litical matters, was also foremost in aiding it. It 
was begun in 1732, and the church was finished in 
1735. This church was a frame building, somewhat 
smaller than the present one, with a steeple like that 
of the old South, and two entrances, one on the west, 
the other on the south. On tlie north side the central 

of the wall pews was raised above the rest, a heavy 
wooden canopy built over it bore the royal arms, and 
red plush curtains were festooned around it. Pre- 
vious to the Revolution this was called the Governor's 
pew, and in 1789 was occupied by Washington when 
on a visit to Portsmouth. The bell was taken from 
Louisburg at the time of its capture in 1745, and in 
that year presented by the officers of the New Hamp- 
shire regiment to this church. Tl»e most valuable 
relic and ornament of the church, the font, a beauti- 
ful piece of porphyritic marble of a brownish-yellow 
color, was plundered from a church in Senegal, Africa, 
by Col. John Tupton Mason, and presented by his 
daughters to Queen's Chapel ; but, however inter- 
esting for its history, it confers only disgrace upon 
its capturer, for, according to the general rules of all 
Christian warfare, the churches are exempt from 

Rev. Arthur Brown.— On the 18th of August, 
1735, and chiefly through the earnest activity of his 
ardent admirer, Dunbar, an invitation to Rev. Artliur 
Brown was extended and accepted, and he became 
rector of Queen's Chapel, the salary being assured 
by the liberality of the English Society for Propa- 
gating the Gospel in Foreign Parts. His ministry 
was popular and successful, and lasted until 1773, 
when, on a visit to Cambridge, he died, at the age of 
seventy-four, and was interred in the Wentworth 
tomb of Queen's Chapel graveyard. All the tributes 
offered to his memory show that he must have been a 
man of real culture, of unpretentious goodne-ss, of 
eminent worth. It was not owing to his popular 
gifts and assiduous labors only that his success was 
so marked. The times were propitious and helpful 
to second his own and the enthusiasm of a people 
gathered with all the interest attendant upon the 
establishment of a new church. Every official of 
the government was expected to belong to the Estab- 
lished Church of England ; the ofiicers of the army 
and navy were all really compelled to choose that 
faith. The Rev. Mr. Brown was as fortunate in his 
death as in his labors, for it occurred just as the 
troubles were gathering with England, and the break- 
ing out of the war promised for a time to crush every- 
thing which related to English customs and Engiisli 
worship. The parish, which had enjoyed great pros- 
perity for nearly thirty years, suffered a sudden and 
almost entire overthrow and extinction, and Episco- 
pacy \^as reduced to a state almost as low as at the 
close of the ministry of Gibson, more than a century 
before, and for twenty-five years after the 
death of Mr. Brown the church was almost entirely 
neglected. After the Revolution, two or three suc- 
cessive rectors were not very successful in their min- 
istrations, and in the winter of 1806 the church was 
destroyed by fire. At that time the South Parish was 
without a pastor, and the use of the church was 
oflered to Queen's Chapel, now changed to St. John's, 
and for some time it was not unusual for the two 



societies to uiiito in |iul)lii- worsliip, the same clergy- 
ni;m f'rtM|uoiitly <iirK'iiitiii<;- lor liolli parislies, reading 
tln' Hook of roiiiiiioti I'l-ayer one part of the (lay, 
and following tlie sinii)le congregational order of 
services for the other. The extremely feeble condi- 
tion of this sect in this part of New England at that 
period is shown by the fact that there was no Epis- 
copal visitation of the Portsmouth i)arish from 1791 
to 1812. In this latter year wc have the first record 
of the administration of tiie rite of confirmation. 

Dr. Burroughs. — Mr. Charles lUirroughs, then in 
deacon's ortlers, had been the minister of the parish 
for three years, but never had the opportunity of 
being confirmed. The records show that on the 
day preceding his ordination to the priesthood he 
received confirmation, together with one hundred 
and fifty of his congregation, and in order to be or- 
dained as deacon he had been obliged to journey to 

With the establishment of peace and liberty of 
conscience, and under the attractive ministrations 
of Dr. Burroughs, St. John's again took its place 
among the flourishing churches of Portsmouth. Dr. 
Burroughs was born in Boston on the 27th of De- 
cendjer, 1787, and there his early boyhood was passed. 
He enjoyed and imjiroved the best opportunities of 
that day for a classical education, in which he made 
great attainments, and all through life enriched a 
mind of fair proportions with all the elegant liter- 
ature of ancient or modern times. He came to 
Portsmouth as a reader in 1809, and such was his 
reputation for entering into and rendering the beau- 
ties of the church service, and the entire satisfaction 
he gave as a writer, that many from other parishes, 
being occasional listeners, confessed to a willingness 
to remain permanently if Mr. Burroughs could be 
induced to take the care of the parish. Among all 
tlie distinguished men of Portsmouth in his long 
ministry. Dr. Burroughs was still eminent for his 
rare gifts of conversation, for his ample culture, for 
his elegant hospitality at his beautiful home, for his 
inborn and acquired grace of manner, for his unfailing 
liberality, for iiis daily walk in harmony with his 
altar profe.ssions. He was rector until the year 1857, 
a citizen of Portsmouth until the oth of March, 1868, 
when he became a fellow-citizen with the saints.' 

Rulers until the Revolution.— In 1717, after a 
good deal of rivalry and disturbance between the 
Governor, the Lieutenant-Governor, and the Assem- 
bly, the king removed Vaughan from office, and John 
Wentworth was appointed Lieutenant-Governor in 
his place. 

John Wentworth. — John Wentworth was the 
grandson of William Wentworth, the first of the 
name in this country, whose son, Samuel Wentworth, 
of Portsnioutii, lias been already'referred to. William 
was an elder of the church at Dover, and occasionally 

1 See page 9C. 

preached there. John was born in Portsmouth in 
1671. Under his rule tiie town had a period of peace 
and steady prosperity until 17;i(), wlicn again a dis- 
turbance arose from the ajjpointment of Belcher as 
Governor of Ma.ssachusetts and New Hampsiiire, who 
from some petty displeasure turned out of office the 
friends of Wentworth ; but the Lieutenant-Governor 
died in this same year and Dunbar was ap|)ointed in 
his place, and retained the place under constantly-in- 
creasing opposition until 1741, when the great dissat- 
isfaction against him as well as (Jovernor Beleher 
resulted in the erection of New Hami)shire into a 
separate province, with the appointment of Benning 
Wentworth as (Tovcrnor in 1741. 

Benning Wentworth.— Governor Wenlworth was 
a son of the former Lieutenant-Governor .lolin Went- 
worth, and was born in Portsmouth in 1696. He be- 
came a merchant of prominence and a person of 
much infiuence in the colony, and his appointment 
was received with great .satisfaction by the people. 
He married for a second wife Martha Hilton, his 
housekeeper, upon which incident is founded. Long- 
fellow's story of Lady Wentworth. The expedition 
against Louisburg was the principal and e.xciting 
event during his term of office; which ended in 1766, 
just as the Stamp Act was arousing the indignation 
of the American people. 

Sir John Wentworth. — Sir John Wentworth, a 
nephew of Benning, was appointed as Governor in 
1766, and also as surveyor of all the king's woods in 
North America. He was born in Portsmouth in 
1736, and, while on a visit to England, became a 
favorite of the Marquis of Eockingham, through 
whose influence he received his important oflices 
and entered upon them in 1768, landing at Charles- 
town, and crossing from that port by land to this town. 
But the times were growing troublesome for all the 
English officials ; the sense of oppression and the de- 
sire for liberty were rapidly spreading, and in 1774, be- 
cause of the aid the Governor rendered to Gen. Gage, 
the excitement of the people was so great that he was 
compelled to take refuge, first, in the fort at New Cas- 
tle, and then upon an English num-of-war in the har- 
bor. He remained in England until peace was de- 
clared, became Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia, 
and died in 1820. He was a friend to education, and 
gave forty -.six thousand acres of land to Dartmouth Col- 
lege, and also a grant to each member of the first grad- 
uating class. After he left the country and the war 
of the Revolution secured the independence of the 
United States, this settlement, whose history we have 
sketched in itis important events, became, with 
New Hampshire, a part of the American Union, and 
entered upon that marvelous prosperity which has 
won for this country the admiration and envy of the 

A Few of the Principal Names in the Early 
Settlement.— IIknkv Shkiuuum;. .\mong those 
who were very prominent in the civil and e((Usi:ustical 


affairs of this colony was Henry Sherburne, from the 
beginning an active churchman and a warden of the 
first churcli of the Piscataqua settlement. His asso- 
ciate warden, Walford, appears some years later as 
the husband of the witch Goody Walford, and there 
may be some reason for the supposition that the 
charge of witchcraft had a connection with the ani- 
mosity existing between the Independents and church 
party. Sherburne appears in this settlement as early 
as June, 1632, when the Bay Colony came into rule 
liere and it was evidently no longer pos.sible to main- 
tain Episcopacy. Sherburne still took an interest in 
supporting public worship, as approved by the ma- 
jority, although by no means to his own mind. We 
find him appointed by the town to go in search of a 
minister, and also engaging to entertain the minister 
when he came. All this was in the faith that the 
re-establishment of Episcopacy might occur at an 
early day, and in this faith it doubtless was that we 
find him in the first list of the subscribers to the sup- 
port of Moodey while ofliciating at the old Soutli in 
1658 ; but when his faith by force of circumstances 
grew less, and it was evidently the intention of the 
Bay to establish their ecclesiastical system here, with 
all its vigor, then Sherburne refused altogether to 
contribute towards the support of doctrines he did 
not accept, for in a list of subscribers to the mainte- 
nance of Moodey in 1671 we find annexed to the names 
of Henry Sherburne and Richard Sloper, his son-in- 
law, the note " will not subscribe." Nor is there any 
want of Christian liberality or Christian charity in 
that, rather is it to be commended. There are persons 
enough without any religious connections, and with- 
out attachments to any of the various doctrinal sys- 
tems, and those who deem all equally good or equally 
poor, can help support all ; but it is not the best- 
placed charity or the most commendable spirit, for 
the sake of improving a neighborhood, or being re- 
garded as generous, or becoming popular, to con- 
tribute to the advancement of views one does not 
think helpful to a higher religious life. 

John Pickering. — In the list of inhabitants of 
Portsmouth who, in 1640, made a grant of fifty acres 
for a glebe laud for the use of the ministry we find 
the name of John Pickering, who in himself and his 
descendants was to play a conspicuous part in town 
matters, both civil and ecclesiastical. 

The first John Pickering appears in Portsmouth as 
early as 16.35, perhaps as early as 1630. He came here 
from Massachusetts, and probably was the same person 
spoken of as being at Cambridge soon after that town 
was settled. He died on the 18th of January, 1668- 
69, leaving a large family. It was his son John who 
became so prominent in church and town affairs. He 
was born about 1640, and died about 1721. He first 
comes into notice as a military man, for which his 
character and talents seem eminently to have quali- 
fied him. As captain, he had a command in Ports- 
mouth for a number of years. When John Cutt was 

appointe.d first president of the separate government 
of New Hampshire, in 1680, Capt. Pickering was a 
representative for the town of Portsmouth, and he 
was also a member of the Assemblj' called by Cran- 
field and dissolved in great wrath because it would 
not raise the money he desired. 

It is mentioned in the early records that during the 
suspension of government consequent on the im- 
prisonment of Andros in 1689, Capt. John Picker- 
ing, a man of " a rough and adventurous spirit and 
a lawyer," " went with a company of armed men to 
the home of Richard Chamberlain (who wrote the 
book called Lithobolia, or Stone-throwing Demon at 
Gteat Island, of which we have given an account), & 
who had been secretary of the province under Andros 
& clerk of the Superior Court, & demanded the records 
& files wh. were in his possession, & upon refusing to 
deliver them up without some warrant or security; 
Pickering seized them by force, carried them off, and 
concealed them, and in turn was by force compelled 
to deliver them to Lieutenant-Governor Usher." 
Voluntarily or by selection he seems to have been 
engaged in several such enterprises about records of 
- both church and State. In 1697 he was appointed 
king's attorney, with Charles Story secretary of the 
province and clerkof the Council, with all the records 
and files committed to his care. Story did not attend 
one of the adjourned meetings of the Council ; was 
reprimanded for neglect of duty, and ordered to sur- 
render all his papers. Upon refusing to do so the 
sheriff and Capt. Pickering were ordered to take with 
them sufficient assistance, and to make diligent search 
in any houses, rooms, closets, chests, trunks, or other 
places within the province for the said papers. He 
was a member of the convention which in 1690 recom- 
mended a reunion with Massachusetts, and was chosen 
a member of the Assembly which met at Boston for 
a number of successive years, and was several times 
chosen its Speaker. As a lawyer he could not have 
been without popularity and confidence, for in 1707, 
when the great cause of Allen vs. Waldron, involving 
Allen's title to the province of New Hampshire, was 
tried for the last time, and all the strength of each 
side was brought out, embracing some of the first 
men in the province, Capt. Pickering was selected as 
one of the counsel to defend the houses and lands of 
the inhabitants. The Hon. John Pickering, LL.D., of 
Newington, was a descendant of the second son of the 
first John Pickering, of Portsmouth, but the ancestor of 
the distinguished Timothy Pickering was a John Pick- 
ering, of Ipswich. In the affairs of the church it was 
this Capt. Pickering who was appointed to build the 
stocks and pillories for the punishment of offenders, 
and on account of his remarkable strength, of which 
stories api^arently fabulous were handed down, was 
cho.sen at the time of Mr. Moodey's settlement to keep 
the congregation in order, reserve seats for the dis- 
tinguished guests ; but he let all in before the time, 
on the theory that at church one person was just as 



good iis ;mi)tlier. When the difficulties began in 
iv^iird to tlio site for tlie new church, vvhicii ended 
in tl\o formation of a new jjarish and animosities 
whidi disturbed tlie [leace of tlie wliole province for 
a generation, Capt. Pickering was the leading spirit 
in the old South Parish, who carried evcrthing as he 
willed at the town-meetings, either by persuasion or by 
I'orce, strenuously opposed building the new meeting 
iiouse so far up as the site of the North Church, car- 
ried the nuitter again and airain to the General Court, 
and generally with success fcu' Ills side; was foremost 
in all nuvtters concerning the old parish, and when at 
last the old church could be no longer repaired and 
kept as lie made the town vote it should be, " the 
meeting-house of the town forever," he devised to 
the South Parish a lot of ground for a convenient site 
for another meeting-house to be set off to the said 
jiarish, " on the highest part of his neck." He was 
a large real-estate owner at the south end of the 
town, and what was called " Pickering's Neck" was 
a part of the land on which the fourth place of wor- 
ship for the town of Portsmouth was built, being the 
churcii of the South Parish until the i)rescnt stone 
church was built in 1824. 

Samuel Wentwoeth. — In the list of subscribers to 
the support of Mr. Moodey, and so, of course, among 
the worshipers at the old South, we tind the name of 
Samuel Wentworth. This is the first of the family, 
afterwards so prominent in public affairs, who ap- 
jiears in our town. At that time the vicinity of Point 
of Graves was the principal part of Portsmouth. 
For a while Samuel Wentworth lived at Great Island, 
and afterwards built by Puddle Dock, on the south 
side of the dock, at the north end of Manning Street, 
the first Wentworth house, still in good preservation. 
It was in this house that the first Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor, John Wentworth, his son, lived, and here was 
married in 1693, and owned all that part of the town 
as far as the South Church. 

After the gathering of the new or North Parish 
some of the family of Samuel Wentworth are found 
in that, while to others belonged an active part in 
the formation of the Ejiiscopal parish. 

When Great Island became a town, under the 
name of New Castle, in l(i'J3, several of the prominent 
parishioners at the old South became identified with 
the church at New Castle, and some still retained a 
nominal connection and even an active interest in 
the old parish, as well as in the North after its estab- 
lishment in 1714. Among these were Cranfield and 
Barefoot, Robert Cutt and Pendleton, Stileman and 
Fryer, Atkinson and Story, Sheafe and Jaffrey. 

Sir William Pepperell. — I have now to notice 
two persons who in a day when titles of nobility or 
birth in the aristocratic families of Old England con- 
ferred a real eminence upon men were conspicuous 
figures in our early history. William Pepperell be- 
came a communicant at the old South Nov. 5, 1696; 
and his son, who was afterwards created a baronet 

for the taking of Louisburg, wa.s the last baptism 
recorded by Mr. Moodey, May 9, 1607. I am in- 
debted to a careful and valuable manuscript life of 
Sir William Pepperell, by the Rev. Dr. Burroughs, 
which is far better than the printed life of the distin- 
guished merchant by Parsons, for much of the fol- 
lowing biographical and historical matter. 

William Pejiperell was born in 1647, in Cornwall, 
England, and became a settler at the Shoals in 1670, 
attracted to the commercial advantages of Appledore 
and the prominence of its fisheries. Here, about 
1680, he married a daughter of Mr. John Bray, one 
of the leading islanders, who had for some time re- 
fused the ofl'er of marriage from Pepperell, but, says 
Dr. Burroughs, "relented in proportion to the in- 
crease of his property." As his increased 
the Shoals offered too small a field for his enterprise, 
and he and his partner, a Mr. Gibbins, resolved to 
leave the weather-beaten islands, and to resort to 
chance and determine their separate destination. 
The story runs that they each set up a long pole 
and left it to fall as Providence should direct. Pep- 
perell's fell towards the northwest, Gibbins' to- 
wards the northeast. Following with obedience 
and enthusiasm the plan they had adopted and 
the course pointed out by the fallen sticks, Pep- 
perell established himself on the Kittery side of the 
mouth of the Piscataqua, and made large purchases of 
land there, while Gibbins obtained that tract on the 
Penobscot afterwards known as the Waldo patent. 
As early as the year 1681 we find the name of Pep- 
perell and his father-in-law, Bray, on the town rec- 
ords of Kittery, then a province of Massachusetts, 
and here Pepperell spent the remainder of his days. 
His business enterprises were so successful that in 
1712 there were but three persons in Kittery, then in- 
cluding Eliot & Berwick, whose property was esti- 
mated to be of more value than his. In this year 
Pepperell interested himself in organizing a church 
at Kittery, whose inhabitants attended worship under 
serious inconveniences of distance, weather, and tide 
at Strawberry Bank. He was chiefly instrumental in 
the settlement of the Rev. Mr. Newmarch at Kittery, 
not far from his own mansion, in 1714, and was one of 
the first signers of the covenant. Up to this time, 
William Pepperell, at age of almost seventy, and his 
son, afterwards Sir William, at the age of eighteen, 
had been constant worshipers at the old South. 
William Pepperell died in Kittery in 1734, leaving 
Sir William the principal heir, and with the care and 
responsibility of a large property. But even before 
this he had manifested remarkable enterprise and 
sagacity as a merchant, and his ships were found in 
all parts of Europe and the West Indies. One of the 
first things he did was to build the family tomb, still 
standing in that open field not far from the old family 
mansion, but without care and rapidly being de.solated 
by time and intruders. In 1722, at the age of twenty- 
six. Sir William married Miss Hirst, of Boston, to 



whom all traditions give the highest praise for natu- 
ral and acquired powers, for brilliant wit, and sweet- 
ness of temper. I have copied a few verses of hers, 
written upon the death of an infant child, which 
have never been printed, and were handed down by 
the memory of one who deemed them worthy, and 
are certainly of a merit equal to much that is printed : 

"A little bird that lately pleased ray sight, 
Bavished my heart and filled me with delight, 
And as it grew, at once my joy and pride, 
Beloved hy all whoe'er its beauty spied, 
I fondly called it mine, nor could I bear 
The thought of losing what I held so dear ; 
For it had just begun, with warbling strains. 
To soothe my pleasure and to ease my pains; 
Its artless notes and lisping melody 
Made in my ears a grateful harmony. 
Least while I heard or dreamed of its decay. 
This pretty bird by death was snatched away. 
Snatched, did I eay ? No, I recall the word ; 
'Twos sent fur home by its most rightful Lord, 
To whose blest will we must and do resign 
That which improperly I claimed as mine. 
'Twas Tliiuc, blest Lord, Thy goodness lent it me, 
'Twas doubly Thine, because given back by Tliee. 
Then go. sweet bird, mount up and sing on high. 
While winged seraphs waft thee through the sky; 
They're clad in glory bright, and sit serene 
On boughs immortal, ever fresh and green ; 
They chant thy praises with a lovely train 
Of spirits just, for whom the Lamb was slain ; 
Touch David's harp with wonder and surprise, 
■Whilst ours, neglected, on the willow lies." 

Sir William had no opportunities for an education, 
except such as came from a multiplicity of relations 
with men in all ranks of society ; but Dr. Stevens, his 
pastor, who preached a sermon upon his character 
soon after his death, says, "Such were his abilities 
and virtues, so distinguished and admirable his social 
qualities, that he soon drew the notice and engaged 
the affections of all." " So elevated were his princi- 
ples and disinterested his views, and so active was his 
benevolence, that his fellow-citizens considered him 
as their patron and friend, and bore towards him the 
sentiment of filial veneration and affection." To the 
various duties and large responsibilities of one of the 
greatest merchants of New England, Sir William had 
added a number of important civil offices, but it was 
reserved for his military success to give to him his 
title of nobility. 

The Siege of Louisburg. — The siege and capture 
of Louisburg were the great warlike achievements in 
our early history, and the command and success of 
the whole enterprise belonged to Sir William. Upon 
his return he was received at Portsmouth, entertained, 
and escorted to his boat, as it departed from our shore 
to his mansion at Kittery, with an outburst of enthu- 
siasm from the inhabitants and an oration, both civil 
and military, even greater than were paid to Wash- 
ington. As in our late war, there were in this ad- 
venture some rivalries and jealousies as to whom be- 
longed the credit of the expedition, and Col. William 
Vaughan, a grandson of Maj. William Vaughan, who 
came to Portsmouth about 1650, is said to have first 

prepared a plan of the capture and proposed it to the 
government, and Governor Wentworth and others 
were disappointed, not being given the charge of the 
enterprise ; but all eyes turned to Col. Pepperell, as of 
well-known and eminent moral worth, of acknowl- 
edged military skill, of tried statesmanship, of ele- 
vated rank in the confidence of the community, and 
the best fitted to command the expedition. If the 
success of an engagement might be always predicted 
from the character of the principal supporters, we 
might have foretold the capture of Louisburg, for the 
number of persons prominent in Portsmouth, under 
the command of Pepperell, was certainly large. 

While Pepperell had the matter under considera- 
ation, Whitefield, the celebrated Episcopal and itin- 
erant clergyman, and founder of the Calvinistic 
Methodists, was on a visit to Maine, and Pepperell 
became well acquainted with him, and asked White- 
field's advice. 

" Your scheme," said the great preacher, " I think 
not very full of encouragement. The eyes of all will 
be upon you, and should you not meet with succe,ss' 
the widows and orphans will utter their complaint 
and reflection, and if it be otherwise numbers will 
look upon you with envy and endeavor to eclipse 
your glory. You ought, therefore, in my judgment, 
to go with a single eye, and then you will receive 
strength proportioned to your necessities." White- 
field furnished the motto for the flag of the expedi- 
tion, " Nil desperamluiii Christo." 

New Hampshire furnished five hundred men, one- 
eighth of the whole land force. Among these was 
the Rev. Mr. Langdon (once the grammar school 
teacher, and then pastor of the North Church), as 
chaplain, and Jacob Sheafe, son of Sampson Sheafe, 
of Great Island, as commissary. There was Nathaniel 
Me.serve as lieutenant-colonel ; there was Samuel Hale 
with the rank of major ; there was John Storer, 
grandfather of George Storer, of this town ; there was 
Rev. Ammi R. Cutter, of the Massachusetts regiment, 
whose eldest son was Dr. Ammi R. Cutter, of Ports- 
mouth; there was Rev. Samuel Moodey, of York, 
son of our Mr. Moodey, remarkable for his eccen- 
tricities, and private >chaplain to Sir William. The 
expedition was completely successful, and Pepperell 
was rewarded with an English knighthood. One by 
one he was compelled to give up his duties and enter- 
prises, and died at his mansion at Kittery on the 6th 
of July, 1759. 

Champernowne. — There remains for us to notice 
briefly still another important character, whose life 
has been so carefully written by C. W. Tuttle, Esq., 
of Boston, that beyond his thorough researches no 
one need desire to go. In his sketches of this prom- 
inent person, recently printed in The Historical and 
Genealogical Reyister, may be found authority for 
most of the following. Among the early settlers of 
our province more persons perhaps came from Devon 
and Cornwall than from all other counties in Eng- 



land, and of all tlie noble families in the weHt of 
Kiiglaiid, few if any surpass in antiquity and splen- 
dor of de.seent the family of Cliainponiowiu', 1)i'ing 
connected with tiic Plantaj;enets, Sir IIuni|>lirey 
Gilbert, and Sir Walter Kalei^li. Ca|)t. Francis 
Chanipernowne, one of that family, caine to New 
England in 1036. 

In 1G36, Sir Fcrdinan<lo (lorge.s granted to f'hamper- 
nownc's father two tracts of land bordering on the 
eastern shore of the Piscataijua and at the mouth. 
One embraced what has been for the last hundred 
years and more known as the Gerrisli and the Cutts 
Island.s, and the stream now known as Chauncey's 
Creek for a long time bore the name of Chaniper- 
nowne. To this grant came Capt. Francis Champer- 
nowne in 103(5, at tiie age of twenty-two. • About 
1040, and at the time of tiie granting of the glebe 
land, Cliampernowue bought four hundred acres in 
Greenland, where he built a house and lived for 
twenty years. Afterwards he added three hundred 
acres more, including the farm of Col. Peirce, and 
seems to have lived in a baronial style. At a later 
date he preferred his residence on Cutt-s Island, and 
went there to live. He was a councilor in the gov- 
ernment of Gorges, and for a few years, with his asso- 
ciates, had the sole authority in Maine, and opposed 
strenuously the usurpation by the Massachusetts Bay. 
He was councilor to Cranfield, to Dudley, and to An- 
dros. Strange to say, when some examinations were 
made a few years since about this almost forgotten 
character, traditions in Greenland were brought to 
light of the descent from royalty of one Chainper- 
nowne who used to live there, and in Kittery of one 
who was "the son of a nobleman." He was a thor- 
ough royalist and churchman, and about ten years 
before his death married the widow of Robert Cutt, 
of Kittery. He lived a retired and dignified life, was 
reserved in disposition, and took little interest in 
matters which did not concern him, but, without seek- 
ing for place and power, was in that day of prominence 
on account of his high birth, and altogether respected. 
He was doubtless one of the most active supporters 
of Episcopacy, and from his residence at Greenland 
a constant worshiper at the first chapel, and there- 
after, too strict a churchman to Uike any in- 
terest in the services of Puritanism, at the old South 
tor thirty years. He died on Cutts Island in 1087, 
and a small cairn marks the place of his burial. I 
am inclined to think he was one who carried out a 
plan held by many of the leading old families of Eng- 
land, and especially of second or later sons who would 
not inherit the family estates, to establish themselves 
in the New World, and for religious and political 
reasons they turned naturally to the settlement at the 

Successive Ministers at the Old South Parish. 

— Emeksun. .lolin Emerson, the fourth minister of 

the South Parish, the third minister of that name 

settled in New England. He graduated at Harvard 


in 1689, and in 1703, as we have seen, was settled 
over the recently gathered parish at New Castle. 
After a good deal of inconvenience there on account 
of arrears of salary and some trouble about a parson- 
age, he resigned in 1712, and in the midst of the 
dilEculty at Portsmouth in regard to the formation 
of a new parish, Mr. Emerson was invited to preach 
to the parish at the old South. It was in a great 
measure owing to the remarkable pulpit gifts and 
the pleasing manners of Mr. Emerson that the South 
Parish seems not to have seriously regarded the se- 
cession of the North Parish. Mr. Emerson was born 
at Ipswich in 1670. In 1708, while over the parish 
at New Castle, he went to England, spent some time 
in London, and from his fine presence and courtly 
manners was handsomely noticed by Queen Anne. 

We find in the town records under date of 17th 
February, 1713, " Whereas, John Plaisted, Mark 
Hunking, Esq., Capt. John Pickren, & W". Cotton, 
at a legall town meeting called & commenced ye 9th 
of Sep., 1713, were chosen and appointed to call & 
agree with a minister of ye Gospel to Preach att ye 
old meeting-house, & according to s* vote, wch call 
was made to ye Reverend John Emerson by and with 
ye consent of above s"* persons ; s'' Emerson came ac- 
cordingly in ye month of January in above s'' year: 
ye Feb. 7 following s'' Pickren & Cotton, with the 
consent of approbation of s'' Hunking & Plaisted, 
made agreement with him ye s* Emerson to be our 
settled minister, & engaged that he should be paid 
yearly & every year £100, strangers' contribution, & 
a Parsonage house at Town charge so long as s'' Em- 
erson continue preaching in s'' House." 

The next year, June 7, 1714, it seems there was 
another committee chosen by the town, and evidently 
by the infiuence of the new parish, and with three 
persons from it opposed to the settlement of Emer- 
.son, who were to settle an orthodox and learned min- 
ister on ye south side of ye mill dam. But when it 
was found that the South Parish was firm in its 
choice of Mr. Emerson, and some of the selectmen 
had been arrested on account of his salary, it was 
voted by the town the next year " yt if any lawsuit 
on ye like occasion be again commenced, yt itt be 
impleaded at ye expense of ye town, for that he [Mr. 
Emerson] is not ye settled mini.ster of the town pur- 
suant to order of ye government & vote of the town, 
June, 1714." 

Then, again, 25th March, 1717, " Whereas, by ver- 
tue of a Pretended vote on the 9 Sept., 1713, there is 
a sham agreement made with Mr. Emerson to officiate 
as a minister at ye old Meeting-House, ye same being 
Clandestinely put upon record. Voted that ye same 
be null and Rassed out of ye Town book, for that he 
ye s* Emerson is not a legal settled minister of ye 

This contention was ended by the Legislature de- 
claring both to be .settled ministers of ye town. 

In the South Parish records, umbr date nt' ^r:ln•h 



23, 1714-16, is the following record: "The church 
belonging to the old meeting-house in Portsmouth 
having chosen the Kev. John Emerson to take the 
oversight of them, the Reverend Christopher Toppan, 
in the presence of the Kev. Caleb Gushing & The- 
ophilus Cotton, gave him the pastoral charge of them 
and the congregation attending God's publick wor- 
ship in that place, having been ordained before to 
the work of the ministry by the laying on of the 
hands of the Presbytery, viz.: the Rev. Mr. John 
Cotton, John Pike, & John Clark." Mr. Rogers would 
not assist at the services of installation, and was greatly 
displeased with Mr. Emerson for being settled over 
the old parish, and carried his bitter feeling all through 
his ministry. 

The ministry of Mr. Emerson lasted from the 23d 
of March, 1714r-15, to the 21st of February, 1732-33, 
a pastorate of seventeen years, and, after the settle- 
ment of the difficulties occasioned by the secession of 
tlie North Parish, of undisturbed tranquillity and 
unexampled prosperity. 

A Church on the Plains.— Quite a little village 
had grown up at and about the Plains, of so much 
importance that in 1725 a meeting-house was built on 
the rise of ground east of the training-field, and wor- 
ship regularly maintained for nearly two years, when, 
in 1727, it was voted '' to free and exonerate them 
from any tax or charge towards the support of the 
gospel ministry (at the North Church), or any parish 
at the Bank for the future, provided they have fre- 
quent preaching more for accommodation than at the 
Bank." The meeting-house blew down in 1748. 

Absence of the Spirit of Persecution.— It has 
often been remarked that our early settlers were sin- 
gularly free from religious bigotry, and in an epoch 
fruitful of dogmatism and persecution but few in- 
stances of fanatical zeal can be laid at their feet. 
Themselves strictly of the Church of England, when 
they could not maintain their own form of worship, 
the Non-conformist clergymen of the Bay found no 
hindrance here except when Cranfield instituted pro- 
ceedings against Moodey for refusing to administer 
the sacrament according to the order of the Church 
of England. There has come down to us an account 
of but a single instance of the infliction of violence 
in the province for heterodoxy, and that was under 
the law of Massachusetts (for New Hampshire as a 
separate government never authorized such a penalty), 
when in 1662 Richard Waldron ordered three Quaker 
women to be led at the cart's tail through New Hamp- 
shire and Massachusetts out of the jurisdiction and 
whipped in each town ; but Walter Barefoote, after- 
wards a royal Governor of New Hampshire, by a pious 
stratagem, obtained the custody of the women in Sal- 
isbury, and saved them from further cruelty by send- 
ing them out of the province. The refuge of Quakers 
and Anabaptists in these days was Rhode Island, a 
State from the beginning to the present day remark- 
able for its hospitality towards various opinions, but 

at that time regarded as the drain or sink of New 
England for the shelter it gave the heretics, .so that 
it has been said of Rhode Island, " If any man had 
lost his religion he might find it there among such a 
general muster of opinionists." We have, in 1656, 
under rule of the Bay, the several enactments against 
"a cursed sect of hereticks lately arisen up in the 
world which are commonly called Quakers, who took 
upon tliem to be immediately sent of God." 

Witchcraft. — There is also but little about the sad 
delusion of witchcraft, which was then a common be- 
lief, and while only a score of miles away men em- 
inent for piety and learning were hurried into all 
kinds of errors, persecution, and bitterness, only a 
few instances occur where there were any accusations 
prosecuted for that offense here, and of these not one 
reached a tragical conclusion. The only case in our 
town had a singular and triumphant ending. It oc- 
curred in 1656, at Little Harbor, then a part of Ports- 
mouth. The testimony was that on Lord's day, 30th 
of March, at night, as Susannah Trimmings was going 
home with Goodwife Barton, she separated from her at 
the freshet, next her house. On her return, between 
Goodmen Evens and Robert Davis, she heard a rust- 
ling in the woods, which she at first thought was occa- 
sioned by swine, and presently after there did appear 
to her a woman, whom she apprehended to be old 
Goodwife Walford. She asked me where my consort 
was? I answered, "Iliad none." She said, "Thy 
consort is at home by this time. Lend me a pound 
of cotton." I told her I had but two pounds in the 
house, and I would not .spare any to my mother. 
She said, " I had better have done it, that my sorrow 
was great already, and it should be greater, for I was 
going a great journey but should never come there." 
She then left me, and I was struck as with a clap of 
fire on the back, and she vanished towards the water- 
side in my apprehension in the shape of a cat. She 
bad on her head a white linen hood tied under her 
chin, and her waistcoat and petticoat were red, with 
an old green apron, and a black hat upon her head. 

Her husband and others testified to strange things 
which apparently had been brought about by the 
bewitching of Goody Walford ; but Goody Walford, 
traduced as a witch, boldly brought her defamers into 
court to answer for the slanderous words, and actually 
succeeded in recovering damages. 

A New Church. — This was the first and last seri- 
ous instance of witchcraft in our town. The old 
South Church was now falling into ruins. It was 
deemed unfit for worship in 1711, when the whole 
town had voted to build a new one, but by reason of 
the separation the diminished numbers at the Mill 
Dam continued their services there until 1731, when 
the parish built a new church on a lot of land pre- 
sented by Capt. John Pickering. This was the South 
Meeting-house, standing until our own day on the site 
of the present South Ward Room, which was so im- 
portant a landmark for mariners coming into Pis- 



oalai|Hii llarlior, luiil wliicli, uIUm- n!]iairs unil i-eiiio<l- 
eling, WHS liiially taken down a few years since. It 
must have been a great trial to the South Parish, that 
after the North Parisli liad their new meetiiig-liouse 
provideil for tlieni at tlie eost of the wliole town, and 
had acquireti the legal right to the glebe land and 
parsonage, it was necessary for the South Parish to 
depend entirely upon its own contributions ; but such 
was tlie success of the ministry of Emerson that it 
seemed to it not too serious a burden. 

After the frame was raised, Mr. Emerson made a 
prayer upon a stage tixed in a I'rame for the occasion. 
That prayer was his last public service. Ho died in 
the sixty-second year of his age, and was buried in the 
Cotton burial-ground. The following is the inscrip- 
tion on his tomb ; " Here resteth in Hope of a glori- 
ous Resurrection ye body of ye Rev. Mr. John Emer- 
son, ye late faithful Pastor of ye South Church, in 
Portsmouth, who Died .lanuary ye 21st, 1731-2, in ye 
62d year of his Age. The memory of ye just is 

One of the |>rincipal incidents of the ministry of 
Emerson and Rogers was the great accession of church- 
members by reason of the earthquake in Portsmouth 
in 1727, and both to keep in memory that alarming 
event, as well as alive the interest of the church and 
gratitude for its prosperity, Emerson ever after 
preached an occasional discourse on the evening of 
the 29tli of October. 

There is preserved a portrait of him painted in 
London in 1708, during his visit to that city, when 
his remarkable personal appearance commended him 
to the favor of the queen. With the great wig, 
the robe, and bands, it gives also a countenance of 
striking features, restful eyes, a mouth of rare beauty, 
and an expression of reverence, benignity, and gentle- 
ness. His gifts were equal to his graces, and he was, 
by all testimony, an agreeable companion, an inter- 
esting preacher, a faithful pastor, and a good man. 

Shurtleff. — After the records of Mr. Emer.son we 
find the following note: "The Church and congrega- 
tion In ye South Part of ye Town of Portsmouth, 
formerly under ye pastoral care of ye Rev. Mr. Jno. 
Emerson, having called ye Rev. Mr. Wni. Shurtletr 
to succeed him, he was installed in ye pastoral office 
on Feb. 21, 1732-3." 

This is in the handwriting of Mr. Shurtleff, and 
thereafter follow many pages of bis records, being 
chiefly those of baptisms and of adoptions of the 
church covenant. Occasionally there is a record of a 
baptism in the North Church, during an exchange 
with Mr. Fitch, or of one by Mr. Fitch in the South 
Church, showing that the most cordial relations ex- 
isted between the ministers and parishes. 

It was customary in that day for the church to ex- 
ercise a pretty strict watch over its members, — a cus- 
tom which, for sympathy or for censure, I fear we have 
too universally abandoned, — and it is no uncommon 
thing to find in the records ot all the older churches 

IVci|Mciit references to the faults and falls ol' the nieiii- 
bers and the decreed punishment of the ofl'enders ; 
hut during Mr. ShurtlefPs ministry, a period of fifteen 
years, there is but one record of this character, which 
runs as follows: "Aug. 10, ]7M), voted at a church 
meeting yt Abigail Tobie, a member in full commu- 
nion \yith the church, be suspended from communion 
on ye account of her scandalous Behavior in Boston. 
Having been convicted of stealing several things, and 
y' she stand suspended till she manifests her repent- 
ance of y' same." 

Whether it is owing to the special emphasis which 
has always been laid upon the moral duties in the 
history of this ])arish, or whether it is owing to any 
lower discipline we cannot say, but this single in- 
stance of ecclesiastical discipline is in striking con- 
trast to most church records of this period. 

The Rev. Wm. Shurtleff was a native of Plymouth, 
Mass., where he was born in the year 1689. He grad- 
uated at Harvard College in 1707, and was ordained 
as pastor of the church at New Castle, which was then 
the aristocratic part of Portsmouth, the very year that 
Mr. Emerson was dismissed (1712). As he succeeded 
Mr. Emerson at New Castle, so he became his suc- 
cessor over the South Parish of this town, where he 
was installed Feb. 21, 1733. The new church for the 
South Parish had just been finished, harmony liad 
been entirely restored between the two parishes, and 
Mr. Shurtlett' entered upon his new field of labor with 
every promise of success, — a promise which was 
abundantly fulfilled and which ceased only with his 

Clerical Anecdotes. — Some of the stories which are 
told of the contemporary ministers, neighbors, and 
friends of Mr. Shurtleff give us the only glimpses of 
ministerial life among the scanty records which are 
preserved to us. There was a clergyman at Newing- 
ton, Rev. Joseph Adams, who lived, I believe, to 
a greater age than any minister ever settled in 
New Hampshire. He is described as a man of fair 
talents, but of great self-complacency. In praying for 
a person dangerously sick, who had desired the 
])rayers of the congregation, he prayed very earnestly 
that the man might be prepared to die, for, added he, 
" We, Lord, who are akillful, know there is no possi- 
bility of his recovery." At a meeting of the associa- 
tion of ministers at Portsmouth, Mr. Adam.s made the 
prayer, in which he took occasion to introduce the 
horses mentioned in the Book of Revelation ; but 
becoming suddenly embarrassed whilespeaking of the 
white horse he closed the exercises abruptly, where- 
upon one of his brethren observed to him that at this 
time of life he should be particularly cautious in 
mounting strange horses if he would avoid a fall. 

The Rev. John Tucke, settled at the Shoals, waa 
also a contemporary of Mr. Shurtleff. The Shoals 
Wiis at that time quite flourishing, and Mr. Tucke's 
salary was one of the highest at that time paid in 
New England. He was a scholarly and faithful pas- 



tor, and, as it reads on his tombstone at Star Island, 
" a u.seful physician, both to the bodies and souls of 
his people." These islands had before and after Mr. 
Shurtleff two or three quite eminent as well as eccen- 
tric men. There was one Rev. Mr. Rooch, whose 
prayers were so touching and whose life was so pure 
that it was said of him, " He dwelt as near heaven as 
any man on earth." His congregation were fisher- 
men, and they usually assembled one day in the 
month, besides the Sabbaths, for public worship. 
On one of these days he was requested to po.stpone 
the meeting to a future time, as it was a fine season 
for their business, and they must go out with their 
boats. He endeavored to persuade them, but in vain, 
and then addressed them : " If you are resolved to 
neglect your duty to God, and will go away, I say 
unto you, catch fish if you can ; but as for you who 
will tarry and worship the Lord Jesus Christ, I will 
pray unto Him for you that you may catch fish till 
you are weary." Thirty went, toiled all day, and 
caught four fishes ; while the five who attended 
divine worship, and afterwards went out, caught as 
many hundred. After that they all regularly at- 
tended any meetings the pastor appointed. 

After him came the eccentric Moodey, son of the 
minister of Portsmouth of that name, of whom is told 
that familiar story, that once addressing the congre- 
gation on the occasion of a shipwreck, he inquired, 
"Supposing, my brethren, any of you should be 
taken short in the bay in a northeast storm, your 
hearts trembling with fear, and nothing but death 
before you, whither would your thoughts turn ? 
What would you do?" He paused, and a sailor, 
supposing he awaited an answer, and attracted by his 
description of the storm- at sea, replied, " Why, in 
that case, d'ye see, I should immediately hoist the 
foresail and scud away for Squam." 

Revival under Whitefield. — The most remark- 
able ecclesiastical event during the ministry of Mr. 
Shurtleff was the great revival under Whitefield, of 
which Mr. Shurtleff has left an ^tended account. 
It is interesting for the description he gives of the 
townsmen, as well as of the revival. He says, " You 
are doubtless in some measure acquainted with the 
character which the People of this Town have here- 
tofore generally sustained. They have, I think, been 
remarkt by strangers for their Politeness in Dress 
and Behaviour ; have been thought to go beyond 
most others in equal circumstances, if not to excess 
themselves in their sumptuous and elegant Living, 
and Things of a like nature; & while they have been 
justly in Repute for their generous and hospitable 
Disposition, and for many social habits. Diversions 
of various kinds have been much in Fashion, & the 
vices that have been usual in Sea Port and trading 
Places have been common and prevalent among us. 
We have, I trust, never been without a number of 
sincere and serious Christians : but even these wise 
virgins have slumbered and slept ; and as to the gen- 

erality of Profeiisors, they have seemed for a great 
while to content themselves with an empty Form, 
and there has been but little of the Life & Power of 
Religion to be seen." 

Mr. Whitefield came here and preached in the old 
South Church on the 25th of February, 1745, and 
while Mr. ShurtleflT seems to have disapproved of a 
good many excesses of the revival, he testifies that he 
thought " his traveling this way was a favorable Provi- 
dence, and his preaching was instrumental in making 
many shake oflF their heavy slumbers." 

As the result of the revival he gives us his opinion 
that there is not the profane cursing and swearing 
that was formerly usual ; that the Sabbath was more 
strictly observed ; that family worship was set up ; 
that many dishonest dealers had made restitution ; 
that music and dancing were wholly laid aside. 

He mentions in all seriousness an incident which, 
he says, was overruled by God to serve great and good 
purposes : 

" Late in the evening, after services had been held 
all day, and just as the people were leaving the 
church, the chimney of an House that stood near to it 
happened to take fire and blaze out to an uncommon 
Degree. Upon the sudden appearance of the light 
breaking in at the several windows there was a cry 
made that Christ was coming to Judgment, which 
being really believed by a great many, some that 
were not before so much affected as others were put 
into the deepest Distress, great numbers had their 
convictions hereby strengthened and confirmed. And 
however distasteful the relating such low occurrences 
may be to some wise and curious Palates now, I make 
no doubt but things of a like nature will afford an 
infinite satisfaction to the Saints hereafter; that it 
will give them a vast and inconceivable Pleasure when 
they get to Heaven to have the Beauty of Divine 
Providence laid open to their view; to hear and see 
how some events that are seemingly insignificant, and 
appear perfectly casual, have been ordered out in in- 
finite Wisdom and made subservient to very great and 
excellent Designs, and how a bare Imagination and 
mistaken Apprehension of Things has been so far set 
Home and made such impressions upon a great many 
as to be a means of their saving conversion to God." 

Mr. Shurtleff married the sister of Hon. Theodore 
Atkinson, whose only mission seems to have been to 
develop his patience and weakness. The story is told 
that once she fastened the door of the room where he 
was finishing his sermon for church, went to her pew 
and sat quietly there, while a committee of the church 
went to see what was the matter. She even left the 
worthy pastor to prepare his own dinner. " Has this 
been salted, Mr. Shurtleff?" she said, while he was 
broiling a piece of fish. " It has," was the meek re- 
ply. " Well, then, it needs peppering too," she said, 
as she threw a shovelful! of ashes upon his ruined 

She made some reparation for her treatment of her 



husband by leaving to all succeeding ministers of the 
South Parish a fine old silver tankard, which is pre- 
served unto the present day. 

Mr. Sluirtlell' published five sermons, together with 
a long account of the revival during his ministry, and 
these show him to be a man of no common gifts. He 
was " long to be remembered," writes one of his suc- 
cessors, " for his uncommon meekness and patience 
under great trials, and for distinguished piety as well 
as pastoral fidelity." 

Strong'. — Alter a ministry of fifteen years he died 
on the litli of May, 1747, and Wius buried beneath the 
jnilpit of tlie old South. At the destruction of that 
building his remains were removed to the South 
Cemetery, and a .simple tablet erected by the parish. 

In the very year that Mr. Shurtletf died there was 
visiting in the family of the distinguisbed Jonathan 
Edwards, at Northampton, Mass., the devoted Ameri- 
can missionary, David Brainerd. He had entered 
Yale College to prepare himself for the ministry, but 
was expelled for saying of one of the tutors "that 
he had no more of the grace of God than a chair." 
Soon after he began his work as a missionary among 
the Indians, first near Stockbridge, Mass., then in 
Pennsylvania, and then in New Jersey, where he met 
with great success. 

At Northampton Mr. Brainerd met and was pleased 
with a young man named Job Strong, and particu- 
larly recommended him to the commissioners at 
Boston as a suitable person for missionary labors 
among the Indians, a work which greatly interested 
young Strong, who had that year graduated at Yale. 
He set out in the latter ])ait of the year 1747 for a 
settlement in New York, but having gone as far as 
Schoharie, he was taken ill and was uuable to com- 
plete his journey. But he had spent about six 
months on this tour, and returned full of expecta- 
tions and resolves of a work of future usefulness 
among the wild men of the wilderness. The South 
Parish had, however, heard such excellent accounts 
of Mr. Strong and of his fitness and gifts for the 
ministry that Matthew Livermore and Henry Sher- 
burne were sent to Northampton to invite him to 
this place. Jonathan Edwards felt that Mr. Strong 
was especially fitted to carry on the work which 
Brainerd, who had just died at his house, had so well 
begjin, and protested against Mr. Strong's going to 
Portsmouth unless upon the express condition that 
it should be for a temporary engagement, after which 
he was to resume his missionary labors, and the gen- 
tlemen were obliged to promise Mr. Edwards, who 
was then the spiritual head of the Church of New 
England, that they would not use their influence for 
his establishment here. It was probably with this 
understanding that Mr. Strong came to the South 
Parish. Whether the committee faithfully ke|)t their 
promise or not they did not persuade the parish not 
to take any interest in Mr. Strong, for his preaching 
and himself were evidently well pleasing, and he 

soon received a call to become ita pastor. This he 

declined, and went back to the commissioners at 

Boston to receive directions about his father's labor 

among the Indians. His health, however, seemed 

insufficient to the task, and they thought it best he 

should relinquish his cherished plans, which involved 

so much exposure and toil. The |)arish renewed the 

] invitation, which he now accepted, and the first 

notice concerning him on the church records is as 

follows: " The Church and congregation in y' South 

j part of the Town of Portsmouth, formerly under the 

! Pastoral Care of y° Rev. Mr. William Shurtleft', 

j having called Mr. Job Strong to succeed him, he was 

solemnly set apart to y" pastoral oHice amongst them 

on the 28th day of June, 1749." 

Jonathan Edwards.— The 28th of June, 1749, 
must have been a day of great interest, not only to 
the South I'arish, but to the whole town of Ports- 
i mouth, for, added to the fact of the old parish of the 
town being about to ordain a new pastor, Jonathan 
Edwards, then regarded as by far the most eminent 
theologian in Christendom, was to preach the sermon. 
Mary Edwards, bis daughter, then about fifteen years 
of age, afterw'ards Mrs. Dwight, of Northampton, was 
j at the time making a visit to some of her father's 
I friends here. The uncertainty of travel in those days 
' made it necessary to leave a substitute, in case the 
; appointed preacher did not arrive in time. The Rev. 
Mr. Moodey, of York, able and eccentric, had accepted 
the place. On the morning of that day, Mr. Edwards 
not having arrived, the Council delayed the ordina- 
tion as long as they well could, and then proceeded 
to the church, where Mr. Jloodey had been regularly 
assigned to ofler opening prayer. Th;it gentleman, 
knowing that a numerous and highly respectable 
audience had been drawn together by a strong desire 
to hear Mr. Edwards, rose up to pray under the not 
very pleasant impression that he must stand in his 
place, and oft'ered a prayer which was wholly char- 
I acteristic of himself, and in some degree also of the 
times in which hg lived. In that part of it in which 
it was proper to allude to the exercises of the day he 
besought the Lord that they might be suitably hum- 
bled, under the power of his Providence, in not being 
permitted to hear on that occasion a discourse, as they 
had all fondly expected, from "that eminent servant 
of God, the Rev. Mr. Edwards, of Northampton," 
and proceeded to thank God for having raised him 
up to be such a burning and shining light, for his un- 
common piety, for his great excellence as a iireaclier, 
for the remarkable success which had attended his 
ministry in other congregations as well as his own, 
I for the superior talents and wisdom with which he 
was endowed as a writer, and for the great amount 
of good which his works had already done, and still 
promised to do, to the church and to the world. He 
then prayed that God would spare his life, and endow 
him with still greatergift.s and graces, and render him 
still more eminent and useful than he had been, and 


concluded this part of his prayer by supplicating the 
divine blessing on the daughter of Mr. Edwards (then 
in the congregation), who, though a very worthy and 
amiable young lady, was still, as they had good reason 
to believe, without the grace of God and in an uncon- 
verted state ; that God would bring lier to repentance 
and forgive her sins, and not suffer the peculiar frivol- 
ities which she enjoyed to be the means of a more 
aggravated condemnation. 

Mr. Edwards, who traveled on horseback and had 
been unexpectedly detained on the road, arrived at 
the church a short time after the commencement of 
the exercises, and entered the door just after Mr. 
Moodey began his prayer. Being remarkably still in 
all his movements, and particularly in the house of 
God, he ascended the stairs and entered the pulpit so 
silently that Mr. Moodey did not hear him, and of 
course was necessitated before a very numerous au- 
dience to listen to the very high character given of him- 
self by Mr. Moodey. As soon as the prayer was closed 
Mr. Moodey turned round and saw Mr. Edwardsbehind 
him, and without leaving his place gave him his right 
hand and addressed him as follows: "Brother Ed- 
wards, we are all of us much rejoiced to see you here 
to-day, and nobody jirobably as mucli so as myself; but 
I wish that you might have got in a little sooner or 
a little later, or else that I might have heard you 
when you came in, and known that you were here. 
I didn't intend to flatter you to your face, but there's 
I'll tell you one thing : they say that your wife is 
going to heaven by a shorter road than yourself," 
alluding to Mr. Edward's lengthened and metaphysi- 
cal explanation of the doctrine of the church. Mr. 
Edwards bowed, and after reading the psalm went on 
with the sermon. 

The text was John xiii. 15, IG : " For I have given 
you an example that ye should do as I have done to 
you. Verily, verily, I say unto you the servant is 
not greater than his Lord ; neither he that is sent 
greater than he that sent him." 

The subject is " Christ, the example of ministers." 
It is not a very long sermon according to the custom 
of that day, for it could hardly have occupied much 
more than an hour in delivery, and, according to the 
abilities and reputation of Mr. Edwards, it would have 
beeu a disappointment to the distinguished and expect- 
ant congregation, if indeed cougregations were then 
disappointed in anything their preachers did. With 
all due acknowledgment of the vast abilities Jonathan 
Edwards certainly possessed, and of the logical power 
manifested in his writings, his sermon at the ordina- 
tion of Mr. Strong has very little to commend it. It 
has neither any very great doctrinal nor practical 
merits, neither depth of feeling, nor strength, nor 
beauty of expression to make it edifying to a congre- 
gation or inspiring to the young minister; it is com- 
monpl.ace and tedious, and wanting in any moral or 
spiritual fervor. 

It may hardly be out of place in this connection to 

include a part of a letter which Jonathan Edwards 
wrote to his daughter Mary, while continuing a visit 
in Portsmouth for some weeks after the ordination, 
which shows the all-pervading piety of this godly 
man : 

"Mt dkar Child: 

" Though you are at so great a distance from us, yet God is everywhere. 
You are mucli out of the reach of our care, but you are every moineut 
in His liands. We have not the comfort of seeing you. hut He sees you. 
His eye is always upon you. Aud if you may but live sensibly near to 
God and have His gracious presence, it is no matter if you are far distant 
from us. I had rather you should remain hundreds of miles distant 
from lis, and have God near to you by his Spirit, than to haveyou always 
with us and live at a distance from God. . . . 

" I hope that you will maintain a strict and constant watch over your- 
self against all temptations, that you do not forsake and forget God, and 
particularly that you do not grow slack in secret religion. Retire often 
from this vain world, from all its bubbles and empty shadows and vain 
amusements, and converse with God alone ; and seek elTectually for that 
divine grace and comfort, the least drop of which is worth more than all 
the riches, gayety, plejisure, and entertainments ')f the whole world. 

. . . "And if the next news we should hear of you should be of your 
death, though that would be very melancholy, yet if at the same time 
we should receive such intelligence coucerniug you as should give us 
the best grounds to hope that you had died in the Lord, how much more 
comfortable would this be, though we should have no opportunity to see 
you or to take our leave of you in your sickness, than if we should he 
with you during nil its progress and have much opportunity to attend 
upon you and convei-se aud pray with you, and take an affectionate leave 
of you, and after all have reason to apprehend that you died without the 
grace and favor of God." 

Under such happy ausjiices, and with the counsel 
of so.eminent a divine, Mr. Strong began his ministry. 
His notes are written in a small, even, close hand, but 
contain no reference to any parish or town event, 
only the list of those who were baptized by him, and 
those who renewed their baptismal covenant. 

In the winter of 1750, one Sunday morning suc- 
ceeding the death of his infant child, he preached 
from the text, " Though I walk through the valley of 
the shadow of death I will fear no evil ;" before the 
afternoon service he was taken ill, and died on Mon- 
day, the 30th of September, 1751, and was 'buried by 
the side of Mr. Shurtlefi", under the pulpit of the old 
South, whence the remains of both were taken to the 
cemetery at the destruction of that building, and over 
them a plain and substantial tombstone was erected 
by the parish. 

The period between his death and the choice of 
another minister was very brief, for immediately after 
the last baptism of Mr. Strong is this note in tjie 
handwriting of his successor: "Sept., 1751, Died the 
Rev. Mr. Job Strong, Pastor of the South Church of 
Christ, Portsmouth, and was succeeded in his pastoral 
office by Mr. Sam' Haven, May 6, 1752, by whom is 
made the following entry : The South Church & Con- 
gregation in Portsmouth late under ye pastoral care 
of the Rev. Mr. Job Strong unanimously elected Mr. 
Sam' Haven to be their Pastor, who was accordingly 
separated to that office, and received the particular 
charge of them May 6, 1752." 

Mr. Haven was born in Framingham, Mass., in 
1727; was graduated at Harvard University in 1749; 
studied theology with Rev. Mr. Parkman, of West- 



borough, Mass., and received and declined invitation 
to settle in Brookfield, Medway, Brairitree, and Brook- 
line, which showed tlie acceptance and promise of his 
ministrations, and prophesied the abundant success 
he was to have in the lonifcst pastorate of any min- 
ister in this town. 

Mr. Haven had been settled but a very few years 
when it became evident to at least some of his parish- 
ioners that his inclinations were towards a theology 
a little modified from the strictness in which it had 
been expressed by the common school of the New 
England divines, for as early as 1757, or only five 
years after his settlement, we find a church meeting 
called upon the desire of John Eliot, Abraham Eliot, 
and Perkins Ayers (and some women), and upon being 
a.sked what they had to ofi'er to the church, preferred 
the following letter: 

"TO THE SOUTH ciiiitcn. 

'* Brethren, — Whereas we, tlie sutscribei-s, liave for some time ab- 
neiited from tlie cumminiiu]! mid from ye puMic worship of God with you, 
and a(j yim liave not inquired of us the reasons of our so doing, we think 
it our duly to give yuu the reason of our conduct, as followeth : 

"1. As we look upon it that Congregational churches ought to keep 
ye rules of Caml^ridgp Platform, and defend ye Doctrines of ye New Eng- 
land Confession of Faith, being agreeable to God's word as we judge, and 
WHS established by authority, so we find upon examination you do not 
practice agreeable thereto, and we have been obliged in conscience to 
witlidraw from yon, that we might not any longer partake with you in 
your suit; the necessity of leaving you being matter of grief to us, for it 
is not out of any contempt of ye Holy Fellowship which ought to be 
among you that we have left you, but for onrbetter edification, and that 
because we cannot profit under Mr. Haven's preaching, for we judge Mr. 
Haven's preaching generally tends to encourage saints A sinners in a 
generall way to think that if they e-xercise ye natural strength & power 
they have, that God will be obliged to have raercy on them for Christ 
sake; which we judge lends to make persons think that God's Decree 
in election depends upon ye conduct of ye creature, which would at once 
overthrow ye Doctrines of free grace Election. Gml says by ye prophet 
Hosea, ' A Isniel thou hast ilestroyed thyself, but in me is thy help,' A 
tho' ye Apostle exhorts man to do good works as commanded by God. 
yet he says that without Faith it is impossible to please God, & that 
whatsoever is not of faith is sin, by which it appears that Persons in a 
slate of nature cannot do anything that obliges God to have mercy upon 

"They further charged that 3Ir. Haven look in members contrary to 
tlie Platfonn; that the Church Government was not what it ought to 
be; that Mr. Haven baptized Infants of such as were not members, and 
that he endeavored to keep the gifts of God from being used by such as 
God sends among us, by which it appears to us he is not on ye Lord's 
side (whicli seems to mean that he did not invite one Mr. Crosawell, who 
Borne of these strict theologians desired to hear, to preach for them), 
and so upon due consideration antl as a nuilter of conscience, they could 
not worship any longer where Mr. Haven preache<l, and must enter a 
churcli which was conducted according to ye rule and order of ye Gos- 
pel, aud they close by saying, in what we have done we have aimed at 
God's glory and a reformation among us, and liy God's grace assisting, 
we are i-osolved fn his strength to pursue." 

This paper is signed by tiiree men and nine women, 
and dated Portsmouth, Oct. 11, 1757. 

Tiiere followed a lengtiiy debate upon the important 
matter, and tiie pastor having declared his sentiments 
witli regard to these points by doctrine, which are 
mentioned in the letter, and concerning many otliers 
which they were pleiised to tjuestion iiim al>out, the 
dissatisfied bretiiren aforesaid signified their full satis- 
faction and ac()uiescence in what the pa-stor had then 
represented as his faith, and then the church declared 

that they could not upon recollection remember that 
the pastor had ever advanced anything contrary to, or 
inconsistent with, what he had then declared to be his 
faith in the points questioned. 

A committee consisting of Henry Sherburne, Mat- 
thew Livermore, James Clarkson, and Deacons Mark 
Langdon and Daniel Jackson was joined with the 
pastor to prepare an answer, but John Eliot " in ye 
meeting addressed himself to ye church" and said, " I 
assure you I shall never give myself the trouble to 
read your answer." 

Thus ended in writing the first controversy with 
the young and liberal pastor, to whose views, in liar- 
mony with the first tremblings of that religious move- 
ment which was soon to disturb New England, it is 
owing that the South Parish was prepared to fully en- 
dorse it under the ministry of Dr. Parker, which be- 
gan in 1808 and closed in 1833.' 

Ministers at the North or New Parish.— The 
new parish at the Bank, as it was then always named, 
and the North Church, since continued under the 
ministry of Mr. Rogers for nine years, and was suc- 
ceeded l>y Mr. Fitch, during whose ministry the feel- 
ing caused by the separation passed away, and Mr. 
Shurtleff then began an interchange of pulpit and 
pastoral services. 

Dr. Langdon. — Next, Mr. Langdon, the school- 
master in the town, who for a short time had been 
Mr. Fitch's assistant, and was pastor until 1774, when 
he accepted the presidency of Harvard College. 

Dr. Stiles.— He was succeeded by Dr. Stiles, who 
after a brief ministry was elected to the presidency 
of Yale College, and in 1779 by the Rev. Dr. Buck- 
minster, among the most gifted and distinguished 
niinisters New Hampshire has had. 

Dr. Buckminster. — The old church, under its so- 
briquet of " the three-decker," on account of its gal- 
leries, was crowded by the eloquence of Dr. Buck- 
minster, justly regarded as one of the greatest 
preachers of his day, and called upon at every public 
occasion. Dr. Haven was then suH'ering under the 
infirmities of age, and the South Parish had reached 
its lowest estate. The most cordial relations had for 
a long time existed between the clergymen and con- 
gregations qf the two parishes, so that when Dr. 
Haven died in 1806, Dr. Buckminster officiated at 
his fiineral, and when Dr. Buckminster died in 1812, 
Dr. Parker, recently settled over the South Parish, 
preached his funeral sermon to an immense and sor- 
rowing congregation in the North Church. It was 
during the ministry of Dr. Buckminster that the 
elements of a great theological change began to ap- 
pear in all parts of New England, and while the 
most pleasant interchanges of private and pulpit 
offices were abandoned, the doctrinal differences only 
widened. By reason of his eloquence and popular gifts 
aud personal acceptance, Dr. Buckminster was still 


patiently listened to by those who had grown away 
from his views, so that after his death, it was impos- 
sible for the parish to unite upon a successor for 
nearly three years; and one of the class-men they in- 
vited to settle over them on a strictly doctrinal vote 
by a majority of one, was a Unitarian, whose settle- 
ment was prevented only by the separate action of the 
church. When the parish failed in obtaining the 
pastor of their choice, at first protested against the 
settlement of Mr. Robinson to the number of over 
sixty legal voters and then withdrew to the South 
Parish, under the rising popularity of the distin- 
guished Dr. Parker. 

The Universalist Parish.— In the year 1784 we 
have to note another of large importance and influ- 
ence in the history of church matters in this town. 
In that year a house of worship was built in Vaughan i 
Street, where Mr. Stoddard's stable now stands, and i 
this should be, in histoi'ical accuracy, regarded as the 1 
beginning of the sect here instead of the year 1773, 
from which date the centennial services were reck- 
oned. It is true, Mr. Murray had preached the doc- 
trines of Universalism in Portsmouth as early as the 
commencement of the Revolutionary war, at the 
church building of the Sandermanians and of the 
Independent Congregational Society, and meetings 
may have been held with some degree of regularity 
from the year 1782; but the historical beginnings of 
the parish cannot by any methods of reckoning be 
carried beyond 1780, and should with greater correct- 
ness begin with the ministrations of Mr. Parker, a 
layman of their own number in 1784. Then for ten 
years the society had only occasional supplies until 
Rev. George Richards was invited to become the 
minister in August, 1783, and was ordained in July, 
1799. From that time until 1807 the parish had a 
prosperous life, and in the following' year the present 
beautiful church edifice w-as dedicated.' 

Various Events. — In 1756 the first newspaper pub- 
lished in New Hampshire was printed by Daniel 
Fowle, and called the New Hampshire Gazette niid 
Historical Chro n. icle. 

In 1764 another weekly paper was started, because 
the Gazette was regarded as too timid in the cause of 
liberty, called the New Hampshire Mercury. 

In 1758 a State-house was, by direction of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, built in this town; there for a number 
of years Dr. Haven, of the South Parish, and Dr. 
Langdon, of the North Parish, alternately officiated 
as chaplains. On the 20th of April, 1761, Mr. John 
Stavers commenced running a stage from this town 
to Boston, drawn by two horses and sufficiently wide 
to carry three passengers, leaving here on Monday 
and returning to this town on Friday, and the fare 
about three dollars. It was in the year 1774, in the 
excitement which, long controlled, was just beginning 
to break forth in the riotous demonstrations preceding 

1 See chnptcr xt. 

the Revolution, that the Committee of Safety col- 
lected a company, and went to Fort William and 
Mary, at New Castle, occupying the site of Fort 
Constitution, and brought oflTthe stores of gunpowder 
and arms, which some of our later historians have 
shown was one of the first acts of the war, and to be 
credited to the patriotism or the rebellion of this town 
before the battle of Bunker Hill or the affairs of Lex- 
ington and Concord. 

In the year 1775, Governor Wentworth came to 
the Isles of Shoals, and prorogued the General As- 
sembly, which was his last official act within the 
province, and the royal government in New Hamp- 
shire entirely ceased. 

Independence and Peace. — In the year 1783 the 
articles of peace were celebrated in this town with 
great enthusiasm and display. Bells were rung, 
salutes fired, and the North Church crowded for a 
religious service, at which Dr. Haven and Mr. Buck- 
minster both offered prayers, which were spoken of 
as most eloquent and pathetic, a prayer in those days 
not unfrequently having all the preparation, charac- 
teristics, and effects of a most studied and brilliant 

Visit of Washington.— In October, 1789, the 
President, George Washington, visited Portsmouth, 
and was received most heartily by the whole popula- 
tion. Full and glowing as our accounts are of this 
interesting event in our history, we can still depend 
only upon the imagination to fill out the picture of 
the enthusiastic oration, and the spontaneous grati- 
tude and respect which were paid to this illustrious 
general and statesman. 

Conclusion. — Since the Revolution there is little 
in the history of this settlement which one may not 
find easy of access in the various periodicals by which 
current events have been minutely described and 
carefully preserved. The early and struggling col- 
ony had become one of the original States of the 
American Union. For a long time Portsmouth filled 
an important place in the commerce, business, social 
life, literature, and culture of New England. Its 
beautiful old residences were guarded from the de- 
structive inroads of time, and however far its inhab- 
itants wandered, they cherished an unusual fondness 
for the place of their birth ; but for some years the 
changed and enlarged avenues of trade have drawn 
its sons to other centres of business which offer 
greater opportunities, and, like so many of the New 
England colonial towns, its future seems to be one of 
commercial decline instead of growth, while the ap- 
preciation of the beauty of its situation by the un- 
changing sea only deepens with its increasing throng 
of visitors. 






Military Record.— Tlic loUowing roll of citizens 
ccinipri-i', so l;ir as is known, all tlie persons who are 
now or have hoen, since tlie coniniencenient of the war, 
in tlie service of the United States, eitlier in the army 
or navy, also all persons who enlisted as a part of 
the ([uota of this city and received the bounty, w liother 
such persons w-ere residents or not. 

■Willliim O. Siiloa, mpMin ; John S. SidfB, sccomi lieiitiMinnt; Andrew J. 
SUk'S, GfMiKf K. Sides, Charles W. I'uteh, Oliver K. Maxwell, ser- 
geants; Geur^e It. Iloitt, Beckfurd L. Uiuid, Christupher J. Maruhall, 
William \V. Shaw, James Kicker, Darii. I D. Wendell, Eufus L. 
Beeni, Charles K. Gleason, corpurals; James W. Tayh.r, mu»iciau ; 
Denjamin J. I.jike, wagoner. 


George A. Alien. 
Samnel Adams. 
Charles N. Allen. 
John Avery. 


• N. Alio 

John W. Bell. 
Allen r. Hell. 
Vanlniren S. BIy. 
John K. Brockway. 
Ilngh Boyle. 
Lewis E. Ulae»lell. 
■lames N. Cluwe. 
Nathaniel M. Danielson. 
.I^seph A. Doo. 
.lohn F. Uearhorn. 
Charles W. Downs. 
Horace I.. Dearlwrn. 
.loseph Dante. 
Francis A.Fifield. 
William H. Goodwin. 
Joseph £, Gordon. 
Clarence S. Gray. 
James T. Gammon. 
Thomas Ganniu. 
Charles E. Ilautress. 
Jacob W. Hill. 
George E. Hill. 
Uarlen P. Hodgdon. 
John Harvey. 
John Haynes. 
Cliarles W. Holhrook. 
George E. Johnson. 
Joseph E. Janverin. 
William H. Kennistou. 
William S. King. 
Kathaniel M. Lear. 
Robert Lever. 
Edwin IL Leslie. 
Michael E. Long. 
James I. Locke. 
William lA>cke. 

" 1 certify that the rules and articles of v 
on the ttth day of Jane, 1861. 

William F. Lnwsou. 
Sodley A. Lowd. 
Alvah Manson. 
William H. Mix. 
Jeremiah Murphy. 
William C. Mclntire. 
Jeremiah Mahoney. 
John S. McDonald. 
Morris F McGraw. 
Jot'oph Moulton. 
John Marr. 
Daniel Neligan. 
Henry C. Norton. 
W. F. Oxf.)rd. 
■ John I'olloek. 
Charles E. Plaisted. 
Nathaniel F. Palmer. 
Joseph W. Rogers. 
Samuel E. Keynolds. 
James Kutledge. 
John Riley. 
Chartes R. Roberts. 
Charles Kidge. 
George Sawyer, Jr. 
Daniel F. Smith. 
James E. Seavev. 



William T. Spinney. 
Robert C. Sides, Jr. 
Thoma« B. Seaver. 
Alexander .Stewani. 
Joseph P. Sheppard. 
Freeman B. Teau'Ue. 
William H. Twilight. 
Samuel Taylor. 
William H. Tenney. 
George W. Trickey. 
Henry Walker. 
Charles H. Warren. 
Joseph D. West. 
Andrew Willard, 

> read to the company 

"W*iLLiA« O. Sides." 

" I certify on honor that I have carefully examined the men who«e 
Dames are home on this roll, and have accepted them int4i the service of 
the United States for the term of three years from this Hth day of June, 

(Signed) "8nH, 

'• iUq/or Third U. 8. It^faMry, MmUring Offleer." 

John S. Sides, promoted to flrst lieutonajit Aug. ID, 1861. 

Lieut. Charles W. Patch, killed at Gettysburg. 

Chrisloiiher J. Marshall, taken pri-oner tlrst Bull Run. 

Samuel .\dams, deserted July 21, 1861. 

Oliver N. Allen, pils.uier flrst Bull Bun. 

William II. Kuuniston, died Aug. 3, 1861, in hospiial. 

William F. Oxford, wounded and taken prisoner limt Kull Bun. 

Charles Ridge, taken prisoner flrst Bull Run. 

George Sawyer, taken prisoner flrst Bull Run. 

James E. Seavey, drowned at Aquia Creek Aug. 23, 1862. 

Henry Walker, killed in battle Aug. 29, 1862. 


JolMi II., licutiMiant-colonel; Alfred J. Hill, adjutant; Wllliai 
H. CornoliuB, lieutenant; Thomas M. Jackson, second lieutenant. 

Company B.— Willia 


NV D. 

James Burk. 
Tllomas Entwestle. 
Warren G. Gates. 
George C. Harris. 
William Horrocks. 
Charles E. Johnson. 
Harrison E. Johnson. 
Daniel Kimball. 
Joseph T. Moore. 
COMI'ANV li.— Charles W. Moulton, Richard Thomas. 

Marched from Concord Sept. 3, 1861. 


Company A.— Harrison Hartford. 

James Neal. 
George W. Odiorne. 
William B. Parks. 
James W. Plaisted. 
E/.ekiel C. Rand. 
Tilos. E. Stoodley. 
Jolin H. Tredick. 
Leonard G. Wiggin. 


NY B. 

George F. Towie, captain. Luther Harmon. 

Jacob Ambnsler. John Henderson. 

Albert C. Berry. Seth W. Huntress. 

John W. Brewster. George H. Perkins. 
Stephen Conner. 
Company G.— James Donavan. 

Fourth Regiment marched from Manchester Sept. 

27, 1861. 

Company B. — John H. Locke, Frank C. Sweetser. 
Company D. — Michael Brooks. 

Company K.— Peter Brennan, Charles W. Burleigh, Michael Harr, 
Walter M. Hatch, James Stearns, Robert S. Dame. 

Fifth Regiment marched from Concord Oct. 29, 

Company H. 
Andrew J. Sides, second lieutenant. John S. Dore. Hayes. 
William A Horton. 
William Kemp. 
Franklin Jones. 
Edwatd Martin. 

> Oontributod to thb work bjr Capt. William 0. Sides. 

James Berry. 
Havillah F. Downing. 
Pierpont Hammond. 
Dennis Kane. 
Bickford L. Rand. 
Irving W. Rand. Hiram Morrow. 

William H. Redden. Richard Norton. 

Samuel S. Sides. Jolin O'Brhie. 

William G. Tripp. Daniel Quinn. 

William Wilson. Charles H. Thompson. 

Edward McDonald. Reuben 11. Illeker. 

James Daley. Woshinglon Sweet. 

Sixth Regiment N. H. V. marched from Keen 
Dec. 25, 1861. 

Lieut. A. J. Sides was first sergeant of Company K 
when it left the city, but was subsequently discharged 
and recruited the men of Company H. 

Company D.— George B. Parker. 
COHPANT G.— John White. 



Seventh Regiment marc 

lied from Manchester Jan. 

Daniel M. Jellison. 

Ezekiel C. Rand. 

14, 1862. 

William H. Jellison. 

Robert Rand. 

Francis R. Johnson. 

Charles W. Randall. 


Martin Johnson. 

Reuben S. Randall. 

Company C— David Binch. 

William H. Lean. 

Moses Rowe. 

Company E.— Edward F. Goodwin. 

James R. Morrison. 

John C. Stevens. 

Ninth Regiment marched from Concord Au 


John H. Mawbey. 
John Moore. 

Storer B. Stiles. 
Daniel J. Spinney. 


Martin Moore. 

George Scott. 


John Mottrane. 

Enoch F. Smith. 


NY G. 

John May. 
John McMilliin. 

Robert M. Spinney. 
Charles G.Smith. 

George W. Towle, capt. ; George E. Hodgdon, 1st lieut. ; Lemon B. Mars- 

William Mitchell, Jr. 

George L. Sides. . 

ton, 2d lieut. 

Jeremiah L. Mclntire 

Edward W. Sides. 

Horace H. Adams. 

B. stow Laskey. 

Peter Mitchell. 

Horace S. Spinney. 

Henry L. Adlington. 

Charles W. Lolley. 

George Manning. 

Patrick Sullivan. ' 

Thomas Arcliibald. 

John N. Harden. 

Daniel H. Plaisted. 

Edwin A. Tilton. 

James S. Ayers. 

Michael Mason. 

William Peirce, Jr. 

Henry S. Thompson. 

John 0. Ayers. 

Charles Mayes. 

Thomas B. Parks. 

Sauniel Taylor. 

Mescliack Bell, Jr. 

Robert Miles. 

Henry S. Paul. 

Benjamin F. Winn. 

Henry T. Brill. 

John H. Moore. 

Charles Powell. 

Robert B. Welch 

George Brown. 

John U. Moriison. 

Isaac N. M. Pry. 

William Warburton (2d). 

Abrani D. Burnham. 

George 0. Murray. 

John L. Randall. 

John F. Welch. 

Joseph B. Burnham. 

Charles H. Muchmore. 

Owen H. Roche. 

Daniel H. Mclntire. 

John U. Custtou. 

John S. Patterson. 

Hesam Cowen 

Edward B. Prime. 

Thirteenth Regiment marched from Concord Oct. 

Thomas Day, 

Charles W. Pickering. 

6, 1862. 

William E. Dearborn. 

Edward 0. Randall. 

Benjamin F. Evans. 

John H. Kanisdell. 



John E. Fields. 

Eugene Beistle. 

Richard Fitzgerald. 

Thomas Rulter. 

Company K. 

John H. Flint. 

J. Albert Sanborn. 

Joseph H. Thacher, capt 

; George 

T. Wilde, 1st lieut.; William A. 

Franklin E. Gardner. 

Freeman F. Sanborn. 

Haven, 2d lieut. 

Lucius Gilmore. 

Joseph S. Seavey. 

Henry B. Adams. 

Angus McCormick. 

Michael Gilligan. 

Michael Sheridan, Jr. 

George E.Allen. 

John Mcintosh. 

Thomas Haley. 

Alfred S. Sweelser. 

James Anderson. 

James Mitchell. 

Michael Haire. 

Oliver F. Taylor. 

Thomas Brackett, Jr. 

William J. Mills. 

Pierpont Hammond. 

John Thompson. 

Samuel Blatchforce. 

John H. Morrill. 

Owen Henwood. 

Andrew D. Walden. 

Henry M. Caster. 

Joseph E. Nash. 

John Higgins. 

Richard Walsh. 

James Cunningham. 

Franklin W. Neal. 

William Hill. 

Andrew W. Whidden. 

Daniel Danielson. 

Timothy O'Leary. 

George A. Hodgdon. 

Sylvester Y. White. 

Franklin Dow. 

Albert A. Payne. 

John Hodgdon. 

Henry J. Willey. 

William Button. 

Charles A. Payson. 

Harlan P. Hodgdon. 

Thonnis Williams. 

Charles E. Edny. 

John H. Peai-son. 

Charles L. Hoitt. 

William H. Williams. 

Henry 0. Ellinwood. 

William A. Rand. 

James Howes. 

William Wingate. 

James H. Emery. 

Samuel Buvill. 

John E. Hoyt. 

Aaron Sias. 

Hollis W. Fairbanks. 

Oren Seavey. 

Edward Jarvia. 

Peter Sullivan. 

Israel G. Fletcher. 

James Shaw, Jr. 

Joseph F. Keen. 

John H. Stringer. 

John Flynn. 

John Shaw. 

George M. Kimball. 

John S. Sheridan. 

Otto Franck. 

Robert Smart. 

George King. 

Horace J. Willey. 

Frederick Franz. 
Charles F. Goodwin. 

James L. Smith. 
Nathaniel Spinney. 

Tenth Regiment marched from Manchester 


Thomas J. Goodwin. 

Charles Stewart. 

22, 1862. 

Charles E. Gray. 

.John Sullivan. 



Jacob Haddock. 
Otis F. Haley. 

John Taylor. 
Isaac Thomas. 

Company A. — Francis F. IJutchelde 

John Higgins. 

Mark W. Tucker. 

Eleventh Regiment marched from Concord, 


George W. Hill. 

Charles Wagner. 

11, 1862. 

Joseph E. Holmes. 

Samuel W. Walden. 

Christopher J. Kellenbeck. 

James A. Waterhouse. 


Jacob F. Knight. 

James E. Walker. 

Jacob Storer, niaj. ; William J. Ladd, sergt.-maj. 

Philip Krunz. 

Benjamin F. Watkins. 

Company E,— Charles F. Adams, Henry Nutter. 

John Leary. 

Daniel Watkins. 

Company F.— Edwin H. Leslie. 

Charles W. Leavitt. 

James Webster. 

Company K.— Matthew T. Betton, 

capt.; Enoch W. Goss, Is 


Patrick ^lahoney. 

George A. Woodsun. 

Nathaniel J. Coffee, 2d lieut. 

William Mason. 

JohnF. Woodsun. 

Samuel P. Abbott. 
Henry Bean. 

James Danielson. 
Thomas Fairservice. 

Sixteenth Regim 

ent marched from Concord Aug 

Charles Braydon. 

Nathaniel Gunnison. 

14, 1863. 

John W. Brown. 

James Gilchrist. 


Ferdinand Barr. 

John V. A. Hanson. 

D. Webster Baruabee. 

John Harmon. 



Joseph B. Brown. 

Henry C. Hodgdon. 

Isaac F. Jenness, capt. ; Frank D. Webster, 1st lieut. 

Thomas Ciitchley, Jr. 

Henry A. Haneyfield. 

Joseph W. Ackerman 

John Barry. 

Joseph H. Coche. 

Michael Hoy. 

George Anderson. 

Thomas Brown. 

Joseph N. Davidson. 

Abel Jackson. 

William J. Andrews. 

J. C. Canney. 

George Davids. 

Ephraim Jackson. 

Charles H. Alvarez. 

William Carter. 



Daniel M. Clarli. 
Warner Coggswell. 
TlioiiuiH Cuolc. 
.I»lin Feriiald. 
Thunias U. Fisher. 
Joseph Fuller. 
Charles Davis. 
John r. Gallagher. 
Hiram A. Oniut. 
Clarence S. Gray. 
Janie» Haley. 
Juseph A. Ilane. 
Chiistopher W. Ilarr 
Ilonry Harris. 
Charles H. Kimball. 
Julin H. Liinil.erl. 

Thomas MUcholl. 
Charles E. Moree. 
John S. Perkins. 
Ammi 0. Hand. 
Lonis H. Rand. 
James H. Rnherts. 
Henry V. Itogors. 
Edward 1). Stoodloy. 
Robert W. Stvll. 
James Taiigiioy. 
KIchard Turner. 
John \V, Walker. 
John A. Wakh. 
Henry A. Whitton. 
Thomas H. Wilson. 
Henry Wingate. 

Joseph Mldgley. 

CosiPAM- K.— Henry L. Richards, James H. Frost, Alvali H. Wood- 
ward, Paynnister Albert H. Uoyt. 

Robert E. Shillaber. 

John E. Moran. 

Samuil Blackford, Addison H. Beach. 

William II. Davidson, William H. Hunters. 

William Tale, w'lunded before Richmond, and died Aug. 2,1862. 

Willjor F. Lamb. 

Andrew II. Jloran. 

Wallace W. Gore, Joseph J. Locke. 

Robert B. Henderson, John «. Coswell. 

William H. Smith. 

James W. Leverton. 

Ezekiel Mann, Sanniel A. Badger. 

George W. Moran, Samuel A. Bridge. 

Charles Drew, Joseph Drew, Samuel A. Wiggin. 

Robert F. Foster, Simeon S. Sweet. 

Henry W. Paul. 

Sanini'l II. Shaphigh, Cln>rles W. Shannon. 

Ezekiel Fitzgerald, BeiOnmlu Chandltr, Albert L. Dodge, Frederick L. 

Charles C. Haley. 

Charlea L. Tidd. 

John Swindells. 

Daniel J. Vaughan. 

George A. Edny. 

George W. Carr. 

Oliver M. Knight. 

Daniel B. Sawyer. 

Alberts. Leighton. 

Stephen S. Blaisdell. Charles E. Moore. 

Henry M. Davis. Alanson Ordway. 

Andrew Goldthwait. George B. Roofe. 

Joseph H. Graves. Amos B. Smith. 

Clarence S. Gray. Stark Spinney. 

John Haley. Jesse A. Tobey. 

Samuel 1'. Halt. Charles E. Y'oung. 


George C. Abbott. 
John Q. Adams. 
Charles W. Adams. 
Woodbury Adams, 
George E. Anderson. 
Joseph Barry. 
Joshua Bastille. 
Andrew Bayne. 
Freeman Beale. 
Daniel ¥. Bean. 
Joel Bean. 
Charles E. Beck. 
Charles E. Berry. 
William Black. 
William W. Black. 
George C. Boardmau. 
Elijah Brown. 
George W. Brown. 
Joseph Brown. 
William Browy. 
William Brown. 
William Brown. 
Michael Buckley. 
James Burke. 
George Butler. 
William Caid. 
Joseph W. Carlton. 
Henry A. Carter. 
Joslah P. Carter. 
Henry H. Cate. 
Joseph G. Cate. 
Albert Chamberlain. 
Horace A. Chase. 
Walter Chesley. 
Charles W. Clark. 
Edmund Clark. 
Wallace W Clark. 
Thomas Collins. 
Kiesan Copley. 
Junes Courtney. 
George Cox. 
Blicliacl Crowley. 
William Currier. 
Charles Ciinimings. 
Frederick Danielw>n. 
Joseph Davidson. 
Fruucis Dema. 

James M. Devine. 
Michael Devine. 
John M. De Bochment. 
Casline B. De Witt. 
Arthur Dorrity. 
John H. Downs. 
Frank M. Drake. 
Nelson N. Downing. 
Franklin N. Ellison. 
Horace Ellison. 
William Ellison. 
William H. Emery. 
William Y. Evans. 
David Faulkner. 
William H. Fields. 
Albert Fisher. 
Joseph FItzgeruld. 
Joseph Foster. 
Charles E. Freeman. 
William D. FreeDuin. 
Thomas B. Gammon. 
Thomas S. Gay. 
J. Nelson Goodrich. 
Benjamin Gray. 
Charles A. C. Gray. 
Henry Gniy. 
Samuel Gray. 
Frank W. Hackett. 
William H. Haddock. 
Allisim W. Hadley. 
Mark S. Ham. 
Benjamin Harris. 
Thomas A. Harris. 
Lyman H. Hertford. 
John Ilnrlnetl. 
Frank F. Hastings. 
Charles E. Hawkins. 
Henry Hayes. 
William C. Hallell. 
Frederick Hendenion. 
George Herliert. 
Daniel Hennessey. 
James Hennessey. 
John A. Ilolbrook. 
Charles W. Holmes. 
Alfred H. Hook. 
Andrew J. Hough. 



William H. Howell. 
Hugh Hunter. 
James Hurley. 
Michael Hurley. 
Patrick Hurley. 
William S. Jaivis. 
Henry Jenkins. 
John Jenkins. 
Abraham A. Johnson. 
Augustus Johnson. 
George N. Johnson. 
George W. Johnson. 
Charles C. Jones. 
John Jones. 
Michael Jones. 
Charles K.Knox. 
John H. Knox. 
Thomas Kehoe. 
Irving W. Laighton. 
William F. Laighton. 
William M. Laighton. 
Henry S. Lambert. 
John L. Lambert. 
Edward D. Lane. 
Harvey V. Lang. 
Thomas W. Lang. 
John T. Larrabee. 
Samuel Lear. 
Lafayette Leary. 
John C. Lewis. 
Edwiu W. Locke. 
Jeremiah S. Locke. 
Oliver H. Locke. 
William W. Locke. 
James Lynch. 
John F. Lyons. 
William H. Manson. 
Robert B. Marden. 
Albert S. Marston. 
George E. Martin. 
Gustavus W. Mason. 
John McAwley. 
David McCliskey. 
Michael JlcCliskey. 
Daniel SIcDonald. 
Robert McFadden. 
John McGraw. 
John McKenly. 
Alexander McLead. 
Cornelius Mead. 
Henry Melvin. 
Oliver Messer. 
Thomas J. Mitchell. 
Thomas Moore. 
Edward Moses. 
John F. Muchmore. 
Isaac C. Murch. 
James Murwick. 
William Newick. 
Jeremiah Newman. 
Leverett W. Noyes. 
William Nuckctt. 
John E. Odwone. 
Andrew B. Paine. 
William Paine. 
John F. Parks. 
William Paiks. 
Enoch G. Parrott. 
John A. Payne. 
George F. Pearson. 
Albert G. Perabell. 
Edward Pendexter. 
George W. Perry. 
William Pettigrew. 
Samuel Phelbrech. 
Charles W. Pickering. 
Simeon S. Pickering. 

William P. Pender. 
Alonzo K. Place. 
Cliarles L. Place. 
Leonard Place. 
Frank Plaieled. 
James E. Plaisted. 
Patrick Quenland. 
Cornelius Quinn. 
John Quinn. 
Thomas Quiun. 
Charles Ricker. 
Thomas W. Ridge. 
John M. Roberts. 
Joseph Re.ynolds. 
Alexandi-r Robinson. 
Richard Robinson. 
Charles H. Ross. 
Charles H. Kowe. 
Jabez Rowe. 
John Rullidge. 
Lewis Riitlidge. 
William Rutlidge. 
Frank C. Sawyer. 
William 0. Seawards. 
George E. Smart. 
Ivory Smart. 
Charles J. Smith. 
James Smith. 
James H. Smith. 
John H. Smith. 
Stephen Smith. 
William Smith. 
James A. Snow. 
Lyman G Spalding. 
Chesley Spinney. 
William T. Spinney. 
George E. Stackpole. 
William Stanley. 
George W. Storer. 
William P. Storer. 
John W.Stott. 
Joseph W. Stringer. 
Dennis 0. Sullivan. 



Charles Tate. 
Andrew Tetterly. 
Samuel Thomas. 
Henry Tucker. 
Thomas L. Tullock, Jr. 
Edwin Underbill. 
Joseph B. Upham, Jr. 
Charles L. Varney. 
Frank A. Varney. 
John L. Venare. 
James Walch. 
Daniel Walker. 
William Walker. 
Joseph Wallace. 
Edward L. Warburton. 
Benjamin F. Watkins. 
Frank Watkins. 
Thomas Watkins. 
Richard Watkins. 
William Watkins. 
Henry C. Webster. 
William Webster. 
Edward H. Weeks. 
George W. Weeks. 
John Welch. 
Joshua Wetherell. 
Thomas Wetherell. 
Andrew White. 
Joshua W. White, 
George F. Whitehouse. 
Samuel A. Whitehouse. 
William H. Whitehouse 
John W. Young. 


PORTSMOUTH.— (t'.,«(iH,ie(/.) 
Churchesl— Banks— Press— Societies, etc. 

Methodist Episcopal Church." — In the year 1790, 
Jesse Lee made his first appearance in Portsmouth as 
a Methodist preacher. From that time there was mis- 
cellaneous preaching until 1807. 

In the year 1807, Martin Ruter was appointed to 
Portsmouth and Nottingliam. 

In the year 1808 the church was permanently or- 
ganized ; the first class was organized hy George 
Pickering, in house No. 12 Washingtou Street, then 
occupied by a Mr. Hutchins. Brothers Pickering, 
Metcalf, and Stevens preached in the town, inter- 
changing their labors on the circuit system. This 
year they purchased a house previously occupied by 
the Universalists on Vaughan Street. Rev. George 
Pickering was the active agent in securing the house 
of worship. The price paid was two thousand dollar^. 
Pews were reserved to the value of five hundred dol- 
lars, so the Methodists paid fifteen hundred dollars. 
In the same year (1808) an act of incorporation as the 
First Methodist Episcojial Church was obtained of the 

In the year 1809, Rev. John Brodhead and Alfred 
Metcalf chiefly supplied the desk here. 

In 1810, Rev. John Williamson and Asa Kent sup- 
plied the desk ; the latter preached from December to 
June, and received as salary eighty-nine dollars and 
twenty-nine cents. 

In 1811, Revs. John Brodhead and John Lindsey 
were appointed to New Market, Durham, and Ports- 
mouth, Deacon Lindsey preaching most of the time 
in Portsmouth. Every Sabbath a collection was 
taken, and the amount entered on the book of records. 
For lighting the house they used candles, and this 
item amounted to fourteen dollars and fifty-six cents. 

In 1812 and 1813, Rev. John Re-xford was pastor, 
and reported sixty members. 

In 1814 and 1815, Rev. Thomas W. Tucker was 
preacher, and received one hundred and twenty-nine 
dollars and twenty-two cents, including board. 

In 1816, Rev. Josiah Chamberlain was pastor, and 
reported seventy-one members. 

In 1817 and 1818, Rev. Daniel Filmore was preacher 
in charge, and had a universal reformation, and as 
the house hecame too small, permission was obtained 
to use Jefferson Hall for the prayer-meetings, which 
was crowded to its utmost capacity. A plea was made 
to Conference for Mr. Filmore's return for the third 
year, and by a little bending of the rules he was 
returned ; but this was thought to be an error, as there 
was some unhappy divisions between older members 

I For other churche 

•■ By C. M. Hayford. 

> Rev. Mr. De Normandie's history elsewhere 



of the church. This year (1818) the Sabbath-school 
was formed under his labors. 

In July, 1820, Josiah Searritt was appointed to 

In 1821 and 1822, Enoch Mudge was stationed here. 

In 1823 and 1824, Ephraim Wiley was stationed 

In 1825, Jacob Sanborn was stationed here. 

In 1826 and 1827, Shipley W. Wilson was stationed 
here, and during his labors here the present house of 
worship (on State Street) was built, at a cost, includ- 
ing land, of about nine thousand dollars. The vestry 
was in the upper part of the house over the entry. 
The new church was dedicated Jan. 1, 1828, by Rev. 
Wilbur Fisk; his text was Hag. ii. 9: "The glory of 
the latter house shall be greater than the former." 
The old house was disposed of in 1829. 

In 1828 and 1829, Rev. John Newland Moffit was 
stationed here, and did good service in collecting 
money to reduce the debt on the church. On June 
10, 1829, the New England Conference met in Ports- 
mouth, and the New Hampshire Conference was 

In 1830, Stephen Lovell was preacher. 

In 1831, George Storrs was preacher in charge. 

In 1832, Holmes Cushman was preacher in charge. 

In 1833, Reuben H. Deming was preacher in charge. 

In 1834, Elezer Smith was preacher in charge. 

July 29, 1835, the New Hampshire Conference for 
the second time convened in this city. Bishop Emery 
presiding. Schuyler Chamberlain was appointed to 
this charge, and assured the people he should stay 
two years, and he did. 

In 1837, Jared Perkins was appointed as pastor. 

This year (1837) the vestry in the upper part of the 
house was vacated, and one fitted up in the basement 
of the church, which was occupied for twenty-two 

In 1838, James G. Smith was pastor. 

In 1839 and 1840, Daniel T. Robinson was pastor. 

In 1841, Samuel Kelley was pastor. 

In 1842, Samuel Kelley was reappointed. 

In 1843, Jacob Stevens was appointed pastor. 

In 1844, the New Hampshire Conference for the 
third time held its session here, commencing July 
10th, Bishop Hamlin presiding. 

In 1844 and 1845, Elisha Adams was stationed 

In 1846 and 1847, Rev. Daniel M. Rogers was sta- 
tioned here. 

In 1848, Rev. James Thurston was stationed here. 

In 1849 and 1850, Rev. Samuel Kelley was sta- 
tioned here. 

In 1851 and 1852, Rev. Richard S. Rust was sta- 
tioned here, and the vestry in the basement was im- 
proved by the outlay of four hundred dollars. 

In 1853 and 1854, Rev. Justin Spaulding was pas- 
tor, and the church was thoroughly repaired. 

In 1855 and 1856,, Rev. Sullivan Holman was ap- 

pointed pastor, and under his labors a debt of twenty- 
three hundred dollars on the church was paid off. 

In 1857 and 1858, Rev. Jonathan Hall was sta- 
tioned here. 

May 4, 1859, the New Hampshire Conference for 
the fourth time was entertained by this church, Bishop 
Ames presiding. 

In 1859 and 1860, Rev. D. P. Leavitt was stationed 
here. Under his labors a new vestry, costing about 
fifteen hundred dollars (exclusive of land), was built 
on Daniel Street. The building committee were 
John Trundy, John H. Bailey, and William F. 

In 1861 and 1862, Rev. Richard W. Humphries 
was stationed here. 

In 1863 and 1864, Rev. Sullivan Holman was sta- 
tioned here. 

In 1865 and 1866, Rev. James Pike was stationed 

In 1867, Rev. Silas G. Kellog was stationed here. 

In 1868 and 1869, Rev. H. L. Kelsey was stationed 
here, and under his administration the church was 
thoroughl}' remodeled inside, and improved somewhat 
on the outside. 

■ In 1870-72, the Rev. Cadford M. Dinsmore was 
stationed here. 

In 1873 and 1874, Rev. Anthony C. Hardy was sta- 
tioned here. 

In 1875, Rev. Nelson M. Bailey wks stationed here. 

In 1876 and 1877, Rev. James Noyes was stationed 

In 1878-80, Rev. Charles B. Pitblado was stationed 
here, and in the last half of his third year asked to 
be released from labor, that he might visit his friends 
and the home of his boyhood in Scotland, which was 
granted, and Rev. Watson W. Smitli was employed 
to supply the remainder of the year. He also was 
returned to us for the year 1881. 

This year (1882) Rev. Joseph E. Robins is sta- 
tioned here, and our present membership is about 
one hundred and fifty. The Sunday-school numbers 
about one hundred and fifty; John E. Leavitt, super- 

The trustees for 1882 are William C. Newton, John 
H. Broughton, Robert B. Adams, James Janvrin, 
Thomas Reese, John F. Leavitt, A. Milton Gardner, 
Silas Philbrick, and Daniel Mclntire. 

The board of stewards are William C. Newton, 
Daniel C. Mclntire, Alfred M. Lang, William Batch- 
elder, George Mallett, Henry D. Marston, John N. 
Willey, A. Milton Gardner, and Chandler M. Hay- 
ford ; Thomas Reese, L.D. ; Meshac Bell, L.P. 

The Free-Will Baptist Church ' was organized in 
1823 by Rev. David Jlarks, one of the leading men 
in the denomination in those days. Pastors, Revs. 
Ezekiel True, J. B. Davis, Isaac G. Davis, William 
P. Merrill, Arthur Caverns. In the year 1846 the 

1 By J. Herbert Teonian. 



church disbanded. The present church was organ- 
ized Feb. 17, 1851. Pastors, Revs. John Pinkham, 
1851 ; A. R. Bradbury, 1851-53 ; the next two years 
the pulpit was supplied by Rev. S. P. Fernald ; 
1855-56, Rev. P. Chesley ; 1856-57, Rev. Lowell 
Parker; 1858-59, Rev. Francis Reed; 1859-6.3, Rev. 
C. E. Haskell ; 1863-66, Rev. L. L. Harmon ; 
. 1866-77, Rev. E. Owen ; 1878-79, Rev. .1. Herbert 
Yeoman, June 20, 1880, to the present time. 

The meeting-house was built on Pearl Street in 
1858, and was thoroughly repaired during the pastor- 
ate of Mr. Harmon. Number of members, one hun- 
dred and thirty-six ; Sunday-school scholars, one 
hundred. Officers : Rev. J. Herbert Yeoman, pas- 
tor ; Moses Plummer, clerk ; Eben Brack ett, treasurer ; 
William F. Ham, Eben Brackett, deacons. Moses 
Plummer, superintendent of Sunday-school ; Martin 
Richmond, assistant superintendent; Willard Young, 

The legal business is transacted by a society dis- 
tinct from the church organization, which is purely 
religious. J. Wesley Wilson is president of the 
society, Martin Richmond is vice president, and 
Joseph Moore is clerk. 

The Middle Street Baptist Society' was estab- 
lished in 182(i, eiglit individuals meeting in "the old 
Assembly House" on Vaughan Street and constitu- 
ting themselves into a Calvin Baptist Church. The 
society afterwards worshiped in what is now the Uni- 
tarian chapel, on Court Street, and in 1828 built and 
occupied their present brick edifice, on the corner of 
Middle and State Streets, when they assumed the 
above name. Rev. Duncan Dunbar, who was active 
in the formation of the church, supplied the pulpit 
for a while. The pastors have been as follows : 1827, 
Rev. Baron Stow ; 1836, Rev. John G. Naylor ; 1839, 
Rev. Freeman G. Brown ; 1843, Rev. Silas Usley ; 
1848, Rev. William Lamson, D.D. ; 1860, Rev. Edwin 
B. Eddy ; 1864, Rev. Henry F. Lane ; 1868, Rev. Wil- 
liam H. Alden, D.D., the present pastor. 

The Christian Church'' was organized Jan. 1, 
1803, by Elder Elias Smith. How many united in 
the church organization the church record does not 
say, but evidently it was very small, for the record 
says, " That so great was the desire of Elder Smith to 
see such a church, that he thought a labor of twenty 
years would be a pleasure, if in the end he might see 
twenty united and walking according to the New 
Testament." This was seen very soon, " for in March 
they numbered twenty-two, and obtained leave to 
hold their meetings in the court-house, and the first 
Sunday in April, 1803, they held their first commu- 
nion. The interest continued and baptisms were 
frequent, not only on the Sabbath but on week-days, 
and in about one year the little company of twenty-two 
bad increased to about one hundred and fifty. The 
membership of the church was not confined to Ports- 

1 By L. W. Brewster. 

'■ By Rev. John A. Gosa. 

mouth, but members were received from Newington 
Hampton, Hampton Falls in New Hampshire, Kit- 
tery in Maine, and as far as Haverhill and Bradford 
in Massachusetts. 

In 1807 and 1808 there was the greatest revival 
ever known in Portsmouth, and large numbers were 
added to the church. On the 1st of September, 1808, 
[ Elder Smith commenced the publication of The Her- 
j aid of Gospel Liberty. This was the first religious 
newspaper ever published in this country if not in 
the world, and is still the organ of the Christian de- 
nomination, and is published at Dayton, Ohio. The 
records are rather imperfect up to 1826. In that year 
Elder Moses How took the pastorate of the church, 
their place of worship then being the old temple on 
Chestnut Street. During the summer of 1834 Elder 
How baptized sixty-nine persons. 

January, 1837, Elder Abner Jones took charge of 
the church as pastor. Elder How having received and 
accepted a call from the Second Christian Church at 
New Bedford, Mass. Elder Jones did not continue 
as pastor long, for in 1838 we find an account of bap- 
tism by Elder David Millard. 

In 1839 the brick meeting-house on Pleasant Street 
was purchased, at which time a division took place 
and a second church organized. 

Elder Millard's ministry was successful, and many 
were added to the church. The record says nothing 
of his resignation, but November, 1840, it speaks of 
Rev. E. N. Harris as pastor. Two years after he 
resigned. Rev. George W. Kilton was his successor, 
who remained three years, and was followed by Rev. 
A. M. Averill, who continued with him for years, 
preaching his farewell sermon Oct. 27, 1850. Rev. 
Thomas Holmes, D.D., was then called to the pas- 
torate, which position he held until Oct. 1, 1853, 
when he resigned to accept the professorship of the 
Greek language in Antioch College, at Yellow Spring, 
Ohio. The church then engaged the services of Rev. 
Charles Bryant for six months ; the remainder of the 
year the pulpit was supplied by Revs. O. P. Tucker- 
man and A. G. Comings. In 1855 Rev. B. S. Fanton 
settled as pastor of the church. The church and 
society vacated the Pleasant Street meeting-house 
Oct. 26, 1826, and for a while held services in a 
chapel on Hanover Street. Oct. 4, 1 857, Rev. Thomas 
Holmes, D.D., was again called to the pastorate of 
the church. Previous to this time Elder Austin 
Damon, of New York, had supplied the pulpit. 
Brother Holmes resigned in 1860, and Elder Moses 
How was again invited to the pastorate. He re- 
mained about one year, when Rev. I. F. Waterhouse, 
of Providence, R. I., was called. Brother Water- 
house remained five years, during which time the 
present place of worship was purchased. 

Rev. C. P. Smith was called to the pastorate early 
in 1868, which position he occupied until July, 1872. 
Oct. 1, 1872, Rev. John A. Goss, of Lynn, Mass., was 
called to the pastorate, and still holds that position 



(September 20th). The history of this church is 
deeply interesting. Like most churches it has seen 
its times of declension as well as its times of pros- 
perity. From 1826 to the present time (Sept. 20, 
1882) nine hundred and sixty persons have been con- 
nected with it as members. Its membership is now 
about one hundred and eighty. 

Our platform is briefly this : Our name, Christian ; 
our creed, the Bibl^; our test of Christian and church 
fellowship, Christian character; the growing issue, 
Idvinsi sympathy for all wiio love the Lord .Jesus. 

The Immaculate Conception (Roman Catholic) 
Church was erected in 1873 at a cost of fifty thou- 
sand dollars, corner Chatham and Summer Streets, 
Rev. Eugene M. O'Callaghan, pastor. 

The Second Advent Church was organized Jan. 

4, 1859. The chapel was dedicated June 20, 1859. 
The church at present has no pastor, the desk being 
supplied by evangelists. The present officers are 
Joseph W. White, clerk ; Samuel W. Hoyt, treas- 
urer ; and Joseph W. White, William Israel, and 
Samuel W. Hoj't, board of managers. 

The North Parish. — The pastors of the North 
Parish since Mr. Moodey have been Buckminster, 
Putnam, Moore, Gage, Adams, Martin, Hubbell, and 
the present incumbent. Rev. Mr. McGinley. 

Unitarian Church. — Dr. Peabody was pastor from 
1833 to 18(30. Rev. James De Normandie became 
pastor of the church in 1862, and has officiated to the 
present time, a period of over twenty years. 

Universalist Church. — The pastors from Rev. 
Richards to the present time have been Rev. Hosea 
Ballou, S. Streeter, Edward Turner, Thomas F. King, 
Moses Ballou, George W. Montgomery, M. Ballou 
(second pastorate here), S. S. Fletcher, W. A. P. Dil- 
lingham, Lemuel Willis, A. J. Patterson, Ambler, 
Bicknell, Van Ciot, Hebberd, Grant, and Haskins. 

Banks. — The first banking institution in Ports- 
mouth was the New Hampshire Bank, organized in 
1792, with a capital of «160,000. Oliver Peabody was 
president, and D. R. Rogers cashier. It continued 
about fifty years. 

The second bank was the New Hampshire Union, 
organized in 1802, with a capital of two hundred 
thousand dollars. 

The Portsmouth Bank was organized in 1803, with 
Thomas Sheafe, president, and Andrew Halliburton, 

The Rockingham National Bank is a suc- 
cessor of the Rockingham Bank, which was organized 
Jan. 3, 1814. It was reorganized as a national bank 
April 17, 1865. Capital, $200,000. Cashiers: Jacob 

5. Pickering, Jan. 3, 1814 to 1849; John J. Pick- 
ering, September, 1849, to January, 1870 ; William 

The rectors of the Episcopal Church since Rev. Dr. Burroughs have 
been Revs. Hitchcoclc, Armitage, Daviea, Bingham, Clarlt, and Holbrook. 

The liresunt clmrch edifice was erected at a cost of one hundred thou- 
sand dollars, and is probably the finest ecclesiastical structure in New 
Hampshire. It was the gift of Mr. George Marsh. 

Tuckerman, January, 1870, to January, 1871 ; John 
P. Hart, January, 1871, to present time. Presidents, 
John Haven, 1814 to 1845; J. M. Tredick, 1845 
to 1873 ; John J. Pickering, 1873 to present time. 
Present Directors, John J. Pickering, George W. 
Haven, T. Salter Tredick, J. S. H. Frink, Francis E. 
Langdon, William A. Peirce. Capital, $200,000 ; sur- 
plus, !j!40,000. 

The National Mechanics' and Traders' Bank 
is a successor of the Commercial Bank, which was 
chartered in July, 1825, with a capital of $150,000. 
Isaac Walton, president; George Melcher, Jr., cashier ; 
succeeded by Richard Jenness, president; James T. 
Shores, cashier. This bank was succeeded by the 
Mechanics' and Traders' Banl-, chartered 1844. Cap- 
ital, $150,000. Richard Jennes.s, president; James T. 
Shores, cashier. This was succeeded by the National 
Mechanics' and Traders' Bank, organized May, 1864. 
Capital, $300,000. George L. Treadwell, i)resident; 
James T. Shores, cashier. Mr. Shores died in 1871, 
and was succeeded by G. W. Butler, cashier. G. L. 
Treadwell resigned in February, 1876, succeeded by 
John Sise. G. W. Butler resigned in April, 1881 ; 
succeeded by John Laighton, who resigned in March, 
1882, when James P. Bartlett was elected cashier. 
The present location has been occupied for a bank 
nearly sixty years, and some of the present stock- 
holders are the descendants of the original corpora- 
tors. The present officers are John Sise, president ; J. 
P. Bartlett, cashier ; W. P. Benedict, teller ; Direc- 
tors, John Sise, William H. Rollins, Charles H. Men- 
dum, John S. Pray, and Joseph W. Peirce. 

The New Hampshire National Bank is a suc- 
cessor of the Bank of New Hampshire, incorporated 
in 1855. The present bank was incorporated in 1865. 
Peter Jenness was president from 1855 to 1866, when 
he was succeeded by Mr. J. P. Bartlett, who remained 
until 1882, when he resigned, to become cashier of the 
"Mechanics' and Traders' National Bank, and was 
succeeded by E. A. Peterson, the present incumbent. 
J. P. Bartlett was cashier from 1855 to 1866, and L. S. 
Butler from 1866 to the present time. The present 
directors are Frank Philbrick, H. F. Wendell, True 
M. Ball, Daniel Marcy, E. A. Peterson, Thomas A. 
Harris, Washington Freeman. Capital, $150,000. 

The First National Bank is a successor of the 
Piscataqua Bank, the Piscataqua Exchange Bank, and 
the first First National Bank. It was orga«ized first 
as a national bank in 1863, and was the first national 
bank organized in the United States under the Na- 
tional Banking Act. Its charter having expired by 
limitation, it was rechartered in 1882. 

Hon. W. H. Y. Hackett was president of the Pis- 
cataqua Bank, also of the Exchange Bank and of the 
National Bank, until his decease, Aug. 9, 1878. He 
was succeeded by ex-Governor Ichabod Goodwin, who 
remained president until his death, in 1882, when he 
was succeeded by E. P. Kimball, the present presi- 



Samuel Lord was cashier of the Piscataqua, Piscat- 
aqua Exchange, and the National Bank until his death, 
when he was succeeded hy Mr. E. P. Kimball, who re- 
mained as cashier until the death of Governor Good- 
win, when he was chosen president, and R. C. Peirce 
acting cashier. Directors, W. L. Dwight, John Stavers, 
W. H. Hackett, E. P. Kimliall, and E. H. Winchester. 
Capital, $300,000. 

Portsmouth Saving.s-Bank.— May 26, 1818, some 
of the most prominent citizen.s of the town met and 
organized an "Institution for the Deposit and Invest- 
ment of Monies," and applied for a charter, which, 
however, the Legislature declined to grant. But in 
1823 the charter of the " Portsmouth Savings-Bank" 
was obtained, and this bank is therefore among the 
oldest of such institutions in the United States. 

The bank was first kept in a chamber of the build- 
ing now occupied by it, and open for deposits and 
withdrawals only on Wednesdays, from three to 
five P.M. It was first opened Aug. 20, 1823, and on 
that day nine deposits were made, ranging from $5 
to $240, and amounting in all to $626. One of these 
accounts has never been closed, and is still on the 
books of the bank. Another deposit of $20, made 
Dec. 17, 1823, has been undisturbed from that time, 
and now amounts by mere accumulation of interest 
to $618.08. The present amount of deposits is 
$2,916,242.70, belonging to 8084 depositors. The 
bank has also a guarantee fund of about 880,000. 

The following is a list of the presidents and treas- 
urers of the bank : 

Presidents, Nathaniel A. Haven, 1823-31 ; Henry 
Ladd, 1831-39; James Rundlett, 1839-40; Robert 
Rice, 1840-44; William M. Shackford, 1844-69; 
William Simes, 1869-80; William H. Rollins, 1880. 
Treasurers, Samuel Lord, 1823-69; James F. 
Shores, Jr., 1869-77 ; Joseph H. Foster, 1877. 

The present trustees are Lyman D. Spalding, Sam- 
uel Adams, J. S. Pray, J. W. Emery, W. W. Cotton, • 
Joseph H. Thacher, Charles H. Mendum, John 
Knowlton, John Sise, Benjamin F. Webster, Thomas 
E. Call, Charles H. Rollins, Daniel Marcy, John 
Laighton, Marcellus Buftbrd, Charles M. Laighton, 
Henry M. Clark, W. Freeman. 

The Portsmouth Trust and Guarantee 
Company, a savings-bank, incorporated in IS71, with 
a perpetual charter. 

The presidents have been George L. Treadwell, 
Ezra H. Winchester, and Jeremiah F. Hall. 

The present ofiicers are : President, Jeremiah F. 
Hall; Vice-President, Frank Jones; Directors, Jere- 
miah F. Hall, Frank Jones, Ezra H. Winchester, 
Daniel Marcy, John Sise, Thomas H. Odion, Edwin 
A. Peterson, William D. Fernald, Calvin Page, and 
Samuel J. Gerrish ; Treasurer, Charles H. Rollins. 

Charles H. Rollins was treasurer until December, 
1876, when he was succeeded by G. L. Treadwell, who 
officiated until April, 1879, when Mr. Rollins was re- 
appointed, and has held the office to the present time. 

The Piscataqua Savings-Bank was incorporated 
in 1877 with the following incorporators : I. Goodwin, 
W. H. Y. Hackett, E. D. Kimball, W. L. Dwight, 
John H. Broughton, Robert C. Peirce, Augustus 
Lord, J. Albert Walker, J. H. Hutchinson, A. P. 
Howard, J. W. F. Hobbs, E. C. Spinney, and E. B. 

The first president was W. H. Y. Hackett, who was 
succeeded by Governor Ichabod Goodwin. 

Mr. R. C. Peirce has been secretary and treasurer 
from the beginning. 
j Trustees, William L. Dwight, J. H. Hutchinson, 
' E. C. Spinney (Kittery, Me.), E. P. Kimball, J. 
I Albert Walker, Robert C. Peirce, J. W. F. Hobbs 
j (North Hampton), E. B. Philbrick (Rye), John H. 
Broughton, A. F. Howard, and H. A. Yeaton. 

The New Hampshire Gazette.— This is the old- 
est continuously published newspaper in the United 
States. The first number appeared Oct. 7, 1756, and 
tlie imprint reads, " Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 
Printed by Daniel Fowle, where this paper may be 
had at one dollar per annum, or an equivalent in 
Bills of Credit, computing a dollar this year at Four 
Pounds old Tenor." 

Daniel Fowle, who was the first printer in New 
Hampshire, was born at Charlestown, Mass., and began 
business near the head of King (now State) Street, in 
Bo.ston, in 1740. In 1754 he was arrested by order of 
the House of Representatives, on suspicion of having 
printed a pamphlet entitled "The Monster of Mon- 
sters ; by Tom Thumb, Esq.," which contained severe 
animadversions on some of the members. He was 
cast into jail, but subsequently suft'ered to depart with- 
out trial. Unable to obtain satisfaction for the illegal 
imprisonment, and disgusted with the provincial gov- 
ernment of Massachusetts, Fowle accepted an invita- 
tion from several prominent gentlemen of this State to 
remove to Portsmouth, and the result was the issue 
of his first number of the New Hampshire Gazette on 
the date above mentioned. 

This number, of which a. facsimile was produced at 
the centennial anniversary of the introduction of the 
art of printing into New Hampshire, celebrated in 
Portsmouth, Oct. 6, 1856, was seventeen by ten inches, 
and was published in this size until the beginning of 
the year 1757, when it was enlarged, and in July of 
that year, and occasionally after, was doubled in size 
in its issue. In 1797 it was permanently enlarged. 
But little is known of the location of the office. The 
paper did not give that information. The first issues 
were from an office in an old wooden building at the 
corner of Pleasant, Washington, and Howard Streets, 
removed a few years since, to be succeeded by the 
brick dwelling-house recently built on the site by Mr. 
John E. Colcord. In 1767 we find it published by 
Daniel and Robert Fowle, " near State House, in the 
Street leading to the Ferry," now Market Street, and 
perhaps this was the first removal from the Pleasant 
Street location, which was until then near the centre 



of business of tlie town. An ancient deed of land 
at corner of Pleasant and Eiclimond Streets would 
lead us to infer that Fowle had this .site as late as 
1772 for his office. In any event the office has been 
frequently removed, having been in Congress Street, 
on the site of the present Franklin building, on Daniel 
Street, and on Pleasant Street opposite to the locality 
where for the past twenty-one years it has been pub- 
lished. But the fact remains certain that if the office 
of publication changed, the weekly appearance of the 
paper has never ceased for more than a century and a 
quarter of its existence. 

Fowle published the Gazette, either alone or with 
his partner, until 1785, when he sold the paper to two 
of his apprentices, John Melcher and George Terry 
Osborne. Fowle died in 1787. The publication up 
to 1785 was as follows : By Daniel Fowle, from 1756 
to 1764, when Robert Fowle became interested in the 
paper, and continued until 1773. Benjamin Dear- 
born was publisher in 1770, but two years after, Mr. 
Fowle resumed the publication, and was succeeded 
by Melcher & Osborn, in 1785. Mr. Osborn shortly 
after retired, but Mr. Melcher continued until 1802, 
wheji he sold to Nathaniel S. and Washington Peirce, 
who changed the politics of the Gazette from Federal 
to Republican. Mr. Melcher was the first State 
printer, — an office continued to the publishers of the 
Gazette down to 1814. N. S. and W. Peirce, in con- 
nection with Benjamin Hill and Samuel Gardner, 
published the paper for little more than seven years, 
when it was sold to William Weets, who came to 
Portsmouth from Rutland, Me., dnd conducted the 
paper up to 1813. He was followed by Gideon Beck 
and David C. Foster, whose firm of Beck & Foster 
was dissolved by the death of Mr. Foster in 1823. 
From this time to 1834, Mr. Beck was the publisher. 
Then Albert Greenleaf was admitted as partner, and 
in 1838 Mr. Beck retired. After this Thomas B. 
Laighton, formerly a prominent politician of Ports- 
mouth, but who afterwards spent his declining years 
at Appledore, Isles of Shoals, was for a year or more 
interested with Abner Greenleaf, Jr., as the imprint 
informs us, and subsequently from late in 1839, and 
Jlr. Greenleaf alone conducted the paper down to 
1841. Tiien Samuel W. Mores, a practical printer, 
with Joel C. Virgin acting as editor, and George 
Greenleaf published the paper until 1844, when 
Abner Greenleaf (Sr.) is named as editor. Then ap- 
pears ■' A. Greenleaf & Son." For the succeeding two 
years the paper was owned and managed by certain 
prominent Democrats, who gave no sign of editorship 
or proprietorship. In 1847, William Pickering Hill, a 
son of ex-Governor Isaac Hill, came from Concord, 
where he had been interested in the Patriot, and pur- 
chased the Gazette, and also an ojiposition Democratic 
paper called the Repxblican Union, and the Gazette 
was then enlarged. He also started a daily Gazette, 
but his effi)rts were not successful, and he retired after 
a loss of no little amount of money during his man- 

agement. Mr. Hill was succeeded by Gideon H. 
Rundlett, who was an able and fearless writer, and as 
far as a political paper was desired he supplied the 
need. He was followed by Edward N. Fuller, for- 
merly of Manchester, who took the paper in 1852, 
and remained until 1868, when he removed to Newark, 
N. J. He attempted to publish a daily Gazette, which 
was a reputable paper, but the enterprise was not ap- 
preciated, and it was given up. In 1858, Mr. Fuller 
was succeeded by Amos S. Alexander, Esq., a lawyer 
from the interior of the State, who held an office 
under the administration, but was not always in the 
line of service acceptable to the party managers. He 
gave way to Samuel Gray, a native of Portsmouth, 
and a practical printer, in February, 1859. In Sep- 
tember, 1861, Mr. Gray sold out to Frank W. Miller, 
who had started with others the Daily Chronicle in 
1852, and the Gazette establishment became united 
with the Chronicle office. The New Hampshire Gazette 
was then removed from the office in Daniel Street 
opposite the old Custom-House to its present location 
in Exchange Building in Pleasant Street, and its 
time-honored name appeared at the head of the 
weekly paper published at the Chronicle office. Many 
of its former subscribers continued to take thp paper, 
which now became transformed from a political organ 
to a rifijospaper, and its circulation began to increase. 

In 1868, Mr. George W. Marston became a partner 
with Mr. Miller, and the paper was published by 
Frank W. Miller & Co. Mr. Miller sold his interest 
in October, 1870, fo Mr. Washington Freeman, who 
has ever since owned one-half of the papei-. Mr. 
Marston disposed of his interest in June, 1877, to 
William H. Hackett, who, with Mr. Freeman, pub- 
lished the paper under the name of the " Chronicle 
and Gazette Publishing Company." In June, 1882, 
Mr. Hackett disposed of his interest to Mr. Charles 
W. Gardner, a practical printer of Portsmouth. 
During the proprietorship of Mr. F. W. Miller and 
his successors there have been in the editorial chair 
Messrs. Tobias Ham Miller, Mr. Jacob H. Thomp- 
son (now connected with the editorial department of 
the Netv York Times), and the present editor, Mr. 
Israel P. Miller. After Mr. Marston purchased an 
interest in the paper it advocated the principles of 
the Republican party, but it has of late aimed to ex- 
cel in serving its readers with general and local news 
rather than with abstract dissertation upon political 
topics. During the lifetime of the Gazette about 
thirty uewsfjapers have come and gone in Ports- 
mouth, the last to cease publication being Miller's 
Weekly, a temperance journal, which stopped soon 
after the decease of its founder and owner, the late 
Frank W. Miller. 

The Daily Chronicle, which was started by Messrs. 
F. W. Miller, Thomas M. Miller, and Samuel Gray 
in 1852, under the firm of Miller & Gray, has been in 
turn owned by this firm, F. W. Miller & Co., Mars- 
ton & Freeman, and by the "Chronicle and Gazette 



Publishing Company." Since its establisliraent the 
local news of Portsmouth has been carefully pro- 
duced by the papers, perhaps in better shape than in 
any place of its size in the country, a feature which 
is appreciated by tlie many natives of the " City by the 
Sea," who go to live beyond its borders, and yet cher- 
ish a desire for news from home. The next oldest 
paper in Portsmouth is the Portsmoiith Journal, which 
succeeded the Oracle, established in 1793. It has borne 
its present name for over sixty years. 

The Portsmouth Journal.— The original title 
of the Jounidl was The Onirle of the Day. It was 
established by Charles Pierce June 3, 1793, and pub- 
lished semi-weekly until January, 1798, when it was 
enlarged and became a weekly, the editor giving as a 
reason for the change that the public demand was for 
" one very large paper per week in the room of two." 
The "very large" paper measured twelve by nineteen 
inches. The Oracle started and was conducted in the 
interest of the Federal Republican party. Jan. 4,1800, 
on the week that the paper was in deep mourning for 
the death of AVashington, its name was changed to The 
United States Oracle of the Day. Mr. Peirce sold out 
July 4, 1801, to William Treadwell & Co., on account of 
"the impaired state of his health" and " the excessive 
fatigue attendant in the publication of a newspaper." 
In October of that year the name of the paper became 
United States Oracle and Portsiimtith Advertiser, 'i'he 
publishing firm became William & Daniel Treadwell 
Dec. 11, 1802. The name Portsmouth Oracle was 
adopted Oct. 22, 1803, and Daniel. Treadwell left the 
firm just two years afterwards. Charles Turell be- 
came the publisher Sept. 25, 1813. 

In January, 1821, the paper was purchased by Na- 
thaniel A. Haven, Jr., who changed its name to The 
Portsmouth Journal of Literature and Politics. The 
name and the plain style of the heading have never 
since been changed. Charles Turell published it 
until Feb. 7, 1824, when the publication was assumed 
by Harrison Gray & Co., Mr. Turell continuing to 
print it. It was made a six-column paper in January, 
1823. Nov. 20, 1724, the publishers were H. Gray and 
E. L. Childs, the latter of whom died at Washington, 
D. C, about two years ago. 

Mr. Haven conducted the Journal four years. He 
was a gentleman of the best literary ability and at- 
tainments, and gave to the paper a high standing in 
the community. 

Miller & Brewster purchased the Journal July 2, 
1825, and thereafter edited and published it at No. 3 
Ladd Street, where it continued to be published until 
January, 1870, when the olfice was removed to its 
present location. 

Oct. 20, 1827, the Journal absorbed the Rocki)ujham 
Gazette, published at Exeter by Francis Grant ; and 
June 1, 1833, it also included the State Herald, a 
Portsmouth paper, these names appearing at the head 
of the paper until Aug. 13, 1836. T. H. Miller re- 
tired from the firm April 26, 1834. The paper was 

enlarged in June, 1838, again in January, 1853, and 
again to its present size Feb. 29, 1868. 

The present proprietor, Lewis W. Brewster, became 
connected with the publication of the paper in Jan- 
uary, 1856, in the firm of Charles W. Brewster & Son. 
The senior partner died Aug. 4, 1868, and in January, 
1869, the publication began and has continued as at 

The Daily Portsmouth Jaurnal, which we have men- 
tioned above, was started for a week's trial June 4, 
1834, but was not a success apparently. It was a 
little sheet of four pages, the page measuring eight 
by ten and a half inches. 

"The States andlJnion." — The first number of the 
States and Union newspaper was issued on Jan. 2, 
1863, by Mr. Joshua L. Foster, because (as he an- 
nounced in his salutatory) of "the indispensable 
necessity of a sound and thoroughly Democratic jour- 
nal in this section of the State," the Democracy of 
Rockingham County having been deprived of an 
organ by the death of the New Hampshire Gazette, 
which took place in 1862, having been printed for 
over one hundred years. The old Gazette presses and 
material were purchased for the new enterprise, and 
the paper was issued from the oflice which had for 
many years been occupied by the Gazette, No. 31 
Daniel Street. At the commencement of the second 
volume Mr. George W. Guppy's name appeared as 
publisher in connection with Mr. Foster. The paper 
was decidedly outspoken and fearless, and because of 
its views upon the conduct of the war it was mobbed 
on April 10, 1865,* everything contained within the 
oflice — type, presses, material, and machinery of every 
description— being destroyed and thrown into the 
street. After this the type was set and press- work 
for the paper done for a few weeks in Manchester, 
until new material and presses could be procured and 
brought to Portsmouth, when work was resumed in , 
the oflice, and the paper has been issued regularly 
ever since. 

The Daily Evening Times.— On March 16, 1868, 
the Daily Krenimj Times began to be issued from the 
same establishment, with Joshua L. Foster as editor 
and proprietor, George W. Guppy as publisher, and 
William M. Thayer as local editor, and the paper has 
been regularly issued ever since. In May, 1870, Mr. 
Foster sold the establishment to Messrs. Thayer & 
Guppy, and their connection continued till November, 
1873, when Mr. Guppy bought his partner's interest, 
and was sole editor and proprietor until Dec. 15, 1879, 
when he sold out to Mr. Alpheus A. Hanscom, who 
was formerly publisher of the Maine Democrat, at 
Saco, Me., and for the fifteen years immediately pre- 
vious to his purchase of Mr. Guppy was one of the 
proprietors and editors of the Union Dmiocrat and 
Manchester Daily Union, at Manchester, N. H. 

The Navy-Yard. — The following is a list of the 
commandants of the navy-yard at this place from 
1812 to 1883: 


Isaac Hull, 1812. 

Thos. Macdouough, 1815. 
Charles Morris, 1818. 
W. M. Crane, 1823. 
C. G. Ridgeley, 1826. 
J. O. Creightoii, 1826. 
J. D. Henle.v, 1828. 
W. M. Crane, 1832. 
John D. Slnat, 1840. 
George W. Storer, 1843. 
Daniel Turner, 1846. 
Tlionias W. Wyman, 1849. 
Jcseph Smoot, lSo2. 
JoliM T. Nuwtou, 18.55. 

Captain John Pope, 1857. 
Commodore G. F. Pearson, 1860. 
" T. Bailey, 1864. 

" Joseph Lanman,1867, 

" Jno. A. Winslow, 186E 

" A. M. Pennock, 1870. 

" J. C. Howell, 1872. 

" A. Brysou, 1874. 

Earl English, 1876. 
" John Guest, 1877. 

•' J. C. Beaumont, 1879. 

C. H. Wells, 1881, wh 
is now the present 

. List of Vessels of War built at this Station. 

BniUfor Ihe Boijal Navij.—Wd, frigate Falkland, 64 guns ; 1696, frigate 
Bedford, 33 guns; 1749, frigate America, 60 guns. 

Bmll/or the Colonial Navijjrom 1775 to 1800.— 1775, fiigate Raleigh, 22 
guns; 1776, sloop Hanger, 18 gnus; 1778, frigate Crescent,' 32 guns; 
1799, frigate Congress, 38 guns; 1776, ship of line America, 74 guns; 
1797, sloop Portsmouth, 24 guns; 1798, scliooner Scammel. 14 guns. 

Built for the Nuvy of the United States.— liU, ship Washington, 74 guns ; 
1817, ship Alabama (changed to Now Hampshire, launched 1864), 74 
guns; 1820, schooner Porjioise, 11 guns; 1820, frigate Santee (launched 
1855), 44 guns; 1827, sloop Concord, 24 guns; 1839, sloop Preble, 20 guns; 
1841, fiigate Congress, 50 guns; 1842, sloop Saratoga, 24 guns; 1843, 
sloop Portsmouth, 24 guns; 1848, steam frigate Saranac, 11 guns; 1855, 
light-ship for Nantucket; 1857, sloop Jamestown,2 24 guns; 1857, steam 
sloop ftloliican, 9 guns; 1864, ironclad Passaeonaway, 4 guns; 1864, tug 
Port Fire; 1864, Blue Light; 1864, ironclad Agamenticus, 4 guns; 1864, 
sloop of war Piscataqua, 15 guns; 1864, sloop of war Minnetonka, 15 
guns; 1864, sloop of war Illinois, 15 guns; 1861, steam sloop Ussipee, 9 
guns ; 1861, steam sloop Kearsarge, 9 guns ; 1861, steam sloop Sebago, 9 
guns; 1861, steam sloop Mahaska, 9 gnus; 1862, steam sloop Sacramento, 
10 guns; 1862, steam sloop Sonoma, 10 guns; 1862, steam sloop Conne- 
maugh, 10 guns ; 1863, steam sloop Sassacus, 10 guns ; 1863, steam frigate 
Franklin, 60 guns ; 1863, steam sloop Patuxent, 9 guns ; 1863, steam sloop 
Nipsic, 9 guns; 1863, steam sloop Shawmut, 10 guns; 1863, steam sloop 
Dacota," 10 guns ; 1864, steam sloop Contoocook, 15 guns; 1865, steam 
sloop Beuecia, 11 guns; 1869, steam sloop Monongahela,2 10 guns; 1873, 
steam sloop Marion, 10 guns; 1873, steam sloop Enterprise, 7 guns; 1874, 
steam sloop Essex, 7 guns. 

List of officers now on duty at the navy-yard : Com- 
modore C. H. Wells, U.S.N. ; Captain E. A. K. Ben- 
bam; Commandants T. H. Eastman, A. E. Yates, B. 
J. Cromwell, M. S. Johnson, C. G. Barclay ; Lieuten- 
ants William H. Reeder, Herbert Winslow ; Medical 
Inspector C. J. Cleborne; Chief Engineers B. F. 
Garvin, D. B. Macomb, Essa J. Whitaker; Past As- 
sistant Engineer William H. Naunian; Chaplain 
William H. Stewart; Naval Constructor R. W. Steels 
Commander's Secretary William F. Lawyer; Boat- 
swains Isaac T. Choat, John I. Killin ; Gunner 
Eugene Mack; Carpenter Leonard Hanscom ; Sail- 
makers John H. Birdsall, James W. Wingate. Marine 
Barracks : Major George Buttler, U.S.M.C., com- 
manding marines ; Captains P. C. Pope, Israel H. 
Washliurn ; First Lieutenant Samuel H. Gibson. 

Societies, etc. — Ma.sonic. The Masonic bodies 
are De Witt Clinton Cominandery of Knights Temp- 
lar, instituted 1826 ; New Hampshire Chapter of Rose 
Croix ; Grand Council of P. of J. ; Ineffable Grand 
Lodge of Perfection, No. 1; Davenport Council, No. 
5, Royal and Select Masters ; Washington Chapter, 
No. 3 ; St. John's Lodge, No. 1, instituted 1736 ; St. 

• Presented to Algiers. 2 Rebuilt. 

Andrew's Lodge, No. 56; Portsmouth Rose Croix 
Chapter, No. 1, E. M. R. M., organized 1881 ; and 
Rockingham Masonic Relief Association. 

Odd-Fellows.— Strawberry Bank Encampment, 
No. 5, instituted Feb. 28, 184.5 ; Mount Sinai En- 
campment, No. 19, instituted March 17, 1871 ; Piscat- 
aqua Lodge, No. 6, instituted May 24, 1844; New 
Hampshire Lodge, No. 17, instituted Feb. 11, 1846 ; 
Osgood Lodge, No. 48, instituted Aug. 27, 1868; 
Union Rebekah Degree Lodge, No. 3; and Odd- 
Fellows' Mutual Relief As.sociation of Rockingham 
County, organized April 6, 1872. 

American Legion of Honor. — St. George's 
Council, No. 21, instituted May 23, 1879; and River- 
side Council, No. 441. 

Knights of Honor.— Sagamore Lodge, No. 258, 
organized March 27, 1876; and Governor Goodwin 
Lodge, No. 1661, organized June 27, 1879. 

Knights of Pythias.— Damon Lodge. No. 9, in- 
stituted Jan. 31, 1871. 

United Order Pilgrim Fathers, No. 15, or- 
ganized April 27, 1880. 

Patrons of Husbandry. — Portsmouth Qrange, 
No. 22, organized March 2, 1874. 

Red Men. — Newichewannick Tribe, No. 4. 
Royal Arcanum.— Alpha Council, No. 83, insti- 
tuted May 1, 1878. 

Sovereigns of Industry.— Rockingham Coun- 
cil, No. 7, established 1874. 

Temperance. — Women's Temperance League ; 
Old Oaken Bucket Division, No. 2, S. of T. ; Pepper- 
ell Lodge, No. 35, 1. O. of G. T. ; Rockingham Lodge, 
No. 37, I. O. of G. T. ; Strawberry Bank Lodge, Nd. 
54, I. O. of G. T. ; Portsmouth Temperance Reform 
Club ; Portsmouth Washington Total Abstinence So- 
ciety, organized June 14, 1841 ; and Portsmouth 
Temperance Mutual Relief Association, organized 
March, 1877. 

United Order of the Golden Cross. — Ports- 
mouth Commandery, No. 47, organized April 5,1879. 
Grand Army of the Republic— Storer Post, 
No. 1, reorganized August, 1878. 

Military.— Portsmouth Veteran Artillery Asso- 
ciation, organized 1775; Portsmouth Cavalry; and 
Portsmouth Guards, N. H. V. M. 

Manufacturing: Companies, Etc.— Eldredge 
Brewing Company. M. Eldredge, president; H. 
F. Eldredge, vice-president ; M. Eldredge, treasurer ; 
Portsmouth Aqueduct Company, incorporated 
1797 ; Portsmouth Brewing Company, Arthur 
Harris, president; John Conlon, treasurer; D. M. 
Lenigan, brewer ; W. H. Palmer, selling agent; W. 
C. Robinson, clerk ; Portsmouth Bridge Company, 
incorporated 1819; capital, $64,000; Portsmouth 
Gas-light Company, incorporated June, 1850; 
capital stock, $77,000. 

Bow Mission, established August, 1875; City 
Missionary Society, Rev. James De Normandie, 
president; John S. Rand, treasurer; Joseph H. Eos- 



ter, secretary; Federal Fire Society, organized 
1789; High School Association; Langdon Park 
Association ; New Hampshire Mechanic Asso- 
ciation, organized Oct. 2, 1802 ; Portsmouth Athe- 
N^UM, incorporated June, 1817. This institution is 
owned in a hundred shares of $100 each, the institu- 
tion having the right of pre-emption at half the value 
of the shares. Thus by the sale of shares it has a 
regular income. It has a valuable library of 14,000 
volumes, and a large number of newspapers and peri- 
odicals are also taken. 

Portsmouth Board of Trade ; Portsmouth 
Female Asylum. This institution was founded in 
1804 by a few ladies, and incorporated in 1808. For 
several years it was well sustained, and many orphans 
found a comfortable home, in which was laid the 
foundation of their after usefulness; but as new ob- 
jects presented the interest in this association declined, 
and the asylum was discontinued. A small perma- 
nent fund remained and accumulated, the income of 
which, together with the annual subscription, has 
been devoted for the last ten or twelve years to the 
payment of teachers of sewing, at first in separate 
schools on Wednesday and Saturday afternoons, and 
since in connection with one of the public schools in 
each district. Portsmouth Home for Indigent 
Women was established June, 1876, and chartered 
June, 1877 ; Portsmouth Howard Benevolent 
Society was instituted in 1829, and incorporated in 
1854., The funds of the society are derived from the 
annual contributions of $1.00 from each member, and 
by private donations. Its object is to assist the un- 
fortunate poor, chiefly in the winter. Portsmouth 
Marine Society, incorporated a.d. 1808; Ports- 
mouth Mercantile Library Association; 
Portsmouth Musical Association ; Portsmouth 
Society for the P. O: C. T. Children; Ports- 
mouth Young Men's Christian Association; 
Riterside Band, poor children's sewing mission, 
established January, 1878; St. Mary's Catholic 
Benevolent Society, founded January, 1875, by 
the pastor, Very Rev. Canon Walsh ; The Chase 
Home for Children, formerly the Children's 
Home ; Public Library. 

The Portsmouth Medical Association. — The 
Portsmouth Medical Association was organized April 
28, 1874, with the following members : Jeremiah F. 
Hall, Nicholas Leavitt Folsom, Benjamin W. Curtis, 
Samuel C. Whittier, Daniel W. Jones, John W. Par- 
sons. The first officers were as follows : President, J. 
F. Hall ; Secretary, D. W. Jones ; Treasurer, N. L. 
Folsom; Business Committee, S. C. Whittier, B. F. 
Curtis, and J. W. Parsons. 

The following is a list of officers from its organiza- 
tion to the present time : Presidents, J. F. Hall, Ben- 
jamin W. Curtis, N. L. Folsom, and S. C. Whittier; 
Secretaries, D. W. Jones, and A. B. Sherburne; 
Treasurers, N. L. Folsom, A. B. Sherburne, and N. 
L. Folsom. 

The following is a list of members who have united 
with the association since its organization : Brainerd 
Dearborn, Andrew B. Sherburne, Eli Q. Adams, John 
C. Stewart, Thomas A. Rogers, John W. Stimson, and 
John L. M. Willis. 

Homoeopathy. — The present homreopathic physi- 
cians are Drs. F. L. Benedict, H. F. Clark, and R. C. 



Tobias Langdon, of Keverel, in Cornwall, was com- 
missioned as ensign by King James II. and sent to 
New York. When he came to Piscataqua we do not 
know precisely, but he was living very early where 
his son was born. Tradition has it that his remains 
repose in the sequestered district, a few hundred acres 
of which, on the southern side of the creek Sagamore, 
are still in the hands of his descendants. He married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Sherburne, who came 
over with Capt. John Mason in 1632. Capt. Tobias 
Langdon, their son, owned the garrison-house at the 
head of the creek, and is buried hard by. He married 
Mary Hubbard, of Salisbury, in Massachusetts. John, 
the youngest of their seven sons, married Mary, daugh- 
ter of Kinsley Hall, of the Exeter combination. He 
has left the name of an honest yeoman ; the bringing 
up of his two sons, Woodbury and John, was, how- 
ever, taken from his hands by their ambitious mother. 

John Langdon, the subject of this sketch, was born 
in December, 1739, and was in due time sent to the 
school of the celebrated Maj. Samuel Hale. His 
memory was truly uncommon, for we have heard him 
spout Pope's Homer to children with great spirit 
when past seventy. Turning from his paternal acres 
to the counting-house of John Moffat, Esq., a mer- 
chant in Portsmouth, he so won his confidence that 
Mr. Motfatt in his later years intrusted to him the 
conduct of his affairs. He then went to sea in ves- 
sels of his own building. Having joined the popular 
party, he heli)ed to seize, in December, 1774, the 
English military stores in a fort of the Piscataqua, 
of which the powder was used at the battle of Bunker 
Hill. In 1775 he was sent delegate to the Continental 
Congress, and again in 1776. But his name was not 
affi.xed to the Declaration of Independence, owing 
partly to his being sent home again to act as agent 
of the secret committee for building vessels of war. 
The " Ranger," in which John Paul Jones started on 
his dashing career, was built and fitted out by bim. 
As an officer of volunteers he found time to go to the 
campaign of Saratoga ; and after offering his whole 
fortune to promote the cause, he .personally aided 
Gen. Stark to gain the victory at Bennington. 

In the dark days that succeeded the Revolution 
Mr. Langdon was always in some office. He was 

Q ® M i£^ [B ® [© ffi®®[E)WDRl, 



twice chosen president of his native State, and dele- 
gate to the convention which framed the Constitution 
of tlie United States, and to the State Convention 
which accepted it. He was then chosen senator of 
the United States. The first Congress met in New 
Yorlv in 1789. Senator Langdon was chosen presi- 
dent of the Senate for the occasion, and there being 
neither President nor Vice-President installed, he 
thus became the first acting President of the United 
States, and as such informed Gen. Washington of his 
election. Mr. Langdon married Miss Elizabeth Sher- 
burne. They had an only daughter, w!io became the 
wife of Thomas Elvvyn, Esq., of Canterbury, England. 
After leaving Congress he was chosen Governor of 
the State five times. Late in life he became a member 
of the old North Church. He lived for many years 
in the house built by himself and still standing on 
Pleasant Street, and died there September the 20th, 

Tchabod Goodwin, eldest son of Samuel Goodwin 
and Nancy Thompson Gerrish. was born in that part 
of Berwick which is now North Berwick, in the State 
of Maine. He is descended on both father's and 
mother's sides from families of very great colonial 
importance. The great-grandfather of Mr. Goodwin, 
Capt. Ichabod Goodwin, is said by the writer of the 
genealogy of the Berwick Goodwins, in the Historical 
Magazine, to have been the most remarkable man 
who ever lived in that town. He distinguished him- 
self at the battle of Ticonderoga, and we learn from 
the London Magazine that he was especially men- 
tioned in Maj.-Gen. Abercrombie's report to Mr. Sec- 
retary Pitt. 

On his father's side his ancestors figured conspicu- 
ously in the wars before the Revolution, and up to the 
period of the Revolution were of the families upon 
whom devolved the magisterial work and honor of 
the times. On his mother's side he is likewise de- 
scended from families which for a century, and up to 
the time of the Revolution, performed a large share 
of the duties of public office, and some of the most 
con.spicuous names in the colonial history of Maine 
and New Hampshire are to be counted among his 
maternal ancestors. 

To mention the names of Champernoun, Waldron, 
and Elliot, none more familiar to those informed upon 
colonial history, is but to recall the persons from 
whom, on the maternal side, he is lineally descended, 
or with whom his maternal ancestors were closely 
allied by ties of family connection. The ante-Revo- 
hitionary importance of the people from whom he 
comes is well illustrated by the fact that the name of 
his maternal grandfather, Joseph Gerrish, stands first 

1 This account is wholly taken from a pamphlet written by the late 
John Elwyn, Esq., of Poi-tsmouth. 

2 By Frank Goodwin, in the Gnmile Monthly. 

on the triennial catalogue of Harvard College in the 
list of graduates of the year 1752, a class which num- 
bered a Quincy among its graduating members. The 
significance of this fact, as bearing upon the status of 
his mother's family at that time, is that the names of 
the members of the classes of that day are published 
in the triennial catalogue of Harvard in the order of 
the social importance of the families to which the 
members respectively belonged. 

At the time of Mr. Goodwin's birth, which was just 
before the beginning of the present century, the state 
of things which the Revolution had brought about 
had had ample time to crystallize. Whether it was 
through the great changes that under the new order 
of things had taken place in the political, social, 
and commercial affairs of the country, or whether 
from those inherent causes under the operation of 
which families conspicuous and influential in one 
period drop out of notice and are lost to the eye of 
the historian, the annalist, and perhaps even of the 
town chronicler, Mr. Goodwin's family, at the time of 
his birth, were simply jilain farming people, highly 
respected within the limits of the little country town 
in which they lived, but no longer among the noted 
or influential or wealthy people of Maine. The coun- 
try had by the close of the last century taken a con- 
siderable stride onward in prosperity as well as in 
numerical growth, and the bustle and hum of indus- 
try pouring itself into new channels of prosperity had 
passed by many of the families which in the earlier 
era had been the foremost in developing the resources 
of the country, in leading the yeomanry in war, in pre- 
siding over the tribunals, and sitting in council as 
civil magistrates. 

Mr. Goodwin's academic education consisted of 
several years of study at the academy at South Ber- 
wick, an institution having at that time a good deal 
of local importance, and then as now the only school 
in the vicinity of his birthplace where a fitting for 
college can be obtained. Shortly after leaving that 
academy he entered the counting-house of Samuel 
Lord, Esq., then a very prominent merchant and 
ship-owner of Portsmouth, N. H., and he becaine a 
member of Mr. Lord's family. He here displayed 
qualities which had been quite conspicuous in his 
earlier boyhood, — those of energy and assiduity and 
a very marked capacity for affairs. These qualities, 
which at the early age of twelve had made him quite 
a competent and satisfactory manager of the farm of 
his widowed step-grandmother, who was the grand- 
mother of Mr. Lord, .showed later in his conduct as a 
clerk in the commercial business of the then very 
thriving shipping port of Portsmouth. Mr. Lord, 
finding that Mr. Goodwin's business abilities were 
more comprehensive than the mere duties of a clerk 
required, placed him as a supercargo in charge of the 
business of what was then the largest ship owned in 
the port, the " Elizabeth Wilson." In the present 
days of railroads, sea-going steamers, oceanic cables, 



and the commercial complement of these foreign cor- 
respondents or agents, it may seem a trivial sign of a 
young man's capacities to name the fact of his being 
made the business manager of a ship, especially as 
ships then went in regard to size ; but it is the intro- 
duction of these very modern appliances for conduct- I 
ing busiuess which has rendered the responsibility of , 
the delegated management of this species of prop- 
erty comparatively easy. In the days of Mr. Good- 
win's early voyaging the whole discretion as to the 
conduct of the ship's affairs was vested in the super- 
cargo, except in the brief period of her being in the 
home port, when the owner resumed his authority 
and control. In foreign places, among strangers, be- 
yond the reach of opportunity for consultation with 
his owner, the young man must rely upon himself, 
must decide upon what voyage his ship shall go, and 
must be ready to account to his principal upon his 
return for the results of a prosperous enterprise or a 
disastrous adventure. It was not long before Mr. 
Goodwin had learned enough of seamanship to enable 
him to add to the duties of the supercargo the further 
business of navigating his ship, so that for several 
• years he was both shipmaster and business manager, 
offices, then as now, rarely combined in one person ; 
for the shipmaster is to-day chiefly the navigator and 
head seaman of his ship, while the business, in- 
volving the cJiartering and the rest, is attended to by 
a merchant in the port of destination, who is in ready 
communication with the owner, both by the fast-going 
mail of the steamship and the quicker method of the 
ocean cable. Mr. Goodwin's sea life lasted for about 
twelve years. During that time he had been so far 
successful as to become a part owner, and to be ena- 
bled to begin business at home. In the year 1832 he 
established himself as a merchant at Portsmouth. 
Portsmouth has been his home ever since that time, 
and there he for many years conducted an extensive 
mercantile business, his chief business interests lying 
in the direction of the foreign carrying trade. 

Upon retiring from the sea he soon manifested a 
large public spirit and interest, and became in a short 
time foremost in the affairs of the day which were of 
public concern. He was one of the early projectors 
of the railroad interests of New England, and until 
within a few years he has taken a large part in all the 
enterprises of public import in the vicinity of his 
home, including, besides railroads, the enterprises of 
manufacturing and banking, and he has been vested 
always with a large share of the local trusts, both 
public and private, which devolve upon the public- 
spirited and trusted citizen. He has of late years 
been iuclined'to withdraw from these responsibilities, 
but of those which he still retains, the pre=iideney of 
the " Howard Benevolent Society," a position he has 
held for over thirty years, and the presidency of the 
" Portsmouth Bridge Company" may be mentioned. 
He has, however, within the last two years assumed 
the presidency of the " First National Bank" of 

Portsmouth, in which he is largely interested as a 
stockholder, and in which institution he has been a 
director from its incorporation as a State bank. He 
was for many years, and at different periods, a director 
in the " Eastern Railroad Company," and was the first 
president of the " Eastern Railroad in New Hamp- 
shire," which position he held for twenty-five years. 
He was also of the first board of direction of the 
"Portland, Saco and Portsmouth Railroad Com- 
pany," and was the president of that corporation 
from the year 1847 to the year 1871. But it is un- 
necessary to mention all the public trusts of a corpor- 
ate nature which have been confided to his care. His 
chief claim to public esteem, and that which will se- 
cure to him its most enduring recognition, is derived 
from his services as the first " war Governor" of New 

Upon Mr. Goodwin's settling as a business man in 
Portsmouth, he did not confine his energies to his pri- 
vate business and to corporate enterprises, but soon 
acquired a large interest and influence as a member 
of the Whig party. He served in the Legislatures of 
New Hampshire, as a member of that party, in the 
years 1838, 1843, 1844, 1850, 1854, and 1856. He was 
also a delegate at large from that State to the conven- 
tions at which Clay, Taylor, and Scott were nominated 
by the Whigs for the Presidency, and was a vice-pres- 
ident at the two first-named conventions, and he has 
twice served in the Constitutional Conventions of New 
Hampshire. He was the candidate of the Whigs for 
Congress at several elections before the State was di- 
vided into Congressional districts. New Hampshire 
was in those days one of the most powerful strong- 
holds of the Democratic party in the country, and a 
Whig nomination for any office determined by the suf- 
frages of the whole State was merely a tribute of 
esteem by that party to one of its most honored mem- 
bers. Upon the establishment of Congressional dis- 
tricts, Mr. Goodwin received a unanimous nomination 
of the Whig party for Congress at the first convention 
held in his district. This nomination bid fair to be 
followed by an election, but the circumstances of his 
private business prevented his acceptance of the can- 
didateship. In the great political convulsions which 
preceded the war of the Rebellion the power of the 
Democratic party in New Hampshire began to decline, 
while the ties which through years of almost steady 
defeat in the State at large had been sufficient to hold 
together the Whig pilrty now came to be loosened, 
and out of the decadence of the former and the ex- 
tinction of the latter party there was built up the Re- 
publican party, which gained the supremacy in that 
'State, and which has ever since, with a brief excep- 
tion, maintained that supremacy. Mr. Goodwin, 
while in full sympathy \yith the cause of the Union, 
which he believed the politicians of the South were 
striving to dismember, yet felt that perhaps the im- 
pending crisis could be arrested through the means of 
the old political organizations, and he remained stead- 



fast to the organization of the Whig party until he 
saw that its usefulness, both as a State and as a national 
party, was gone. He was the last candidate of the 
Whigs for the office of Governor of New Hampshire, 
and received in the whole State the meagre amount 
of about two thousand votes. This lesson did not re- 
quire to be repeated. He immediately did all in his 
power to aid in the establishment of the Republican 
party in that State, for although the old-time issues be- 
tween the Democrats and the Whigs had gone by and 
new questions had arisen, involving the very integrity 
of the nation, he did not regard the Democratic party 
as one capable of solving or disposed to solve those 
questions in a patriotic and statesmanlike way. He 
was chosen the Governor of New Hampshire, as the 
Republican candidate, in the year 1859, and was re- 
elected by the same party in the following year, his 
second term of office having expired June 5, 1861. 

The military spirit of the people of New Hamp- 
shire had become dormant and the militia system of 
the State had fallen pretty much to decay long before 
the first election of Mr. Goodwin to the office of Gov- 
ernor. A slight revival of that spirit, perha])S, is 
marked by the organization in his honor, in January, 
1860, of "The Governor's Horse-Guards," a regiment 
of cavalry in brilliant uniform, designed to do escort 
duty to the Governor, as well as by a field-muster of 
several voluntary organizations of troops, which went 
into camp at Nashua in the same year. But when the 
call of President Lincoln for troops was made, in the 
spring of 1861, the very foundation of a military sys- 
tem required to be established. The nucleus itself re- 
quired to be formed. The Legislature was not in ses- 
sion, and would not convene, except under a special 
call, until the following June. There were no funds 
in the treasury which could be devoted to the expense 
of the organization and equipment of troops, as all the 
available funds were needed to meet the ordinary State 
expenditures. The great confidence of the people of 
New Hampshire in the wisdom and integrity of Mr. 
Goodwin found in this emergency full expression. 
Without requiring time to convene the Legislature, so 
as to obtain the security of the State for the loan, the 
banking institutions and the citizens of the State ten- 
dered him the sum of §680,000 for the purpose of en- 
abling him to raise and equip for the field New Hamp- 
shire's quota of troops. This offer he gladly accepted, 
and averting delay in the proceedings by refraining 
from convening the Legislature, he, upon his own re- 
sponsibility, proceeded to organize and equip troops 
for the field, and in less than two months he had 
dispatched to the army, near Washington, two well- 
equipped and well-officered regiments. Of this sum 
of 8680,000 only about $100,000 was expended. On the 
assembling of the Legislature that body unanimously 
passed the "Enabling Act," under which all his pro- 
ceedings as Governor were ratified, and the State made 
to assume the responsibility. 

During the period of this gubernatorial service there 

was a reconstruction of the bench of the highest ju- 
dicial tribunal of the State, and during that time 
nearly every position upon that court was filled by 
his appointment. It is sufficient to say that the ex- 
alted rank which that tribunal has ever held among 
the courts of last resort of the States of the nation 
suffered no diminution from his appointments to its 
bench, such was the good sense and discernment of 
Mr. Goodwin in making the different selections, 
although himself not versed in the law. 

In Waite's " History of New Hampshire in the 
Rebellion" we find the following estimate of Mr. 
Goodwin as a public man and as a citizen and busi- 
ness man : " His administration of State affairs met 
with universal approval, and he left the office (that of 
Governor) with the respect of all parties. As a mem- 
ber of the Legislature and of the Constitutional Con- 
vention, he took a leading part on committees and in 
debate. His speeches were never made for show. 
He spoke only when there seemed to be occasion for 
it, and then always to the point, and was listened to 
with great respect and attention, for his conservatism 
and practical wisdom in all matters of public policy 
were well known. In all public positions he has dis- 
charged his duties with fidelity, industry, and marked 
ability. As a citizen and business man he is public- 
spirited, liberal, high-minded, and enjoys the un- 
bounded confidence and respect of all." 

Mr. Goodwin has always been noted for his kind- 
ness to young men, aiding them without stint, both 
with his purse and his advice, in their business diffi- 
culties, and he has ever been ready to extend to all 
his townsmen who needed aid the assistance of his 
influence, his counsel, and his pecuniary means. 

In 1827, Mr. Goodwin ^ married Miss Sarah Parker 
Rice, a daughter of Mr. William Rice, a wealthy and 
prosperous merchant of Portsmouth. Of seven chil- 
dren, one son and two daughters survive. 

John Langdon Elwyn, eldest son of Thomas and 
Eliza Langdon Elwyn, was born at Clifton, near 
Bristol, England, Feb. 1, 1801. He was graduated 
at Harvard College in 1819, and was admitted to the 
bar after having studied law under the Hon. Jeremiah 
Mason. He began tlie practice of his profession in 
Boston, but soon renounced it and returned to his an- 
cestral acres to devote himself to farming pursuits and 
the study of the languages and literature of many na- 
tions. " No one could converse with him a few min- 
utes without being satisfied that ' he was a scholar, 
and a ripe and good one.' He was a true lover of 
' reverend antiquity,' and he knew better than any 
one else the history of the Piscataqua and its fam- 
ilies. It was amazing to hear him talk of persons 

1 Since the above v 
He (lied July 4, 1882. 

written Governor Goodwin has passed away. 



six aud seven generations distant. He seemed to 
have had actual personal acquaintance with them, so 
tlioroughly was he informed of their actions and mo- 
tives, owing to long familiarity with the identical 
scenes through which they passed two hundred years 
before. As he himself says of his grandfather's mem- 
ory, so his own 'was truly uncommon.' His attach- 
ment to the home of his maternal ancestors and his 
fondness for its local history did not prevent his hav- 
ing large acquaintance with that of the discovery and 
colonization of America. Of the history of England 
and of the genealogies of its noble families his knowl- 
edge was extensive and accurate. It was impossible 
to hear him discourse on any subject without receiv- 
ing some information or some hint that was new and 
useful. He knew something of everything and every- 
thing of something. His noble gravity, his dignity, 
and his venerable appearance will not soon be for- 

Mr. Elwyn died in the house built by his great- 
uncle, and now forming a part of the Rockingham 
House, in Portsmouth, on Jan. 30, 1876. 


William Simes, the honored subject of this sketch, 
dates his ancestry in this country to John Simes, 
who came to Portsmouth from England in about the 
year 1736. He died, leaving six children, one son 
and five daughters. The son, Joseph, was a promi- 
nent citizen, and was chairman of the Board of Select- 
men in 1776. He had ten children, six sons and four 
daughters. The sons were as follows: John, Thomas, 
Mark, William, George, and Joseph. 

William Simes, the subject of this sketch, was the 
eighth child of George Simes and Nancy Hardy, and 
was born in Portsmouth, N. H., April 9, 1806. Early 
in life he manifested an unusual degree of business 
activity, and after serving an apprenticeship in 
Portsmouth and Boston, in 1827 he went to Pernam- 
buco, South America, where he was in business about 
one year. On his return to America, in October, 
1828, he commenced the grocery business in his 
native town at No. 1 Market Square. His enterprise 
and straightforward dealing soon placed him in the 
front rank of the leading business men of Portsmouth, 
an honor justly deserved. This was in a day when a 
very large country trade came to the city, and the 
wholesale department of his business was a leading 
feature. As an illustration of his activity and alert- 
ness, it is related of him that when in business on 
Market Square, the farmers from the neighboring 
towns, however early in their arrival on summer 
mornings, would find Mr. Simes ready to take their 
produce in exchange for his goods, and before the 
majority of his townsmen had breakfasted he had 
often done a no small amount of business. 

He continued this business, occupying the same 
store, until 1860, over thirty years, when he disposed 

of his interest to Messrs. Moulton & Blaisdell, and 
purchased a farm in the neighboring town of Green- 
laud, where for a short time he turned his attention 
to agricultural pursuits. He returned to Portsmouth 
in 1867. 

He was elected mayor in 1861, aud again in 1862, 
declining positively a nomination for a third term. 
He presided over the affairs of the city during that 
trying period, the breaking out of the Rebellion, and 
assisted with the same energy that had marked his 
business career in raising the quota of troops to send 
to the defense of his imperiled country. Never was 
a man more conscientious and faithful in the dis- 
charge of a public trust. He attended all appointed 
meetings of the Board of Mayor and Aldermen when 
in town, frequently sending to remote parts of the 
city to secure a quorum for the transaction of import- 
ant business. 

Politically he was originally a Whig, and later a 
Republican. He was not, however, a partisan, and 
in his administration of city affairs was guided solely 
by the principle that the city should be served by the 
best men. 

He was chosen one of the corporators of the old 
Portsmouth Savings-Bank in 1850, a trustee in 1855, 
and in 1869 was elected its president. He devoted 
himself with rare diligence to the interests of this in- 
stitution, and every depositor felt that his money was 
as carefully used aud as safely kept as though he 
handled it himself. During the savings-bank panic 
of 1878 many large sums of money were left on de- 
posit, not because the depositors felt great security 
in the savings-bank system, but because Mr. Simes 
assured them personally that the bank was sound. 
They did not doubt his word, knowing full well that 
nothing would tempt him to misrepresent the true 
state of affairs. He was also a director in the Rock- 
ingham National Bank, and president and treasurer 
of the Faith Home. Like his father, and in fact 
nearly all his ancestry for three generations, he was 
an active member of the Universalist Church, and at 
the time of his death was warden and treasurer of 
the parish, and a deacon and treasurer of the church. 

It may be truly said that William Simes was loved 
and honored by his native city. In the various 
positions which he was called upon to fill, whether 
of a business, trust, or political character, he was 
always noted for his unswerving integrity and un- 
deviating honesty. Firm in his convictions of right 
and'wrong, he never entertained a thought of com- 
promising his well-defined principles in any relation 
whatever. He was one of the most courteous and 
pleasant of men, and was in all respects an estimable 
gentleman and good citizen. He was the open hand 
in every time of calamity and need, the ready giver 
to those private charities which enlist so deeply the 
sympathies of true men. He gave cheerfully, as 
though it was God's treasure which he was permitted 
to disburse. He belonged to no order or association ; 



^^-t-^ /u-^^-^ 





his home and his church were his sufficient rest. A 
long life, growing steadily upward from deep roots 
of religious principle, genial and kind in its outward 
expression, and without a stain of doubt or dishonor, 
leaves to the world its precious memory, while it 
seeks the wider and higher services and fulfillments 
of the life eternal, which even here was more real to 
him than mortal sight. 

He died May 15, 1880, from the effects of a fiill re- 
ceived the day 'previous. 

Oct. 2, 1831, Mr. Simes married Olive Bourn Laigh- 
ton, eldest daughter of Capt. James Laighton, of 
Portsmouth. She died June 9, 1871. Their family 
consisted of six children, three daughters and three 
sons. The daughters and James T. are deceased, the 
sole survivors of the family being Joseph S. and 
William, who are merchants and importers of tea in 
the city of Boston. 


The late Col. Joshua Winslow Peirce was born in 
Portsmouth, N. H., on the 14th of May, 1791, and 
died in the same town on the 10th of April, 1874. 

Col. Peircewould have been a man of mark in any 
community, from his strong and manly character, his 
sterling integrity, and his intellectual superiority. 
Of striking appearance, of polished and dignified 
manners, he realized one's ideal of the gentleman 
of the old school, and of a type more frequently 
found in England than in our own country. He was 
descended from a family which for more than two 
hundred years had occupied an eminent position ; 
whose successive representatives had been men of 
high intelligence, of unblemished character, and of 
large possessions. Endowed with a vigorous consti- 
tution both in mind and body ; encompassed from 
his childhood with every favoring influence; brought 
by the position and connections of his family into 
relations of familiar association with the best people 
of his day ; trained in the well-known academy of 
Exeter, and afterward in the counting-house of an. 
eminent and successful merchant; receiving the ad- 
Vantage, then far more rare than now, of an extended 
sojourn and travel in Europe, — it is but simple truth 
to say that he made good use of his many opportuni- 
ties, and from the outset of his career to it^ close oc- 
cupied and maintained a position second to none in 
the community in which he lived. His manhood 
fulfilled the promise of his youth. He lived and 
died respected and honored by all, and greatly be- 
loved by those who knew him best. 

No one who knew Col. Peirce could fail to be im- 
pressed by his strong and vigorous character. It 
showed itself in all he did and said. There was 
thoroughness and indomitable energy in all his un- 
dertakings, coupled with habits of strict method and 
a great love of order. He was well read in the cur- 
rent literature of the day ; always deeply interested 

in the progress of the arts and the discoveries of sci- 
ence; having a great liking for, and unusual skill in, 
mechanical pursuits. His clearness of mental vision 
gave strength to all his convictions ; his opinions 
were not hastily formed, but were tenaciously held, 
and, when occasion required, fearlessly expressed, 
whether upon social or political or religious subjects. 
If his prejudices were sometimes strong, they were 
not invincible, for he was open to argument, and can- 
did in weighing the reasoning of his opponents. His 
independence of nature made him superior to the love 
of popularity and to the pursuit of it, and kept him 
through life from accepting public place or official 
position. He was impatient of all that was vulgar 
and pretentious and merely for show ; intolerant of 
shuffling, prevarication, and meanness. His dislike of 
ostentation led him to veil, beneath a somewhat cold 
exterior, a generosity of character and a tenderness 
of feeling which were among his most striking traits, 
and which will be borne witness to by all who were 
admitted into the intimacy of his friendship. He 
was a sincere Christian, one of the firmest of friends, 
one of the most thoroughly honest and upright of 

The first of the ancestors of Col. Peirce, of whom 
we find mention as settled in this country, is Daniel 
Peirce, of Watertown, afterward of Newbury, Mass. 
He had two sons,— Daniel, who died in Newbury in 
1704, and Joshua, who died in Woodbridge, N. J., in 
1670. From the " Rambles about Portsmouth," by 
the late Charles W. Brewster, Esq., to whom every citi- 
zen of that old town is under deep obligations for the 
preservation of interesting facts of its local history, 
and from an appreciative sketch of Col. Peirce in the 
Boston Daily Advertiser, we learn that Daniel Peirce, 
the first of the name, with his son Joshua, purchased 
in the year 1666 a tract of land in New Jersey, cov- 
ering a large part of Perth Amboy. Hither he re- 
moved for a time, but afterward returned to his home 
in Newbury, where he died in 1677. His son Joshua 
established himself in Woodbridge, N. J. He married 
Dorothy, daughter of Major Robert Pike, of Salis- 
bury, Mass., who, after his death, became the wife of 
John Knight, of Newbury. Joshua Peirce died, as 
has been said, in New Jersey in 1670, seven years be- 
fore his father. He left behind him one child, Sarah, 
and subsequently to his death, in the year 1670, was 
born his posthumous son, Joshua. This Joshua, in or 
about the year 1700, after ineffectual attempts to re- 
cover the estate of his father in New Jersey, settled 
in Portsmouth, N. H. He married Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Joseph Hall, of Greenland, N. H. From this 
family of Halls were descended the Marches, of 
Greenland, and Governor John Langdon, of Ports- 
mouth. By inheritance from Joseph Hall came to 
the Peirce family a considerable part of the noble 
farm in Greenland, still retained in their possession, 
and long the home of Col. Peirce. " The original 
Hall house," says Mr. Brewster, " was on the prem- 



ises of Col. Peirce, near the spot where the sharp- 
roofed cottage now stands." 

Joshua Pierce established himself in Portsmouth as 
a merchant, on the corner of Market Square and High 
Street. He was largely concerned in navigation, was 
a ship-owner, and left a good estate. He was a man 
of untiring industry, and " in the course of his life 
held the several offices of town clerk, parish clerk, 
proprietors of the Portsmouth commons' clerk, select- 
man, 'representative, and for many years before his 
death was a member of His Majesty's Council, and 
also recorder of deeds for the province ; all which 
offices he held with credit to himself and gave general 
satisfaction." " Most of these records are extant, and, 
together with many private records, especially those of 
births, marriages, and deaths in Portsmouth, which 
he kept for his own use, are valuable memorials of the 
times. After a life of strict integrity and varied use- 
fulness, he died in 1743, having been the father of four 
sons and five daughters." 

Daniel, the third son of Joshua Pierce, was born in 
Portsmouth in May, 1709, and was graduated from 
Harvard College in 1728. He married, in 1743, Anna, 
daughter of John Rindge, merchant, of Portsmouth, 
and a man of large estate, as appears from the list of 
1727, where his name stands third in the number of 
those who paid the highest taxes, that of Joshua 
Peirce being the second. Daniel Peirce studied law, 
but never entered upon its practice. He succeeded his 
father as recorder of deeds for the province, holding 
this office until his death, and was also for several 
years a member of the king's council for New Hamp- 
shire. He is described as having been " a man of 
very great natural parts, as well as acquired abilities ; 
he had likewise a great mechanical inclination, and 
worked very ingeniou.sly with his own hands." He 
was proverbial for his strict integrity, and died Dec. 
5, 1773, leaving behind him three children, a fourth 
having died before him. 

John, the second son of Daniel Peirce, received his 
mercantile education in the counting-house of Daniel 
Rindge, then one of the prominent merchants of Ports- 
mouth, where he was a fellow-clerk with John Lang- 
don, afterward Governor of New Hampshire. At an 
early age he was intrusted with the charge of the 
business affairs of his uncle, Mark Hunking Went- 
worth, Esq., son of Lieutenant-Governor John W., and 
brother of Governor Penning W. This he retained 
until the war of the Revolution. He was also charged 
with the important interests of the Masonian proprie- 
tors. He was the principal agent in constructing the 
Piscataqua bridge in 1794; was one of the origina- 
tors of the Portsmouth aqueduct in 1797, and was 
loan officer under the Presidency of the elder Adams. 
He established an insurance office in Portsmouth, and 
conducted its affairs for many years preceding his 

" Always open, honorable, and correct in his con- 
duct, and liberal in his charities, he enjoyed the re- 

spect and confidence of men of all parties." He mar- 
ried Mary, daughter of Peter Pearse, merchant, a 
native of Solcombe, near Lydemouth, Devonshire, 
England, who came to this country at the age of four- 
teen. The wife of Mr. Pearse was the daughter of 
the Hon. Jotham Odiorne, who died, a member of 
His Majesty's Council, in 1761, and who in 1720 mar- 
ried a daughter of Robert Cutt, of Kittery. Mr. John 
Peirce was the father of six children, four sons and 
two daughters, and died on the 14th of .Tune, 1814. 

.Toshua Winslow, the third son of John Peirce, was 
born on the 14th of May, 1791. He passed his child- 
hood under the paternal roof until 1803, when he 
was entered at the Phillips Academy, in Exeter, 
where he remained until December, 1807, taking a 
deep interest and bearing an active part during his 
pupilage in a military company made up of the stu- 
dents of the academy. On his removal from Exeter 
he was placed in the counting-house of the Hon. 
James Sheafe, representative and senator in the Fed- 
eral Congress from New Hampshire. Here he was 
soon promoted to the charge of th'e books, and to the 
oversight of the shipping, in which Mr. Sheafe was 
an owner, thus acquiring a thorough familiarity with 
the details of maritime and mercantile pursuits. 

While yet with Mr. Sheafe he became a member of 
"the Gilman Blues," a military company, at that 
time of considerable distinction, under the command 
of Joshua Haven. He received his commission as 
captain from Governor John Taylor Gilman in 1813 ; 
was promoted to be major of the First Regiment of 
State militia in 1816; lieutenant-colonel in 1819, and 
colonel in 1820. He resigned his commission in 1823. 
In 1818 he was elected into "the Federal Fire So- 
ciety" of Portsmouth, and at the time of his death 
was its senior member. In 1816 he made a voyage to 
the Mediterranean as supercargo for Mr. Sheafe, and 
was absent from home a year. Having disposed of 
the cargo he parted from the ship at Leghorn, and 
visited the principal countries and cities of Europe. 
Upon his return he continued his business and resi- 
dence in Portsmouth to January, 1825, when he ac- 
cepted an appointment as agent of the Salmon Falls 
Manufacturing Company, removing thither the next? 
month and remaining till the destruction of the mill 
by fire in 1834. He devoted himself with his wonted 
energy atid enthusiasm to his new pursuit, making 
many journeys of observation to distant places in 
order to study improvements in machinery and man- 
ufacture. After the burniijg of the mill, and while 
it was not yet decided whether it should be rebuilt. 
Col. Peirce returned to Portsmouth, and employed 
himself in improving the estate in Greenland. In 
i December, 1836, he yielded to the solicitations of the 
company and returned to Salmon Falls, where he re- 
mained for nearly two years longer, during which 
time he superintended the erection of a new mill and 
the purchase of a large portion of its machinery. 
In August, 1838, he removed to the farm in Greenland, 

.^^ ^ 


^iC^^^^-T^-y-i- ^i^^Tz,^::^^ , 



a considerable portion of which, as has been before men- 
tioned, had come by inheritance from the Hall family 
nearly a century and a half before. This estate had 
been largely added to by the purchase of the Packer 
farm,' next adjoining it, by his father in 1809. Here 
Col. Peirce passed the next twenty-eight years of his 
life, and " here he was able to gratify his taste and in- 
dulge his passion for independent country life. Here 
he brought up his family, and dispensed those liberal 
and elegant hospitalities which made his house the 
cherished resort for a large circle of devoted friends. 
To see him at the head of his table, or in his draw- 
ing-room, always the chief object of interest and at- 
traction, was to realize what is seldom witnessed in 
this country now, and rarely in former times except 
in Virginia in her colonial days. Those who have 
seen his large estate in Greenland and Newington, 
lying along the southerly shore of the Great Bay, 
with its broad acres of inexhaustible soil, in meadow, 
upland, and orchard, its quaint houses and sjiacious 
barns, its fruit and shade trees, its strong fences of 
wood and faced stone, its herds of pure blood stock,^ 
its constant aspect of skillful husbandry, need not to 
be told that Col. Peirce was a model farmer." ' In 
November, 1866, he removed to his town house in 
Portsmouth, and resided there until his death, April 
10, 1874. 

Col. Peirce through life was a devoted churchman. 
Early in the episcopate of Bishop Griswold he re- 
ceived confirmation from the hands of that vener- 
able prelate, and for nearly fifty years was a devout 
and constant communicant at the altar. Previous to 
his residence in Salmon Falls the services of the 
Episcopal Church had been unknown ih that village. 
He was largely instrumental in the erection of Christ 
Church, and when a clergyman could not be obtained 
regularly officiated himself as lay-reader. While 
living in Greenland, though at a distance of more 
than four miles from his parish church of St. John's, 
Portsmouth, his place in the house of God was rarely 
vacant. He was always ready to serve the church 
which he so ardently loved, at whatever sacrifice of 
personal convenience or expenditure of labor or 
money. He succeeded his brother, the late Mark 
W. Peirce, Esq., as treasurer of the trust funds of St. 
John's Church, and retained the office until the in- 
firmities of age compelled him to relinquish it. He 
was many years a church warden, and a delegate to 
the diocesan conventions. 

Thanks to his strong constitution and the perfect 
regularity and temperance of his life. Col. Peirce 
pre.served until fourscore the vigor and almost the 
activity of youth. The last three years, however, 

1 This farm v 
as early US 1640, 
to Kittery. 

- In 1823 the short-horned Durham cattle was introduced upon thi£ 
farm by direct importation, anil the breed continues there tt> this day 

s A. H. Hoyt, in the Boston Duihj Adcertiaer of April 17, 1874. 

were those of failing strength and increasing feeble- 
ness. During the more than two years of his close 
confinement he was attended with the most unremit- 
ting afiection, both by night and by day, by his de- 
voted sons and daughters. No strange hands were 
allowed to minister to his necessities. Filial love 
watched over him to the last. His end was peace. 
He died firm in the faith of the church, with an 
humble trust in the mercy of his God through Jesus 
Christ our Lord. His remains were taken to St. 
John's Church, where he had so long worshiped, fol- 
lowed by his daughters, his surviving sister and 
brother, and a multitude of friends. They were 
borne thither by his sons, and after the performance 
of the solemn rites of the church were carried thence 
and laid in the family tomb in the churchyard by the 
same filial hands. There may they rest in peace until 
the day of the resurrection ! 

Col. Peirce was married on the 4th of May, 1823, 
to Emily, daughter of William Sheafe, Esq., of Ports- 
mouth, and Anna Wentworth, his wife. Mrs. Peirce 
died March 9, 1871. They had twelve children, of 
whom six are now living, viz. : Sarah Coffin, married 
William M. Kennard, Sept. 14, 1877 ; Ann Went- 
worth ; Joseph Wentworth, married Annie L. Sise, 
Oct. 28, 1879 ; Joseph Rindge, married Marcia Rob- 
inson, Oct. 26, 1869, and has children, Mark Went- 
worth, Emily Milnor, Anne Burroughs, Joseph Par- 
ish, and Elizabeth Wentworth ; William Augustus, 
married Mrs. Susan M. Smith, July 16,1878, and has 
child, Joshua Winslow ; Robert Cutts, married Mari- 
annaHackett, Nov. 14, 1877. 

The following are deceased : John, Peter, Emily 
Sheafe, May Pearse, James Sheafe, Mark Wentworth, 
and Daniel Rindge. 

a part of the estate of Capt. Francis Champei 

I which he lived, it is supposed, prior to his removal 


The venerable and honored subject of this sketch 
was born in Topsfield, Mass., Feb. 26, 1799. His 
childhood was passed in his native town, where he 
attended a common school. Subsequently he was a 
pupil at Dummer Academy, Byfield, where he en- 
deavored to qualify himself for teaching school, in 
which honorable vocation he afterward engaged at 
Newbury, Mass. In 1822 he went to Portsmouth, 
N. H., entering the drug-store of William Norwood 
as a clerk. At the outset of his career, wishing earn- 
estly to qualify himself for what he considered a very 
responsible business, he went to Boston to attend a 
course of lectures of the medical college in chemistry 
and materia inedica. About two years later he pur- 
chased Mr. Norwood's interest in the apothecary 
business, and from that time until 1880 devoted him- 
self assiduously to its duties, spending probably more 
hours in his store than any man living in the com- 
munity has devoted to any one calling. 

This is a rare instance of a successful business career 
of over half a century, and during this long jieriod 



bis life lias been one of unblemisbed integrity and 
conscientious uprightness. He was ever honest in 
all transactions, — not because honesty was the best 
policy, but because of his sound principles, which 
he never for one moment compromised. He sought 
no means of obtaining wealth by any speculative or 
hasty methods, choosing rather to labor in his voca- 
tion with an untiring zeal and cheerful industry, 
hoping to deserve and maintain the confidence of the 
community in which he lived. His knowledge of his 
business, his rare and watchful interest in the young 
men who one after another began, grew up, and grad- 
uated from his store to situations in other cities, his 
public spirit, and his kindly traits need no mention 
among those who have long known him as a neigh- 
bor and friend. It may may be stated that there may 
now be seen in one of the best pharmaceutical estab- 
lishments in Boston four individuals who took their 
first lessons in the drug business in his store. Al- 1 
though now having practically retired from active i 
business life, he still retains his office as treasurer of 
the gas company, which position he has held since 
the incorporation of the company, in 1851. 

In politics Mr. Kimball js a conscientious Repub- 
lican, always endeavoring to vote for those who will 
best promote the public good. 

He was one of the first in Portsmouth to espouse 
the Anti-Slavery cause when such an avowal involved 
the possibility of loss of friends, and an almost certain 
loss of patronage in business. He has been a con- 
stant attendant on the services of the Congregational 
Church, and has been ever ready to promote its 

Mr. Kimball's family on the maternal side have 
been distinguished for longevity. Mr. Kimball re- 
members seeing his great-grandmother in the year 
180.5, then one hundred years old. The centennial 
birthday of his own mother was celebrated Oct. 2, 
1879. On that occasion her children, grandchildren, 
great-grandchildren were present. About this time 
a photographic group of herself and three sons was 
taken, they having passed their threescore years and 
ten. She died December, 1879, retaining her facul- 
ties in a remarkable degree. She was a woman) of 
rare good sense and sound judgment, ever forgetful 
of self in her earnestness to do for others. Her hus- 
band died in early life, leaving one only of a family 
of twelve brothers and sisters, the most of whom 
died of consumption. 

David Kimball was married to Caroline R. Swett, 
ofNewburyport, Nov. 4, 1828. Their family consisted 
of three daughters and one son. The daughters sur- 
vive. Although now at the advanced age of over 
fourscore years, he retains in a remarkable degree 
the vigor and elasticity of youth. 

Frank Jones was born in Barrington, Strafford Co., 
N. H., on the 15th of September, 1832. He was the 
son of Thomas Jones, who had inherited from his 
father one of the best farms in that township. The 
family consisted of seven children, — six sons and one 
daughter. Frank was the fifth son. As the family 
grew up, with the characteristic independence of New 
Englanders, they went out into the world to earn their 
own living, and by integrity, industry, and frugality 
to amass that competence due to every honest man 
which enables him to live above the whips and scorn 
of time and circumstances. Among the pursuits of 
a New Hampshire farmer in those days was that of 
lumbering, and from his earliest recollection young 
Frank, when not engaged on the farm, was employed 
in the woods, where he grew up hale and hearty, 
sound in mind and body. In the fall of the year it 
was customary for lumbermen to make charcoal of all 
the superfluous timber lying around on the farm, as 
in that condition it found a much readier sale in the 
neighboring cities. This is doubtless the origin of a 
story concerning the New Hampshire charcoal burner 
and the poor boy who sold his first load in Ports- 
mouth. The facts are these: Young Jones, in the 
absence of his father and elder brothers, always, even 
from a very early age, assumed control of affairs on 
the farm. The foreman, Caswell, had loaded up a 
four-tier wagon with charcoal to take to Portsmouth. 
Frank, who was then about fourteen years old, thought 
he would like to go there too. Accordingly, he took 
considerable interest in this particular load until it 
came to yoking up the three pair of steers which were 
to draw the load to Portsmouth. One pair of steers, 
being young, were very lively. These were Frank's 
favorites, and he would have them placed first in the 
team. To this the foreman objected, thinking they 
wanted the benefit of age and experience, and so pro- 
posed to put them behind. But no ; Master Frank 
would have them in front or nowhere. It was no 
wheelbarrow load that had to go over those New 
Hampshire roads to the city, and he believed the 
young steers would have the best heart and get there 
soonest. He therefore insisted upon having the young 
steers placed first. Caswell, the foreman, rebelled, 
threw down the goad, and told young Frank to take 
the load himself, which he did, starting off on a 
moonlight night, traveling along as best he could, 
until at three o'clock in the morning he arrived at 
Wiggins', a wayside inn about a mile from Ports- 
mouth, where he saw written up " accommodation 
for men, horses, and oxen." Here he halted, but 
could find no living soul around, so he tied up the 
team and composedly lay down to rest in a crib in the 
shed by the stable. At six o'clock Wiggins, the pro- 
prietor, rudely awoke the young adventurer, who, 
rubbing his eyes, perceived for the first time the sun 
rising like a golden globe out of the waters of Ports- 
mouth harbor. The memory of that morning will 




never be effaced. Wiggins, after due inquiry, find- 
ing tlie boy to be farmer Jones' son Frank, of Bar- 
rington, sent the cavalcade on its road to Portsmouth 
i-ejoicing. Arriving at the city the first customer 
who cast eyes ujion the four-tier wagon of charcoal 
was Sam Coburn, who kept the Rockingham House. 
He inquired as to quality and price, and finally bought 
the load at twelve and a half cents per bushel, sub- 
ject to survey. Young Frank assisted at the survey, 
and also the storing of the load, and afterwards par- 
took of a hearty meal at the Rockingham. On the 
site of Wiggins', where be first rested, stands bis 
country residence, the pride of the county, known as 
" Gravelly Ridge," and where he took his first meal 
in the city is the house he has done so much to make 
a credit to that city. 

Such was Frank Jones' first visit to the city of 
Portsmouth. It may be well imagined that the nar- 
row limits of the farm amid the hills and woods of 
Strafford would not long retain such a venturous 
and self-reliant spirit as was evinced by the boy. His 
elder brother was engaged in business in Portsmouth, 
having a considerable store on Market Street for 
stoves and hard.ware of every description. At the 
age of seventeen years, in spite of every inducement 
offered to him by. his father to stay on the farm, Frank 
insisted on coming to Portsmouth to assist his brother. 
Those who recollect the methods adopted in New 
Hampshire during the first part of the present cen- 
tury by tradesmen to cultivate trade will admit 
that it was not the easy task it is to-day. Farmers 
would visit the cities very seldom ; the roads offered 
no inducements for them to travel for pleasure. In- 
habitants were sparsely scattered, farms were few and 
far between, and if business was to be done the goods 
had to be presented at the very doors, as it often took 
more than two or even three to make a bargain. The 
stoves, hardware, and tinware went around in cara- 
vans itinerantly, and it required a rare combinatiofa 
of daring, pluck, and acumen to make a success of 
sucb peripatetic stores. Young Jones was eminently 
successful, for in four years he had amassed sufficient 
capital to purchase a share in his brother's business, 
so at the age of twentjy years we find hiiu one of the 
merchant traders of Portsmouth. Shortly afterwards 
he purchased the entire business, which be continued 
alone, adding thereto, in 1857, the partnership in the 
Swindels brewery. In 1861 he sold out the hard- 
ware business to a youngei' brother and an employe 
in the establishment, devoting himself entirely to the 
brewing and malting business. At this time he lived 
in a two-story frame house near the brewery, content 
to devote his utmost energies to that he foresaw would 
ultimately become a great business, and his sagacity 
in this particular has been amply verified. 

The brewing business, of which the immense es- 
lishment now owned by Mr. Jones is the outgrowth, 
was commenced by an Englishman named John 
Swindels in 1854. In 1858, Mr. Jones purchased an 

interest in this pioneer brewery, and soon after be- 
came sole proprietor, and has continued as such to the 
present time. The purchase of the old Swindels 
brewery ushered in an impoatant era in the life of 
Mr. Jones and in the history of Portsmouth. He at 
once threw his whole energy into the development of 
this business, and the result may be briefly told. The 
small brewery of 1858 has expanded from year to 
year until at the present time it is one of the largest 
establishments of the kind in the land, covering an 
area of five acres, and has a capacity of one hundred 
and fifty thousand barrels of ale annually. In addi- 
tion to the brewery proper Mr. Jones added a large 
malt-house in 1863, and a still larger one in 1879. 
This immense establishment is the most extensive ol 
its kind in the United States, and is furnished with 
all the modern improvements known to the art. To 
carry on this large and rapidly-increasing business 
requires the services of about one hundred men, yet 
Mr. Jones has been from the first fully conversant 
with all the details of the business, including the 
stock purchases, sales, general management, and prac- 
tical oversight of the work. Thoroughness has been 
the rule in every department, and the superior quality 
of the production, constantly maintained, has estab- 
lished its reputation as the best in the market. 

In 1875 Mr. Jones bfecame the leading member of 
a company which purchased the well-known South 
Boston brewery of Henry Souther & Co., under the 
firm-name of Jones, Johnson & Co., Hon. James W. 
Johnson, of Enfield, being a member of the firm. 
Subsequent changes have occurred, aud this establish- 
ment is now known as the "~Bay State Brewery," and 
is operated by Jones, Cook & Co., Mr. Jones remain- 
ing at the head. The production of this establish- 
ment is nearly equal, both in quantity and quality, to 
that of the Portsmouth brewery. 

Mr. Jones always took the greatest interest in the 
affairs of his native State and his adopted city. In the 
year 1868 he was chosen mayor of Portsmouth, and 
was again re-elected the following year. His admin- 
istration was marked by many progressive im- 
provements consistent with proper economy and due 
consideration for the burdens imposed on the tax- 
payers. The salury of his office he refused to appro- 
priate, devoting it like a good citizen to public pur- 
poses. His salary for the first year he gave to the 
city to hold in trust, the interest to be devoted an- 
nually to the purchase of books for the library of 
the High School. The second year's salary he placed 
in the hands of trustees on the condition that five 
thousand dollars more could be raised in five years, 
he would then add another thousand dollars tor the 
purpose of establishing a public library to be pre- 
sented to the city. He was also for two years the 
candidate of his party for State elector, and though 
failing of an election very nearly overcame the de- 
cided Republican majority in the district. 

In 1875 Mr. Jones received the Democratic nom- 



ination for member of Congress, and defeated the 
Republican nominee by a plurality of three hundred 
and thirty-six, although at the previous election the 
Republicans had carried the district. He was re- 
nominated for the next Congress in 1877, when the 
Republicans made a powerful and determined effort 
to secure his defeat, selecting as their candidate one 
who had won distinction in military as well as civil 
life, and had been three times elected to the same 
office in past years ; yet so great was Mr. Jones' pop- 
ularity, and so well satisfied were his constituents 
with his services for the previous term, that his oppo- 
nents were unable to compa_ss his defeat, and he was 
returned by a plurality of forty votes over the formi- 
dable candidate who had been pitted against him. 
At the close of his second term in Congress, al- 
though strongly importuned to be again a candidate, 
he positively refused, the demands of his business 
being such that he could not longer neglect them. 

In 1880, against his own emphatic protest, and with 
a unanimity never before equaled, he was made the 
candidate of his party for Governor, and although 
the defeat of the party was known to be inevitable, 
after the result of the Indiana election in October 
had turned the political current throughout the 
country in favor of the Republicans, he received not 
only a larger vote than had eVer before been cast for 
a Democratic candidate, but larger than had ever 
before been received by the candidate of any party 
in a State election. 

In Congress Mr. Jones was a true and faithful ser- 
vant of the people, and was one of the most efficient 
committee-men in the House. Speaker Randall, in 
referring to Mr. Jones, says, " He was a faithful rep- 
resentative, an honor to himself and the country, 
bringing to the discharge of his duties a business" 
knowledge that made him very valuable as a com- 
mittee member." 

Every movement looking to the welfare of his 
adopted city has received his earnest support. He 
has been president of the Dover and Portsmouth 
Railroad since its incorporation, the building of 
which was mainly due to his energy and persistency. 
He was a director in the Eastern Railroad, and is 
now a director in the Wolfborn' Railroad, of which 
he was one of the projectors. He was also a director 
in the Portsmouth Trust and Guarantee Company. 

It will be perceived from the foregoing personal 
sketch that the Hon. Frank Jones, in all his success- 
ful business career, has never for one moment for- 
gotten his duties to his fellow-men, nor the claims 
his native State and adopted city have upon him ; he 
has done all in his power to promote the welfare and 
obtain the good will of all men, and most strenu- 
ously labored for the health, wealth, and prosperity 
•of the good old city of Portsmouth and neighbor- 

An elegant structure of red brick and white marble, 
standing on State Street, in Portsmouth, the property 

of the Hon. Frank Jones, deserves some attention, 
being, as it is, associated with some of the most 
notable events and men celebrated in New Hamp- 
shire history. 

It is on the site of the original Rockingham House, 
formerly the residence of the Hon. Woodbury Lang- 
don, judge of the Supreme Court, and brother of 
Governor Langdon, born in 1739. He was also noted 
for his commercial success and his firm patriotism. 
When the first great fire in Portsmouth broke out in 
the year 1781, this house with many public buildings 
and several hundreds of other houses was consumed. 
It was rebuilt on the same spot in 1786, and in 1830 
it was purchased by a joint-stock company, and con- 
verted into a house of public entertainment. In 1870 
it was enlarged and remodeled by Mr. Jones, and is 
now one of the best appointed and most regal hotels 
in New England. 

Very many of the leading people who visit New 
Hampshire make this house their summer home, 
while in winter under its hospitable roof is gathered 
a goodly company of strangers, officers of the navj- 
and their families, and persons visiting Portsmouth 
for business or pleasure. The house is delightfully 
located, and commends itself to the summer tourist. 
The " Wentworth," another palatial hotel, located 
in New Castle, is also owned by Mr. Jones. (See 
history of New Castle.) 

Sept. IS, 1861, Mr. Jones united in marriage with 
Martha Sophia Leavitt, the widow of his brother, 
Hiram Jones, who died in July, 1859, leaving one 
child, Emma I., now the wife of Col. Charles A. 

Frank Jones' life has been one of steady and active 
devotion to business, and his success is the natural 
result of his ability to examine and readily compre- 
hend any subject presented to him, power to decide 
promptly, and courage to act with vigor and persist- 
ency in accordance with his convictions. 

Being of a social and genial nature, he has hosts 
of warm personal friends, and no man is held in 
higher esteem by the people at large, regardless of 
party or condition. No man has contributed more 
to advance the material prosperity and the general 
welfare of the city of Portsmouth than Hon. Frank 


John Kent, the great-grandfather of the subject of 
this sketch, was of English origin, and went to Dur- 
ham, in Strafford County, from Cape Ann (probably 
Gloucester), and was -the father of two children, — 
Nancy and John. He died while the latter was an 

John grew up, and married Temperance Lapish, 
daughter of Capt. Robert Lapish, of Durham, for- 
merly of Great Island, now New Castle. Capt. 
Lapish was a ship-builder and owner, sending a 





number of vessels to sea on his own responsibility. 
Notwithstanding the fact that he was the father of 
ten children, not a representative of his name is in 
existence. He was of Irish or Scotch extraction. 

Nancy married Maj. William Cutts, of Kittery, 
whose son William died at Exeter in 1880. 

.Iiihii Kent and Temperance Lapisli had live chil- 
dren, — Mehitable, Temperance, Nancy, John, and 
Kinsman, — of whom only one is living at this day, 
Nancy. These children were all born at Rochester, 
Strafford Co., N. H. Nancy has buried two hus- 
bands, — the first, Nathaniel Hobbs, of North Ber- 
wick, Me. By him she had a son, Nathaniel, who 
is now judge of probate of York County, Me., with 
whom she makes her home at North Berwick. Her 
second husband was Dr. Daniel Hodsdon, of the 
same town. She is now eighty-four years of age 
and in most excellent health. 

John, the grandfather of John Horace, moved 
from Rochester to South Berwick, Me., and thence 
to Somersworth, N. H. While making the passage 
from Portsmouth to South Berwick, in the year 1816, 
the packet was capsized in a squall near " Boiling 
Rock," and, though an expert swimmer, his heavy 
clothing was such a hindrance to his efforts that he 
was drowned, at the age of forty-flve. 

John Kent, his son, and brother to Nancy, and 
father of the present John Horace Kent, of whom 
we write, was born at Rochester in October, 1799. 
He attended the South Berwick Academy, and came 
to Portsmouth, and was clerk for Joseph Wiggin at 
the age of fifteen. He removed to Barnstead (then 
in Straftbrd County, but now in Belknap) in 1823, 
and engaged in business there in his own name. In 
1827 he married Ruhamah Dearborn, of Portsmouth, 
the daughter of Asa and Ruhamah Choate Dearborn. 
Asa was born in Kensington, Rockingham Co., in 
August, 1771, and was the son of Jeremiah Dear- 
born, who was the son of Nathaniel Dearborn, who 
was the son of Samuel Dearborn, who was the son of 
Henry, whose father, Godfrey Dearborn, came from 

The father of Ruhamah Choate came from Salis- 
bury, Mass., and was a relative to Rufus Choate. 

Joh» Horace Kent was born in Barnstead, Oct. 10, 
1828, and was an only child. He attended the dis- 
trict school, Pittsfield and Strafford Academies, and 
the high school at Portsmouth (John True Tasker, 
of Barn.stead, being principal of the latter). On the 
23d of September, 1843, his father died, and young 
Kent went to New Bedford, Mass., and attended the 
high school in that city, boarding with Rev. Moses 
Howe (who married his mother's sister), formerly of 

In 1845 he went to New York City, where he re- 
mained two years in a wholesale establishment. At 
the expiration of this tifrie he went to Western Penn- 
sylvania and engaged in the steam tannery business 
with his uncle, Daniel G. Dearborn. In 1849, wheu 

the " gold fever" broke out, he disposed of his interest 
in the business to his partner, and wended his way to 
California via the Isthmus of Panama, leaving New 
York on the steamer " Crescent City." Arriving at 
Panama, he with thousands of others were obliged to 
wait for transportation on the Pacific side. Intent 
upon doing something, he found a Boston printer 
named Esterbrook, whom he employed, and obtaining 
type at the Spanish newspaper office, established and 
started a paper called the Panama Star, a successful 
property for many years, and for aught we know to 
the present day. From here he took passage in the 
steamer "Senator," arriving at San Francisco in Oc- 
tober, 1849, at the age of twenty-one years. 

While a -resident of California,, Mr. Kent made 
several trips to the Atlantic States, on one of which, 
in December, 1852, he was married to Miss Adeline 
Penniman, youngest daughter of Bethuel and Sophia 
Penniman, of New Bedford, Mass., who returned to 
the " Golden State" with her husband. 

Mr. Kent's maiden vote was cast in California in No- 
vember, 1849, when the Constitution for the new State 
was submitted to the people for adoption or otherwise. 
The Constitution prohibited slavery, and his first bal- 
lot was cast for the code as submitted, this action 
being in thorough accord with the general sentiment 
of the " '49ers," the immigration from tlie Northern, 
Western, and New England States predominating. 

Mr. Kent was a member of the Society of California 
Pioneers, to which any person arriving in California 
prior to January, 1850, was eligible to membership. 
He was at one time a director of said society. 

He was also a member of the first " Committee of 
Vigilance," organized in June, 1851, who executed 
John Jenkins, an ex-convict from Sydney, who was 
caught in a boat while trying to get away with a 
small safe he had obtained by burglary from a store 
on Long Wharf. He was caught about ten o'clock 
in the evening, June 10th, and immediately tried by the 
committee at its rooms. The evidence being conclu- 
sive, a verdict of guilty, and sentence of death pro- 
nounced. This was immediately announced to the 
multitude waiting outside, who heartily approved the 
finding, and at two o'clock in the morning Jenkins 
was hanged to a beam of the public building in Ports- 
mouth Square, San Francisco. Tliey made no secret 
that they had violated the law and were leagued 
together to violate it in the future, but sincerely 
avowing that they were faithful servants of the cause 
of justice, for whose sake they assumed very severe per- 
sonal responsibilities. They soon found more work to 
do, and hung James Stuart, a professionaF murderer 
and robber, who confessed to a multitude of capital 
crimes, and who asked for a chew of tobacco as the 
noose was being placed around his neck. 

Samuel Whittaker and Robert McKenzie, two des- 
peradoes, were taken from jail and hanged by the 
committee on Sunday, Aug. 24, 1851. This was the 
last public act of this committee other than ordering 



many professional criminals from the State. It never 
formally disbanded, though ceasing to hold meet- 
ings until May, 1856, at the killing of James 
King, editor of the iSan Francisco Bulletin, by 
James P. Casey. Many of the old members were 
solicited to become leaders in a new organization, 
there being a demand for another vigilance committee. 
This was a swift organization, which in a few days 
took Casey and Charles Cora, a noted gambler, who 
murdered U. S. Marshal Richardson, from jail, tried, 
convicted, and executed them. They also executed 
two others, Hetherington and Brace. " Yankee" Sul- 
livan committed suicide in the committee's rooms 
while awaiting their action. Mr. Kent, being coroner 
at this time, was not a member of this last committee, 
but, in his official capacity, held the inquests on the 
bodies of those above named. He says the committee 
made no dangerous use of their power. 

In politics in California Mr. Kent belonged to the 
"Northern faction" of the Democratic party, known 
as the "Mudsills," and in hostility to the " Southern 
faction," known as the "Chivalry." At the head of 
the former was Hon. David C. Broderick, and of the 
latter Hon. William M. Given. Broderick was elected 
United States senator in 18.56, and took sides with 
Stephen A. Douglas in the matter of " popular sover- 
eignty," thereby making the slave party in California, 
who had long been his bitter opponent, stronger in' 
their animosity and opposition, and also incurring 
the illwill of President Buchanan, who claimed that 
the laws of the United States carried slavery into 
the Territories, and that it could not be excluded after 
the Territory had been admitted to the Union as a 
State. Growing out of this, Broderick was twice chal- 
lenged to a duel, first by D. W. Perley, and again by 
Judge David S. Terry, of the Supreme Court, and on 
meeting the latter met his death. The wound was 
mortal, and he lingered only a few days, saying on 
his death-bed, " They have killed me because I was 
opposed to the retention of slavery and a corrupt 
administration," referring to Buchanan's. 

Mr. Kent was secretary of the Broderick wing of 
the Democratic City Committee of San Francisco. 

We quote from the San Francisco News-Letler of 
Oct. 20, 1857, referring to Mr. Kent's retirement from 
the office of coroner: "Coroner Kent has fulfilled the 
duties of his office faithfully, conscientiously, and 
honestly, and it must be a source of consolation and 
sweet reflection for him in years to come to know 
that his fellow-citizens have said upon his retiring 
from office, ' Well done, thou good and faithful ser- 
vant.' " 

Alter leaving the coroner's office, and prior to his 
return to the Atlantic States iu 1860, Mr. Kent had 
been connected with the press of San Francisco, and 
went to British Columbia during the "Fraser River" 
mining excitement as special correspondent ; and as 
the telegraph made rapid strides over the Southern 
Overland Mail Route, he accompanied the builders 

thereof as the correspondent of several San Fran- 
cisco papers, interrupting the stages on the plains, 
and making up the news from the Atlantic papers, 
and sending the same to San Francisco by wire. 

Mr. Kent returned irom California to the Atlantic 
States permanently in 1860, making the journey 
home in a stage via the Overland Route, tlirough 
Lower California, Arizona, Cherokee Nation, Texas, 
Arkansas, and Missouri, thence to New York by rail, 
his family — wife and one sou, born in San Fran- 
cisco — having returned by steamer via Panama. He 
left his oldest child, 'John Horace, Jr., a son born at 
New Bedford, in the grave at San Francisco. 

In 1862, when the Southern army was making the 
raid on McClellan, with the cry of "On to Washing- 
ton !" Mr. Kent was at Prince Edward's Island ; and 
at that time the people of the provinces espoused 
vigorously the Southern cause, while Kent as reso- 
lutely stood up for the North, and while in a heated 
discussion resolved to return to the States and volun- 
teer his services. On his arrival at Boston he en- 
listed in a Massachusetts regiment, and leaving his 
family in New Bedford, proceeded to the Department 
of North Carolina, and thence to the Army of the 

In the fall of 1863 he was mustered out of service, 
and appointed a special agent of the Provost-Marshal 
Department for the District of New Hampshire upon 
the establishment of that service of the government, 
remaining therein until its abolition. 

After his service in the army Mr. Kent became a 
warm and active Republican, and after the close of 
the Provost-Marshal Department he was appointed 
to a clerkship in the navy-yard at Portsmouth. In 
1867 he was elected city marshal of Portsmouth, and 
while serving in such capacity was appointed to a 
position in the " Secret Service of the Treasury De- 
partment," and in 1871 was again elected city marshal 
of Portsmoutlk 

In the fall of 1872 he was made special officer and 
claim agent of the Eastern Railroad, and in 1873 was 
appointed a special inspector of customs for the Dis- 
trict of New Hampshire, under Collector Howard, 
and in the fall of 1874 the head of the Secret Service 
at Washington telegraphed Mr. Kent to meet him at 
Boston, and tendered him the position of chief of the 
New England Division (comprised of all the New 
England States) of that force, which was accepted, 
and Mr. Kent established his headquarters at Boston. 

He was a member of the Portsmouth delegation in 
the New Hampshire Legislature in 1873 and 1874, 
representing his city in the House. Upon the election 
of Hon. P. C. Cheney as Governor of New Hamp- 
shire, he appointed Mr. Kent upon his personal staff 
with the rank of colonel, and in July, 1876, while on 
government business pertaining to the Secret Service 
at Bangor, he received a telegram that the Governor 
and Council had appointed liim sheriff of Rocking- 
ham County for five years. The next Legislature 


^ cO-Z^?^--^^ ^/ 



changed the litw, and the office of sheriff was made 
elective, and Col. Kent, for he may now be so classed, 
received the first nomination for sheriff of Rocicing- 
ham County at the hands of his party, and was elected 
Isy a handsome majority. He can proudly point to a 
repetition of these honors in 1880. He is also a dep- 
uty United States marshal under Gen. Patterson, 
and does a large independent business in the. way of 
investigating fraud and crime and bringing public 
and private offenders to justice. 

Col. Kent is a prominent member of the Masonic 
fraternity, and belongs to St. Andrew's Lodge, F. and 
A. M., Washington Chapter, Davenport Council, and 
De Witt Clinton Commandery Knights Templar. 
He is also a member of Osgood Lodge of I. 0. of O. F., 
Sagamon Lodge, Knights of Honor, Washington 
Temperance Association, of which he has twice been 
chosen president. The above are all local institu- 
tions of Portsmouth. In addition to the above he is 
a member of Trimount Temple of Honor of Boston, 
New England Reformed Men's Association, and New 
Hampshire State Temperance Association, and he has 
served as president of the two last named. 

Since joining the Republican party he has been an 
active politician, is a member of the Republican 
County Committee, and one of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Republican State Central Committee. 

Col. Kent's first connection with the United States 
Secret Service brought him into prominence with the 
leading men of business and influence throughout the 
Union. His services were in constant demand in the 
principal cities of the country, and 'he soon came to 
have a very large circle of acquaintances throughout 
the United States. Possessing a social nature and 
having a large, open heart, he was gradually led into 
the habit of using intoxicating liquors to excess, and 
the "hotel life" that he was obliged to lead only 
served to increase the evil. His steps downward were 
rapid, and his many friends began to despair of a 
reform, though some of them never ceased their 
efforts in his behalf. 

At last Col. Kent seemed himself to realize his con- 
dition in a measure, and readily consented to try the 
experiment of a sojourn at the Washingtonian Home 
in Boston, which has accomplished so much for so 
many victims of strong drink. This experiment, to 
the great joy of his friends, proved his salvation, and 
from that time until now, with a will and force of 
character which has been the admiration of all who 
know his history or have heard his story, he has re- 
sisted that appetite which was so nearly his ruin. 

He soon after reorganized the Washingtonian Total 
Abstinence Society of Portsmouth, and became its 
president, and in the winter of 1872 inaugurated a 
series of temperance meetings. Here as well as else- 
where his labors were rewarded with marked success, 
and his eloquent recital of his own terrible experi- 
ence and his pathetic appeals to the victims of in- 
temperance in the many places where he has spoken 

upon this subject have had a marked effect in check- 
ing the evil. 

His efforts may justly be credited with having in- 
augurated the great temperance reform movement 
that swept through this State. 

Col. Kent has never abated his zeal in the cause of 
temperance, and never ceased to lend his purse and a 
helping hand to all whom he has found struggling 
against the demon that cursed the best years of his 
life. He was actively interested in the Portsmouth 
Temperance Reform Club during its period of useful- 
ness, and was of great service to it; but in May, 1879, 
being unable to approve its course in the introduction 
of to him dubious methods of promoting temperance, 
in company with others he withdrew from the club, 
and his public work in this direction ceased. In his 
private life, however, both by his daily example and 
his friendly aid and advice, he is constantly reclaim- 
ing the fallen and starting them anew in the right 
path. * 

This sketch, so far as bearing upon the temperance 
life of Mr. Kent and the causes that led to its adop- 
tion, would be very incomplete without some allusion 
to the helpmeet of the subject. Mrs. Kent has shown 
the love and devotion of a true wife in its noblest con- 
ception, and it is not an easy task to credit her with 
the praise she deserves. With a trust in God and a 
never-erring trust and confidence in her husband, she 
bore up under the sorrow and affliction that must 
come hand in hand with the cup. Appeals of love 
seemed slighted, yet she swerved not a line in the 
happy duty of reclaiming her husband. And now in 
these after-years, though late, comes the sweet conso- 
lation and satisfaction, bringing with them the perfect 
joy and happiness she sought. 

Mr. Kent has an only cliild, Horace Penniman 
Kent, who at present holds a position under the 
United States government at Boston, whose clear 
head and skillful abilities already developed bid fair 
to place him in prominent ranks wherever he may 
cast his lot. 

Col. Kent is a brave, true, and honest man, of much 
intellectual force, great sagacity, energy, and persist- 
ency, exceptional fidelity to friends and principles, 
and of aims high and worthy in every respect, a true 
philanthropist, and generous to a fault. He has done 
much good service for his city, county, and State, and 
won victories which attest more than usual strength 
of character. 

Marcellus Eldredge, one of the successful business 
men and leading brewers of New England, was born 
in Chatham, Mass., Nov. 24, 1838. His boyhood was 
passed in his native town, sharing the advantages of 
the schools of those days. In 1852 he came to Ports- 
mouth with his father, the late Heman Eldredge, 
who conducted a mercantile business in corn and 
flour, and entered the store as clerk. 



In 1858 Mr. Fisher and Heman Eldredge formed 
a copartnership for the brewing of ale under the firm- 
name of M. Fisher & Co., and Marcelliis Eldredge 
was given the position of clerk. His native energy 
here manifested itself in a remarkable degree. He 
took an active interest in the development of the 
enterprise, and a few years later found him the active 
manager of an industry the growth of which had 
been almost phenomenal. The firm of M. Fisher & 
Co. continued until 1870, when Fisher's interest was 
purchased, the firm then becoming H. Eldredge & 
Son, by whom the business was continued until 1875, 
when it was organized as a stock company, Marcellus 
Eldredge being chosen president and treasurer. Illus- 
trative of the rapid growth of this business, it is stated 
that from a small brewing of twenty-eight barrels, 
the first made by M. Fisher & Co., it has increased 
from time to time until the present establishment has 
a capacity of three hundred barrels per day of ale 
and lager. 

Mr. Eldredge, although manifesting a lively interest 
in his adopted city and the public welfare generally, 
has uniformly declined various overtures to oflScial 
position, the only exception being in 1877, when he 
was chosen senator from this a Republican district. 
He is Democratic in politics, but enjoys the respect 
of all parties. 


There is no prouder or more enduring personal 
record than the story of a self reliant, manly, and 
successful career. It declares that the individual has 
not only understood his duty and mission, but ful- 
filled them. The following biography is highly sug- 
gestive of these facts. 

Alfred Woodward Haven was born in Portsmouth, 
March 14, 1801, and is a worthy representative of one 
of the oldest and most honored families of this old 
commonwealth. He is a .son of John Haven, and 
grandson of the Rev. Samuel Haven, D.D., both of 
whom were prominent and influential citizens. 

Mr. Haven was educated for the legal profession, 
and in 1825 was admitted to the bar. He retired from 
the active practice of law in 1834, since which time 
he has been largely engaged in attending to real es- 
tate interests, both for himself and others. 

He has ever manifested a lively interest in the wel- 
fare of his native city, and all measures tending to 
advance the material and religious interests have 
found in him an earnest supporter. He was an early 
advocate of the Concord and Portsmouth Railroad, and 
was president of that corporation from 1847 to 1857, 
and upon the reorganization of the road in 1859 he 
was again elected its president, and officiated in that 
capacity one year. He has also been a director in 
the Rockingham Bank. Although not an active poli- 
tician, he has ever taken a deep interest in public 
afiairs, and for four years was chosen by his fellow- 
citizens to represent the city in the Legislature. He 

was a member in 1864^65, 1867-68, and discharged 
his duties with credit to himself and to the entire 
satisfaction of his constituents. 

Mr. Haven has been twice married, — first. May 11, 
1827, to Louisa Sheafe, daughter of James Sheafe, 
Esq., by whom he had one child. Mrs. Haven died 
Jan. 31, 1828. Aug. 8, 1832, he united in marriage 
with Margaret Houston, daughter of John Houston, 
of Exeter, and their family has consisted of six chil- 
dren, four of whom survive. 


Charles Warren Brewster was born in Portsmouth, 
N. H., Sept. 13, 1802, and died Aug. 4, 1868. He was 
the son of Samuel and Mary (Ham) Brewster, and a 
descendant of Elder William Brewster, of Pilgrim no- 

The following extracts from a biographical sketch 
prepared by Hon. William H. Y. Hackett for the 
second series of " Rambles about Portsmouth" com- 
prehend the life and character of the subject of this 

Having completed his school education, in his six- 
teenth year, on the 16th day of February, 1818, he 
began to learn the business of a printer in the office 
of the Portsmouth Oracle, then published by Cliarles 
Turell, and his connection with that paper continued 
from that day"until his death, — a period of more than 
half a century. Wlien the name of the paper was 
changed in 1823 to The Portsmouth Journal, it was 
edited by Mr. Nathaniel A. Haven, Jr., a gentleman of 
extraordinary literary taste and ability. During his 
apprenticeship Mr. Brewster wrote more frequently 
for other papers than for that with which he was con- 
nected. He took pains with his articles, regarding the 
exercise as a preparation for the position of an editor. 
He put most of Mr. Haven's editorial articles into 
type, and had an admiration for his style as a writer, 
and a veneration for his character as a man, traces of 
which were seen in his subsequent writings and life. 

In July, 1825, Mr. Brewster and Tobias H. Miller 
assumed the joint proprietorship of the Portsmouth 
Journal. This connection was maintained for about 
ten years, when, in 1835, he became sole proprietor 
and editor. In 1853 he associated with him his son, 
Lewis W. Brewster, in these positions, who upon his 
father's death became sole proprietor. 

Mr. Brewster married. May 13, 1828, Mary Gilman, 
daughter of Ward and Hannah Gilman. They had 
nine children. His wife and four of their children, 
Lewis W., Charles G., Mary G., and Helen A. G., 
survived him. At about the time of his marriage he 
became a member of the North (Congregational) 
Church, a position which he adorned through the re- 
mainder of his life. 

To the Journal he gave his thoughts, his labors, and 
his talents. The forty-three volumes of that paper, 

^ o^^~y^a^ ^^-^^ 



commencing in 1825 and ending in 1868, are at once 
tlie record of liis industry, the illustration of his 
taste, the photograph of his character, his real biog- 
raphy. During the whole of that period he was the 
principal writer, and every volume, every number, 
shows his taste as a printer, his ability as a writer, 
and his discriminating judgment in making selections. 
It has been well remarked that the success of an 
editor depends quite as much on what he keeps out 
of his columns as what he puts into them. It would 
be difiicult to find a newspaper more free from every- 
thing offensive to good taste. He aimed to make, and 
he did make, his Journal a good and valued family 
paper. Although it was always decided in its polit- 
ical principles, yet it supported them in a manner so 
free from bitterhess, and was in other respects so ju- 
diciously managed, that it went into many.families in 
which there was no sympathy with its politics. 

Although his paper was the organ in this part of 
the State of the party to which he belonged, and al- 
though he gave to his party a firm and uniform support, 
yet he found more satisfaction in getting up the mis- 
cellaneous than the political part of his paper. I 
have, says his biographer, called upon him more than 
once in the midst of an exciting political campaign, 
and found him absorbed in writing a " Ramble," or 
delighted with an ancient manuscript, or some scrap 
of history or biography. 

Mr. Brewster did not regard his paper only or 
chiefly as a means of making an income, but he 
viewed it as an instrument through which he was to 
perform important social duties. He felt as much re- 
sponsible for the influence that his Journal exerted 
upon the community as for his personal example in 
his family or upon his employes. And he used 
every available means to make his influence felt for 
good. He thought not only the tone of his paper 
should be pure, but he believed that a correct style 
in arranging the matter, and beauty in the printing, 
aided in improving the taste and elevating the morals 
of his readers. He not only made the duties, toils, 
and routine of life minister to the formation of his 
own high character, but he also made them the me- 
dium of a healthful and beneficent influence upon 

The publication of a weekly newspaper for a half- 
century tends to form habits of regularity and rou- 
tine. In him the tendency to regularity pre-existed ; 
his occupation merely developed and established it. 
The idea that he could be away from his newspaper 
appeared not to have occurred to him. It would be 
safe to say that in forty-three years he was not absent 
from his ofiice on Friday at the making up of his 
paper more than a dozen times. He allowed himself 
no relaxation. He did not seem to desire any. He 
found his pleasure in his toil, his relaxation in his 
duty, and his happiness in his home. He did not 
carry the cares of business or the unfinished labors 
of the day to the fireside. Like most editors, he 

worked most easily and freely at his ofBce-desk. He 
was as regular in attending church on Sunday as he 
was in publishing his paper on Saturday. Although 
not averse to improvements, his tendency was to ad- 
here to old habits, old principles, old friends, old 
books, and old ways of making money. For more 
than forty years he occupied the same ofiice and the 
same dwelling-house. 

To the benevolent organizations he gave his sym- 
pathy and cordial and liberal co-operation. For more 
than half his lifetime he was the secretary of the 
Howard Benevolent Society, one of the best charitable 
organizations in the city, and for many years treas- 
urer of the Portsmouth Bible Society. He was for 
some time superintendent of the Sunday-school con- 
nected with the North Church. 

The "Rambles about Portsmouth" were a labor of 
love, and, while indicating the direction of his read- 
ing, they attbrd a fair and favorable specimen of his, 
style and taste. Plain Anglo-Saxon language flowed 
naturally from his pen. He commanded an easy and 
direct mode of expression, which formed an excellent 
narrative style. A pleasing story or a bit of romance 
always attracted him. He rescued it from the past, 
and lent it fresh charms by the simple, graceful mould 
in which he cast it. It is worthy of marked com- 
mendation, however, that he avoided the temptation 
of giving credence to pure fiction. Whatever was of 
doubtful origin never gained currency from him with- 
out being stamped as such. There was the quaint 
humor of the chronicler, the fidelity of the historian. 

His labor in obtaining biographical facts, anecdotes, 
and incidents, as materials for history, was such as no 
man would perform unless his heart were in his work. 
These articles were originally prepared for and pub- 
lished in his paper, and were compiled, through many 
years, from all accessible sources, manuscripts, letters, 
family records, city records, old newspapers, old deeds, 
wills, tombstones, and the recollections of aged people 
who have passed away. He was a long time in col- 
lecting the materials — some parts of a " Ramble" 
would be prepared years before a fact or incident 
necessary to complete it was obtained. He compared 
the statement of one aged person with that of another, 
and, when to be found, consulted contemporaneous 
accounts and incidents as well as collateral facts. 

From these and other sources he obtained merely 
the elements, — the data and crude material from which 
he worked. But as piled up on his desk, stowed away 
in drawers, or bound up for future use, they no more 
resembled a "Ramble," as the reader now sees it, 
than the paper-maker'.s uncleansed rags resembled 
the fair sheet upon which it is printed. Those unac- 
quainted with like undertakings can form no adequate 
idea of the labor, patience, and perseverence neces- 
sary to prosecute such a work, of the interruptions 
and delays which attend it, the research and dis- 
crimination requisite to discover and reproduce a trait 
of character, a telling anecdote or incident, or to con- 



firm or confute a tradition. In all this the family and 
friends of Mr. Brewster saw him often employed for 
years. But much of the inward work, which was from 
time to time, amidst the cares and toils of life, mould- 
ing the matter thus elaborated into narratives so life- 
like, so attractive, so genial as often to remind one 
of the writings of Washington Irving, gave no out- 
ward token of its process. The structure of these 
narratives, which is the blending of history, biogra- 
phy, and romantic incidents, and constitutes the great 
merit and attractiveness of both volumes of the 
" Rambles," was in preparation while the writer ap- 
peared to others to be doing something else or noth- 
ing, — walking the street, making up his paper, or 
sitting by the fireside. 

Mr. Brewster was a man of marked ability, untiring 
industry, and high-toned character, but of difiident 
and retiring habits. He was called, literally called, 
to fill several positions of trust. At the time of his 
death he was one of the trustees of the Portsmouth 
Savings-Bank. He served for two years as president 
of the Mechanics' and Manufacturers' Association. 
He was for thirty-four years secretary of the Howard 
Benevolent Society, was for several years in one or the 
other branch of the city government, was represen- 
tative in the State Legislature in 1846-47, and in 1850, 
with Governor Goodwin and Ichabod Bartlett, was a 
delegate from his ward to the convention to amend 
the State Constitution. He declined being candi- 
date for other positions, among them that of mayor. 
In these and the other positions which he filled he 
discharged his duties with diligence and ability and 
to general acceptance. He occasionally delivered 
addresses before the Lyceum, the association of which 
he was president, and other public bodies both at 
home and abroad. These addresses were always 
heard with pleasure, and were marked by good taste 
and sound thought. 

He was not only a good writer, as his forty-three 
volumes of the Portsmouth Journal and his two vol- 
umes of " Rambles" will abundantly show, but he was 
an historian, a lecturer, a biographer, and a poet. His 
favorite reading was biography and poetry. He was 
very discriminating and just in his biographical 
sketches of prominent men and of his townsmen. 
He had considerable poetic ability, which he exer- 
cised too rarely, occupying a prominent position in 
the "Poets of Portsmouth." 

It was formerly the custom among the publishers 
of newspapers to circulate in or with the number of 
the paper issued on the 1st of January in each year a 
poetical address to their patrons, called the "carriers' 
address." Many years ago, and while the late Isaac 
Hill published the New Hampshire Patriot, he offered 
a set of Sir Walter Scott's "Poetical Works" for the 
best "carriers' address" for the then approaching 1st 
of January. Mr. Brewster, with several others, com- 
peted for this prize. Among the many addresses 
offered was one to which Mr. Hill, himself a poet, 

gave the decided preference, and it was the same to 
which the committee afterwards awarded the prize. 
Mr. Hill, supposing the successful address to have 
been the production of a lady, remarked that this cir- 
cumstance would somewhat moderate the disappoint- 
ment of the unsuccessful competitors. When the 
award was made and the openipg of the envelope 
revealed Mr. Brewster as the writer, Mr. Hill was 
quite as much disappointed as any of the authors of 
the "rejected addresses." He was not more sur- 
prised to find that the prize was not to be given to a 
lady than that it was to be given to an editor and a 
political opponent. The reader will see that he 
judged much better of the merits than of the source 
of the successful address. The prize was duly for- 
warded, and is now a cherished treasure in the library 
of the family of Mr. Brewster. 

The successful address was the " History of News- 
Birth of the Press." 

From necessity and practice, Mr. Brewster early 
acquired the habit of writing rapidly. He also had 
the power of abstraction, and the current of his 
thoughts and the preparation of his editorial matter 
were not disturbed or impeded by the clatter of a 
printing-office. He wrote as he lived, from the light 
within. Sedate and retiring as he was, he had a ftind 
of humor and wit which he sought rather to repress 
than exhibit, but which at times enlivened his friends 
and his paper. 

His habits and tastes made him averse to news- 
paper controversy. What editor in the country of 
his extended experience has so generally avoided it? 
When forced into it, however, he was quick to "make 
the opposer beware" of whom he had attacked. His 
criticisms were pungent, his wit not seldom cau.stic. 
He undoubtedly possessed great powers of sarcasm. 
That they were used so sparingly, and never by way 
of display, but invariably in defense of what he was 
convinced was the right, or in exposing error and 
deceit, is characteristic of the man. 

Mr. Brewster, like many of our prominent and able 
men, was educated in a printing-office and at the 
editor's desk. There is something in the constant 
and powerful pressure upon an American editor, 
obliging him to record and comment upon the events 
as they occur, and to discuss those principles which 
are growing and ripening in the public mind, and 
bringing him daily to a searching examination of 
the moral, social, economical, and political problems 
which crowd and succeed each other with such rapid 
succession, that tends to quicken his powers and con- 
centrate his energies, to give a decisive and practical 
cast to his character, and to force him into promi- 
nence and success. 

This pressure developed Mr. Brewster. He was 

naturally retiring, unwilling to be before the public. 

■ His position compelled him to write, and he was 

found in this, as well as in all other positions in which 

he was placed, equal to the demands made upon him. 



This discipline made liira a good and able writer and 
author and a successful business man, and gave Lira 
the tastes and habits of a scholar, a wide influence, 
and a high position. The life of an editor makes 
some persons aggressive and irritable, but Mr. Brew- 
ster yielded to no such influence. He neyer alienated 
a friend or made an enemy. He early formed a plan 
of life, and faithfully acted upon it to the end. He 
was more anxious to be right than to be thought so, 
more intent upon doing his duty than in obtaining a 
reward for it, thought more of publishing a good 
than a profitable paper, more of being a useful than 
a prominent man, and at his death the universal 
feeling of respect for his memory was his best eulogy. 
But the great, rounded, and ripened feature in Mr. 
Brewster's character, that which as years passed over 
him in his quiet walk of labor and usefulness, gained, 
deepened, and fixed the public confidence and respect, 
was his integrity and purity. He was a remarkable 
man, not only for his industry and ability, his purity 
and success, but for his self-culture and wise self-con- 
trol. His life Was harmonious and symmetrical. His 
impulses were so under subjection that lie appeared 
not so much to resist temptations as to avoid them. 
He was so diligent in the line of duty that he had as 
little opportunity as inclination to depart from it. 
Such a life, sweetening and cementing the domestic 
and social relations, was as full of happiness as of 
beauty. He died as calmly and serenely as he had 
lived, in the enjoyment of the affectionate respect of 
his townsmen and of the public. 


Early History — Ecclesiastical History — Educatioual — Atkinson Acad- 
emy — Individuals wlio have entered Learned Professions. 

Atkinson is situated in latitude 42° 51', longitude 
71° 8', and is about four miles in length and three 
in breadth, containing six thousand eight hundred 
acres, and is bounded north by Hampstead, east by 
Plaistow, south by Haverhill, Mass., and west by 
Salem and Derry. It is thirty-six miles from Con- 
cord and thirty-six miles from Boston, on the Boston 
and Maine Railroad. 

It originally was a part of Haverhill, whicii was 
settled in 1640. It comprises a portion of the terri- 
tory conveyed to the inhabitants of Pentucket (now 
Haverhill) by the Indians Passaquo and Saggahew, 
with the consent of their chief Passaconnaway, by 
their deed now in existence, dated Nov. 15, 1642. 

No settlement was made till eighty-five years later, 
when, in 1727 or '28, Benjamin Richards, of Roches- 
ter, N. H., Nathaniel, Jonathan, and Edmund Page 
and John Dow, trom Haverhill, moved into the 
present limits of the town. When the dividing 
line between New Hampshire and Massachusetts 

was settled, Atkinson, then a part of Plaistow, was 
assigned to New Hampshire. 

Plaistow was incorporated Feb. 28, 1749. Atkinson 
was separated from Plaistow Aug. 31, 1767, and incor- 
porated by the Legislature September 3d of the same 

The increase of population from the first settlement 
of the town was rapid, and in 1775, eight years after 
the incorporation of the town, it numbered five hun- 
dred and seventy-five, more than the average from 
that time to the present. The population by the cen- 
sus of 1880 was five hundred and one. 

The soil is of an excellent quality, yielding large 
returns for the labor spent upon it, and the town has 
long been noted for its superior fruit. 

The location of the town is very high, commanding 
a view of the spires of sixteen villages and of many 
mountains on every side around it. The air is dry 
and pure, and Dr. Bowditch, the distinguished physi- 
cian, has long recommended it as one of the most 
favorable resorts in New Hampshire for those afflicted 
with pulmonary complaints. 

In the Revolution, which occurred so soon after the 
incorporation of the town, the people of Atkinson 
showed themselves truly patriotic. This they did by 
spirited resolutions and by furnishing men and money 
for the army. 

Mr. Nathaniel Cogswell, who had been a merchant 
thirty or forty years in the adjoining town of Haver- 
hill, and had moved into Atkinson in 1766, alone gave 
eight sons to the service, besides loaning money to the 
town to be expended in bounty and military equip- 
ments, the greater part of which money, by the de- 
preciation of currency, he lost. These eight sons 
performed more than thirty-eight years of service, a 
greater amount of service, it is believed, than was 
rendered by any other family in the country. 

They all survived the Revolution and settled in 
life, and were the Hon. Thomas Cogswell, of Gilman- 
ton ; Hon. Amos Cogswell, of Dover ; Capt. Nathaniel 
P. Cogswell, of Atkinson; Moses Cogswell, Esq., of 
Canterbury; Dr. William Cogswell, of Atkinson; 
John Cogswell, Esq., of Landaff ; Dr. Joseph Cogs- 
well, of Yarmouth; and Mr. Ebenezer Cogswell, of 
Wiscosset, Me. Gen. Nathaniel Peabody, by the im- 
portant services he rendered to the country in this 
crisis of affairs, was a host. 

In all the wars in which our country has been en- 
gaged Atkinson has been prompt to do its whole duty. 
In the war of 1812 she sent quite a number of men 
to guard the forts along the coast, and Capt. William 
Page, commander of a company of cavalry, in re- 
sponse to a requisition from the Governor, tendered 
the services of this entire company. Forty residents 
of Atkinson served in the war of the Rebellion, very 
few towns in New Hampshire furnishing so large a 
number in proportion to their population. 

Ecclesiastical History.— The reasons assigned by 
the petitioners for a sei)aration from the town of 



Plaistow were " that by reason of the great distance 
of their dwellings from the meeting-house they un- 
dergo many and great difficulties in attending the 
worship of Almighty God there, and that the said 
meeting-house is not large enough to accommodate 
more than half of the inhabitants of said town." 

Before the erection of the church services were 
held at the house of Mr. Nathaniel Cogswell. The 
first meeting-house was built in 1768-69, and remained 
until 1845. 

The town extended a call to Mr. Stephen Peabody, 
Feb. 26, 1772, and voted to give him " 160 pounds 
lawful money as a settlement, upon condition that 
the salary begin £66 13s. and 4(/. lawful money the first 
year, and add on 40 shillings per year till it amount 
to 80 pounds per year." They also voted to give him 
" ten cords of wood per year as long as he carry on 
the work of the ministry in Atkinson." Mr. Pea- 
body accepted, and was ordained Nov. 25, 1772, at 
which time the church was organized at the house of 
Mr. Samuel Little. 

The covenant of the church adopted at its organi- 
zation was evangelical. Mr. Peabody continued pas- 
tor of the church until his decease. (See sketches.) 

After the death of Mr. Peabody the pulpit was 
supplied by the following gentlemen : Rev. Jacob 
Cummings, born at Warren, Mass. ; D. C. 1819 ; An- 
dover Theological Seminary, 1822 ; preached at At- 
kinson 1822-24, being at the same time preceptor of 
the academy, afterwards at Straham, Southborough, 
Mass., Hillsborough, and Exeter, where he died June 
20, 1866, in the seventy-third year of his age. 

Rev. Stephen Farley, born at Hollis ; D. C. 1804, 
was settled at Claremont, 1806-18 ; af Atkinson, 1824- 
31, being at the same time preceptor of the academy ; 
died at Amesbury, Mass., Sept. 30, 1871, aged seventy- 

Rev. Luke A. Spofford, boril at Jaffrey, M. C. 
1815 ; pastor of the church in Gilmanton, 1819-25 ; 
Brentwood, 1826-29; Lancaster, 1829-31; Atkinson, 
1831-34; then of the churches at Scituate, Mass., 
and Chilmark, Mass., when he removed to Indiana, 
and died at Rockville, Oct. 10, 1855. He was the 
father of Judge Henry M. Spoftbrd, of Louisiana, 
and Amsworth Spofford, librarian of the Congressional 
Library, Washington, D. C. 

Rev. Samuel H. Tolman, born at Dorchester, Mass. ; 
D. C. 1806; settled at Shirley, Mass., Dunstable, 
Mass., South Merriraac, Atkinson, 1836-39, Sempster, 
and Hillsborough Centre; died at Atkinson, April 2, 

Rev. Samuel Pierce, born at Haverhill, Mass. ; D. 
C. 1835; Andover Theological Seminary, 1840 ; com- 
menced preaching at Atkinson in 1842, and died 
March 27, 1844. 

Rev. Jesse Page. 

Rev. C. F. Morse, born at Salem, Vt. ; A. C. 1853 ; 
Andover Theological Seminary, 1856 ; missionary to 
Turkey, 1857-70 ; pastor at Atkinson, 1872-75, then 

at Thetford, Waterford, and McTudor's Falls, in Ver- 

Rev. C. T. Melvin, born at Chester ; D. C. 1856 ; 
Andover Theological Seminary, 1859; pastor at Co- 
lumbus, Elk Grove, and Sun Prairie, Wis., Emporia, 
Kan., Atkinson, 1875-80; died at Walpole, Mass., 

Rev. E. B. Pike, born at Hiram, Me. ; M.D. at Bow- 
doin Medical College, 1857 ; Bangor Theological 
Seminary, 1862 ; pastor at Stowe, Me., and Chatham, 
N. H., Brownfield, Me., Boothbay, Me., Atkin, 1880- 

Rev. J. O. Barrows, born at Mansfield, Conn. ; A. C. 
18(50; Andover Theological Seminary, 1863 ; pastor 
at North Hampton; First Church, Exeter; Missionary 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Mis- 
sions in Turkey, 1869-80 ; pastor at Atkinson, 1882. 

In March, 1819, three months previous to the death 
of Mr. Peabody, the town " voted to let the Uuiversal- 
ists have the privilege of using the meeting-house the 
present year their proportion of Sundays, according 
to the taxation." This vote was repeated in subse- 
quent years. 

Deeming it expedient, on account of the inconveni- 
ence which attended the worship of God in connection 
with those of other denominations, the church and 
orthodox part of the community formed, Feb. 19, 
1834, a society for the support of Christian institu- 
tions, called the " Congregational Society in Atkin- 
son." During the year 1835 a meeting-house was 
erected by this new society from subscriptions by 
themselves and others. It stands on land given for 
this purpose by Joseph B. Cogswell. 

In 1845, Mrs. Judith. Cogswell, widow of Dr. Wil- 
liam Cogswell, gave to the Orthodox Congregational 
Church and Society a bell weighing thirteen hundred 
pounds. A pipe organ was procured in 1866. A fine 
parsonage was erected in 1872. Th« meeting-house 
was remodeled in 1879 at an expense exceeding its 
original cost. 

In 1872, Francis Cogswell, George Cogswell, Na- 
thaniel Cogswell, and Jesse Page gave to the Con- 
gregational Church a thousand dollars each, " The 
interest to be expended, under its direction, for the 
support of preaching and sustaining the gospel min- 
istry ;" and Joseph B. Cogswell, another brother, a 
similar amount for the support of preaching and re- 
pairs on the house of worship. Donations to the 
preaching fund have also been made by John Petten- 
gill and Eliza W. Noyes. 

It may be well to remark that the singing in the 
church has always been by a volunteer choir. To one 
family, children of Mr. Henry Noyes, has the church 
been especially indebted. Four sisters of this family 
sat side by side for more than forty years preceding 
1865, and several brothers nearly as long, and the 
husband of one of the four sisters sang in the choir 
more than fifty years, a great part of the time as the 



A Universalist Society was incorporated June 
18, 1818, by the name of the Universalist Society of 
Atkinson and Hampstead. The old society was given 
up, and the present one formed in 1839, and is known 
by the name of the Atkinson Universalist Society. 
The society erected a meeting-house in 1842. 

For the years 1843 and 1844 the Rev. Josiah Oilman 
resided in the town, and supplied the pulpit half the 
time. Since then the society has had preaching only 

Education. — The early settlers seem to have been 
people of intelligence, and one of their first thoughts 
was the education of their children. March 29, 1774, 
according to the records of the town, it was voted to 
hire a schoolmaster eight months the ensuing year, 
an unusual length of school for so small a population 
at that early period. Jan. 30, 1775, the town was 
divided into three school districts and subsequently 
into six ; the present number is five. The people, 
however, were soon dissatisfied with the advantages 
of the common district schools, and in 1788 erected a 
suitable building and established Atkinson Academy, 
which is entitled to an honorable place among the 
educational institutions of New England from its an- 
tiquity and usefulness. 

The first four academies of New Hampshire were 
Phillips', at Exeter, incorporated 1781 ; New Ipswich, 
incorporated 1789 ; Chesterfield, incorporated 1790 ; 
and Atkinson, incorporated Feb. 17, 1791. As the 
one at Atkinson, however, went into operation several 
years before its incorporation, it is really the second 
in the State in point of age. The origin of the 
academy is due mainly to the efforts of three men, — 
Hon. Dr. and Gen. Nathaniel Peabody, Rev. Stephen 
Peabody, and Dr. William Cogswell. 

The fii'st academy building, one story in height, 
was erected in the centre of the town, where the road 
to Salem diverges from the main street. It was 
burned in 1802, and the present building was erected 
in 1803, after the model of Phillips' Academy, in 
Exeter. It is sixty feet long, thirty-four feet wide, 
and two stories high, and is a well-proportioned, 
handsome structure, situated on elevated ground, and 
commanding an extensive view of the country around. 

In 1850 the old plank seats were exchanged for 
modern desks, and a fine bell procured by subscrip- 
tion. A good library and suitable philosophical and 
chemical apparatus have also been obtained. 

When first established the academy, through the 
scarcity of such institutions, soon gained an enviable 
reputation, and was largely patronized from a dis- 
tance, fitting young men for college, and giving in- 
struction in the higher English branches. It early 
became a mixed school, when but little attention had 
been paid to female education, and has so continued 
to the present time, being the first academy, accord- 
ing to Rev. Dr. Foil, himself one of the pupils, where 
the sexes were educated together in the higher 

It is interesting to note, in comparison with the 
present educational expenses, how small were the 
charges of the school in its early history. The tuition 
for the first two years was only 6s. for a quarter of 
twelve weeks; then 95.; in 1797, $2.00; in 1805, 
$3.00 ; in 1839 it was raised to $4.00 ; in 1854 it was 
$4.80. Board at first was 4s. 6d., including lodging 
and washing. Then for many years it was 6s. ; in 
1830 it was 7s. 6c?. for the whole week, including 
washing and lodging, and 6s. for those who spent the 
Sabbath at their homes; in 1850 from $1.50 to $2.00 
per week, including room-rent and washing. 

The academy has had no permanent funds till re- 
cently. In 1855, Mr. James Atwood, of Westchester, 
Pa., a native of the town, gave one thousand dollars, 
and his son-in-law. Dr. Almon Z. Bardin, five hun- 
dred dollars. In 1865 it received a legacy of two 
thousand dollars from Rev. Dr. Joseph B. Fell, one 
thousand for himself and one thousand for his wife, 
and in 1877 two thousand dollars as a legacy from 
Quincy Tufts, one of the first pupils of the academy. 
Mr. William Johnson, an old resident of the town, 
who died in 1880, gave a prospective bequest of 
above eleven thousand dollars. He was a man of 
great native good sense and much industry, and he 
lived to the advanced age of nearly ninety-three years. 

It is not a little remarkable that an institution 
entirely self-supporting should have so long main- 
tained itself, which is due to its healthy location, its 
ease of access, and the wants of a large rural sur- 
rounding population. The academy is now in suc- 
cessful operation, and, with a fund and other advan- 
tages recently secured, bids fair in the future to 
surpass its past usefulness. 

Very many have enjoyed its privileges who would 
otherwise have secured no instruction beyond that of 
the common district schools. To the town where it 
is located it has been of priceless value. 

The Rev. Dr. Cogswell, good authority, stated that 
through its influence Atkinson had given more of its 
sons to the learned professions than any other town 
in the State, in proportion to its population. 

Among the many pupils of the old academy are 
not a few who have attained eminence. There may 
be mentioned the names of Levi Woodbury, noted in 
youth as in manhood for his untiring industry; Gov- 
ernor Kent, of Maine; Jonathan and Joseph Cilley; 
President Brown, of Dartmouth College; Gen. James 
Wilson ; Judge White, of Salem ; President Hale, of 
Hobart College; Benjamin Greenleaf, author of many 
mathematical works; Edmund R. Peaslee, LL.D., 
the distinguished medical professor and practitioner, 
of New York City; Judge Greenleaf Clarke, of the 
Supreme Court, Minnesota. To these should be added, 
besides others previously mentioned, a large number 
of clergymen of great usefulness. 

Grace Fletcher, the first wife of Daniel Webster, 
was educated here, and has been described by her 
schoolmates as a pale, modest, retiring girl. 



The following is a list of the different principals of 
the academy : 

Moses Leavitt Neal, of Londonderr}', H. C. 1785, 
attorney-at-law, clerk of New Hampshire House of 
Eepresentatives, and register of deeds of Strafford 
County, lived at Dover and elsewhere. Died 1829, 
aged sixty-two. 

Daniel Hardy, of Bradford, Mass., D. C. 1789, 
studied divinity; tutor in Dartmouth College; taught 
at Chesterfield and Bradford, Mass. A distinguished 
linguist. Died at Dracut, Mass., Nov. 25, 1833, aged 

Samuel Moody, of Byfield, Mass., D. C. 1790, 
teacher at Hallowell, Me., where he died April 6, 
1832, aged sixty-seven. 

Silas Dinsmore, of Windham, D. C. 1791, purser of 
United States navy; Indian agent, with the rank of 
colonel, to the Choctaw and Cherokee Indians, and 
collector of the port of Mobile. A man of much en- 
ergy and intelligence. It was to him that a cabinet 
minister wrote to ask, " How far does the Tombigbee 
run up into the country?" His reply was, " It does 
not run up at all, it runs down." The result was his 
dismissal. He died at Bellone, Ky., June 17, 1847, 
aged eighty. 

Stephen Pejibody Webster, of Haverhill, Mass., 
H. C. 1792, was the first person that entered college 
from the academy ; clerk of the courts of Grafton 
County, and representative, senator, and councilor of 
the State of New Hampshire; taught at Haverhill, 
where he died, 1841. 

John Vose, of Bradford, D. C. 1795, preceptor of 
Pembroke Academy ; representative and senator of 
New' Hampshire Legislature; author of several ad- 
dresses and two valuable and original works on as- 
tronomy, died at Atkinson, May 3, 1840, aged seventy- 
three. He taught at Atkinson twenty-three years, 
and at Pembroke eleven years. He Was a worthy 
man, a devout Christian, a superior teacher, of more 
than ordinary ability and scholarship. He was 
offered the position of judge, which he declined. 

Moses Dow, of Atkinson, D. C. 1796, settled as a 
clergyman at Beverly, Mass., and York, Me., died at 
Plaistow, May 9, 1837, aged sixty-six. 

AVilliam Cogswell, of Atkinson, D. C. 1811, prin- 
cipal of Hampton Academy, settled as a clergyman 
in Dedham, Mass. ; secretary of the American Edu- 
cation Society ; professor in Dartmouth College, and 
president of Gilmanton Theological Seminary ; editor 
of American Quarterly Register, and author of several 
theological works; died at Gilmanton, April IS, 1850, 
aged sixty-two. He was a man of great industry and 
usefulness, and few clergymen of his time were better 
known, or filled so many important positions. 

Francis Voce, of Francistown, D. C. 1817, teacher 
at Colchester, Conn., Hampton, N. H., Newburyport, 
Topsfield, and Haverhill, Mass., and Bloomtield Acad- 
emy, Me., died at Pembroke, Aug. 8, 1851, aged sixty- 

Jacob Cummings, of Warren, Mass., D. C. 1819, 
preceptor of Hampton Academy, settled as a clergy- 
man at Stratham, N. H., Sharon and Scarborough, 
Mass., and Hillsborough and Exeter, N. H., died at 
Exeter, June 20, 1866, aged seventy-three. 

Stephen Farley, of HoUis, D. C. 1804, clergyman, 
settled at Claremont and Atkinson, died at Ames- 
bury, Mass., Sept. 20, 1851, aged seventy-one. He 
was the author of several theological works, and was 
an excellent belles-lettres scholar. 

Enoch Hale, of Alstead, University of Vermont, 
1826, teacher at Alstead and New London, took orders 
for the Episcopal Church, died at Atkinson, Nov. 16, 

John Kelly, of Plaistow, A. C. 1825, preceptor of 
Derry Academy, attorney-at-law in Plaistow, Chester, 
and Atkinson, died 1877. 

Joseph Peckham, of Westminster, Mass., A. C. 1837, 
clergyman, settled at Kingston, Mass. 

Joseph Allen Taylor, of Granby, Mass., H. C. 1839, 
died at Atkinson while a member of Andover Theo- 
logical Seminary, 1842, aged twenty-eight. 

Benjamin A. Spauldiug, of Billerica, Mass., H. C. 
1840, missionary in Iowa. Blalachi Bullard, of West 
Medway, Mass., D. C. 1841, clergyman, settled at 
Winchendon, Mass., died May 10, 1849, aged thirty- 

John Wason Ray, of Auburn, D. C. 1843 ; teacher 
in Manchester, Derry, and Eastport, Me. ; clergyman, 
settled at Vernon, Conn., and Goffstown. 

Edward Hanford Greeley, of Hopkintou, D. C. 
1845, clergyman, settled in Haverhill, Nashua, and 
Methuen, Mass. ; secretary of New Hampshire Home 
Missionary Society. 

Joseph Garland, of Hampton, B. C. 1844, physi- 
cian in Gloucester, Mass., of which city he has been 

Charles Darwin Fitch, of Greenfield, D. C. 1837, 
teacher in Phillips' Academy, Andover, Amherst, 
Derry, and elsewhere, physician. 

William C. Todd, D. C. 1844, principal Female 
High School, Newburyport, Mass., in which city he 
now resides. 

Charles Prescott Parsons, of Gilmanton, D. C. 1853, 
teacher in Gilmanton, Biddeford, Me., and Evans- 
ville, Ind., where he died, 1880. 

John Webster Dodge, of Newburyport, Mass., A. C. 
1857, Congregational clergyman, Yarmouth, Mass. 

Justin White Spaulding, of Plainfield, D. C. 1847, 
teacher in West Boscawen, Meriden, Bradford, Vt., 
and Taunton, Mass. ; died in Atkinson, Sept. 28, 1865, 
aged forty-two. 

Nathan Barrows, of Hattford, Conn., W. R. C. 
1850, A. B. 1853, A.M. and College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, N. Y., M.D. ; principal of Huron 
County Institute, Ohio; South Berwick Academy, 
Me. ; Claremont High School ; and teacher in Kimball 
Union Academy. 
William Ellingwood Buntin, of Dunbarton, D. C. 



1860, teacher in Dunbarton and Gloucester, Marble- 
head, and Waltham, Mass. ; was captain in the war 
of the Rebellion. 

Bartlett Hardy Weston, of Georgetown, Mass., D. C. 
lSl)4, teacher in Hampton Academy ; Wheaton Acad- 
emy, 111., Golden Gate Academy, Cal., and at Reed's 

E. C. Allen, of Colosse, Oswego Co., N. Y., Madi- 
son University, 1844, professor in Collegiate Institute, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., and principal of Penacook Acad- 
emy, Fisherville. 

Maurice P. White, of South Hadley, Mass., A. C. 
1875, teacher in Washington, D. C. 

John Vose Hazen, grandson of Hon. John Vose, 
received his education at Atkinson Academy; grad- 
uated at Dartmouth; B. S. 1875, C. E. 1876; prin- 
cipal of Atkinson Academy. 

Chandler, Professor of Theoretical and Applied 
Mechanics, and Instructor in Civil Engineering, Dart- 
mouth College. 

Charles Daniel Tenney, D. C. 1878 ; Oberlin The- 
ological Seminary, 1882 ; Missionary American Board 
of Commissioners Foreign Missions iu China. 

The present principal (1882) is B. H. Weston, be- 
fore mentioned. 

Individuals who have entered the Learned Pro- 
fessions. — Hon. Moses Dow, son of Mr. John Dow ; 
H. C. 1769 ; attorney ; judge of probate ; brigadier- 
general iu the militia ; resided at Haverhill, N. H. 

John Poor, son of Lieut. Daniel Poor; H. C. 1775; 
instructor of youth in Philadelphia; taught the first 
female school of celebrity in the country; spent most 
of his life in Philadelphia; died in Baltimore. 

Dr. William Cogswell. (See sketches.) 

Dr. Joseph Cogswell, brother of William ; studied 
medicine with him; was with him in the military 
hospital at West Point; practiced in Warner, New 
Durham, and Tamworth, N. H. 

Dr. James Knight, son of Mr. Joshua Knight; 
studied medicine with Gen. Nathaniel Peabody ; prac- 
ticed medicine in Hampstead. 

Hon. Stephen Peabody, son of Rev. Stephen Pea- 
body ; H. C. 1794 ; captain in the Oxford army ; 
judge of the Court of Common Pleas in Maine. 

Hon. John Noyes, son of Mr. Humplirey Noyes; 
D. C. 1795; tutor in college; merchant; member of 
Congress ; resided in Putney, Vt. ; died 1841, aged 
seventy -seven. 

Rev. Moses Dow, sou of Mr. John Dow ; D. C. 
1796; Congregational clergyman, settled in the min- 
istry at Beverly, Mass., and York, Me. ; died in Plais- 
tow, 1837, aged sixty-six. 

Dr. Abuer Page, son of Mr. Daniel Page ; studied 
medicine with Dr. William Cogswell ; practiced in 
Sandown, New Durham, and Rochester, N. Y. ; died 
at Buffalo, N. Y. 

Dr. Josiah Noyes, son of Mr. Humphrey Noyes, Jr. ; 
D. C. 1801; tutor; studied medicine with Prof. Na- 
than Smith, M.D., at D. C, 1806 ; professor Hamil- 

ton College and Fairfield Medical College ; died 1853, 
aged seventy-seven. 

Jesse Merrill, son of Mr. James Merrill ; D. C. 
1806; attorney; died 1854, aged seventy-five. 

Caleb Merrill, brother of the above; D. C. 1808; 
attoi-ney ; lived in Pittsfield ; died 1841, aged fifty- 

Rev. William Cogswell, D.D. (See preceptors of 
the academy.) 

Dr. Amos Currier, son of Mr. Dudley Currier ; D. 
C. 1818; practiced in Orangeburg, S. C. ; died 1824, 
aged thirty-three. 

Rev. Nathaniel Cogswell, son of Dr. William Cogs- 
well; D. C. 1819; Congregational clergyman at Yar- 
mouth, Mass., where he died in 1874, aged seventy- 
eight; was the father of Hon. J. B. D. Cogswell; 
president Massachusetts Senate, and seven years 
United States attorney for the District of Wisconsin. 

Francis Cogswell, brother of the above ; D. C. 
1822 ; taught the academy at Meredith Bridge ; at- 
torney, and ^jracticed in Tufton borough, Ossipee, 
and Dover ; clerk of the courts in Strafford County 
before its division ; cashier of the bank at Andover, 
Mass. ; president Boston and Maine Railroad ; died at 
Andover, 1880, aged seventy-nine. 

Rev. Washington Gilbert, son of Mr. John Gilbert ; 
W. C. 1826 ; Unitarian clergyman, settled iu Har- 
vard, Mass. ; died 1879. 

Dr. William Grover, son of Deacon Josiah Grover ; 
studied medicine with Dr. Hovey, of Atkinson ; M.D. 
at B. C, 1829 ; practiced in Barnstead, where he died 
in 1853. 

Dr. George Cogswell, son of Dr. William Cogswell ; 
studied medicine with his father, with Profes-sors 
Mussey and Oliver, of Dartmouth College, and with 
Dr. John D. Fisher, of Boston; M.D. at D. C. 1830; 
settled as a practitioner in Bradford, Mass., in 1830, 
where he now resides. Iu 1841-42 he attended the 
lectures at the Ecole de Medicine, in Paris, and at 
the hospitals in the same city. He again made an 
extended tour in Europe in 1878. He has not only 
attained a high rank in his profession, but has been 
a member of the Governor's Council, and largely in- 
terested in public affairs. He has been distinguished 
as a business man and for his interest in education. 
He is a man of large acquirements, a cultivated 
gentleman, and a wise counselor. To him, more 
than to any other one man, Bradford Academy owes 
its marked success. He has been president of the 
First National Bank, Haverhill, Mass., duriug most 
of the time since its organization. Dartmouth con- 
ferred the degree of A.M. in 1865. He is the father 
of Gen. William Cogswell, distinguished for his ser- 
vices in the war of the Rebellion, mayor of Salem, 
and prominent in civil affairs. 

Rev. Oilman Noyes, son of Lieut. James Noyes, D. 
C. 1830, Universalist minister; settled at Spencer, 
Mass. ; died 1863, aged fifty-nine. 

Rev. Alfred Vose Bassett, son of Col. John Bassett, 



Universalist minister; preaclied in Canton anclDed- 
ham, Mass. ; died 1832. 

Rev. Jesse Page. (See sketches.) 

Closes Webster Walker, son of Mr. Benjamin 
Walker, D. C. 1831, teacher in Boston, died 1838. 

Rev. Nathaniel Grover, son of Deacon Josiah 
Grover, D. C. 1832, teacher in Norwich, Berlin, and 
East Wiusor, Conn., and Rochester, N. Y. ; pastor of 
Congregational Church, South Haven, Mich., where 
he died in 1863. 

William Cogswell Clarke, son of Greenleaf Clarke, 
Esq., D. C. 1832, taught the academy at Gilmanton ; 
attorney ; solicitor for Belknap County ; judge pro- 
bate ; attorney-general. New Hampshire, 1863-72 ; 
died 1872, aged sixty-one. 

Dr. Francis Clarke, brother of the above, studied 
medicine with Dr. George Cogswell, of Bradford ; 
attended lectures at Boston; M.D. at H. C. 1836; 
settled at Andover as a physician ; died 1852. 

Rev. William Page, son of Col. William Page, 
studied divinity at the theological seminaries at Gil- 
manton and Andover; Congregational minister at 
Dracut, Mass., Hudson, Salem, and Bath, N. H. ; 
died at Atkinson, 1861, aged fifty-three. 

Rev. James Marsh How Dow, son of Mr. Samuel 
S. Dow, Methodist minister at Bradford and Andover, 
Mass., Dover, N. H. ; seamen's chaplain, Boston, 
Mass. ; died 1879. 

Dr. Mose.s Clarke, son of Greenleaf Clarke, Esq., 
studied medicine with Dr. Josiah Crosby and Profs. 
Dixi Crosby and E. R. Peaslee ; attended lectures at 
HanOver; M.D. at D. C. 1843; settled in Cambridge, 
Mass. ; died 1861, aged forty-six. 

John Badger Clarke, brother of the above, D. C. 
1843, studied law with his brother, W. C. Clarke ; ad- 
mitted to the bar ; editor [Mirror and Farmer), Man- 

Dr. William Cogswell, son of Joseph B. Cogswell," 
Esq., studied medicine with Dr. George Cogswell, of 
Bradford, Mass. ; attended lectures at Hanover and 
Boston ; M.D. at D. C. 1845 ; practices at Bradford, 
Mass. ; member of Governor's Council, and president 
of Massachusetts Medical Society. 

Elbridge Gerry Bassett, son of Capt. John Bassett, 

B. C. 1838, attorney in New Castle, Ky. ; died 1850. 
Dr. William Knight, son of Col. Joseph Knight, 

studied medicine with Dr. N. K. Kelly, of Plaistow ; 
M.D. at the Berkshire Medical School ; practiced in 
Marlboro' and Medway ; died 1869. 

Paul Porter Todd, son of Mr. Ebenezer Todd, D. 

C. 1842 ; attorney in Kentucky, Blackstone, R. I., 
and New York City. 

William Cleaves Todd, brother of above. (See pre- 

Dr. Richard Page, son of Mr. Aaron Page, studied 
medicine with Dr. Hovey, of Atkinson ; M.D. at the 
Berkshire Medical School ; practiced in Candia ; 
died 1876. 

Elbridge Gerry Grenough, son of Mr. John Gren- 

ough; D. C. 1855; teacher in business in Haver- 
hill ; died 1875. 

Dr. John Henry Gilbert, son of Deacon Franklin 
Gilbert; Harvard 1853 ; practiced in Quincy, 

Francis Cogswell, son of Joseph B. Cogswell, Esq., 
became distinguished as a teacher at Cambridge, Mass. 
Superintendent of schools in that city since 1874. In 
188] received from Harvard the degree of M.A. 

Rev. John B. Merrill, son of Mr. P. D. Merrill. 
Baptist minister at Kingston and Candia. 

John Vose Hazen. (See preceptors.) 

Mr. James Noyes, son of Mr. Humphrey Noyes, Jr., 
though not a professional nor a liberally- educated 
man, was a person in some respects distinguished for 
education as being the author of the third arithmetic 
ever written and published in New England by an 
American; the title of the work is "Federal Arith- 


ATKINSON.— ( Contmned.) 

Lawyers — Physicians — Slvetches of Individuals — Longevity — Miscella- 
neous — Military Record — Representatives. 

The only lawyer who ever practiced in the town 
was John Kelly, who had formerly been preceptor in 
the academy. He removed here from Chester, and 
practiced till his death. He was also distinguished 
as a surveyor. 

Physicians. — Dr. Nathaniel Peabody was the first 
physician who ever settled in Atkinson, where he soon 
acquired a very extensive business, and was accounted 
an able and successful practitioner. (See sketches. ) 

Dr. Kendall Osgood was born at Andover in 1757, 
and was settled as a physician in Atkinson about 
1785. He removed to Peterboro' in the summer of 
1788, where he spent the remainder of his days. He 
was one of the original Fellows of the New Hamp- 
shire Medical Society. He died Aug. 19, 1801, aged 

Dr. William Cogswell. (See sketch.) 

Dr. Thomas Wallace, born at Bedford, Jan. 14, 
1793, commenced practice in Middleton, Mass. ; prac- 
ticed for a time in Atkinson ; soon removed to Derry. 

Dr. Isaac Burnham Hovey, born in Derry, May 1, 
1790, pursued a partial course at Dartmouth, received 
his medical degree at Brown University, Sept. 6, 1820. 
His license to practice was obtained from Massachu- 
setts Medical Society July 3, 1822. He removed to 
Atkinson, October, 1822, and continued in the prac- 
tice of his profession for nearly half a century, till 
his death, Jan. 6, 1872. He was a man of strong 
good sense, an excellent practitioner, and, aside from 
the practice of his profession, took a marked interest 
in education, in farming, and in civil affairs. He was 
a magistrate, and served the town for many years as 



town clerk and represented it one year in tlie Legis- 
lature. He lived and died much respected. It may 
be worthy of remark that during his whole profes- 
sional career, his charge was only fifty cents a visit. 

Sketches of Individuals. — Nathaniel Peabody, 
the first physician of the town, was born in Tops- 
field, Mass., that cradle of the Peabody family, 
March 1, 1741. He was the son of Dr. Jacob Pea- 
body, and by his mother, Susannah Rogers, daughter 
of Rev. John Rogers, of Boxford, a descendant of 
Nathaniel Rogers, of Ipswich, Mass. As a physician 
he was successful and prominent in the organization 
of the New Hampshire Medical Society. At the out- 
break of the Revolutionary war he took an acti^'e part 
and was appointed, Oct. 27, 1774, lieutenant-colonel 
of the Seventh New Hampshire Regiment. March 
25, 1779, he was elected a delegate to the Continental 
Congress. Subsequentl)'' he was Speaker of the New 
Hampshire House of Representatives, State senator 
and councilor, and major-general of the militia. 
About the commencement of the present century 
he became involved in debt, and for many of the 
last years of his life he was imprisoned at Exeter, 
and died within the limits of the jail-yard June 27, 
1823, aged eighty-two years. He was a man of much 
energy and ability, and prominent in the early his- 
tory of New Hampshire. He took much interest in 
education, and in 1791 he received the degree of 
Master of Arts from the trustees of Dartmouth Col- 

Rev. Stephen Peabody was born in Andover, 
Mass., Nov. 1], 1741 ; was graduated at Harvard Col- 
lege 1769, a classmate of Theophilus Parsons. He 
died May 23, 1819. He was chaplain in the army 
during the Revolutionary war. His first wife was 
Miss Polly Haseltine, of Bradford, Mass., aunt of the 
distinguished teacher of that name, also of the first 
Mrs. Judson. His second wife was the widow of Rev. 
John Shaw, of Haverhill, Mass., daughter of Rev. 
John Smith, of Weymouth, Mass., and sister of Mrs. 
President John Adams, a lady of great accomplish- 
ments, whose influence in refining the people of her 
husband's parish is still felt. By her first husband 
she was the mother of William Smith Shaw, long 
connected with the Boston Athenfeum, and of Mrs. 
Abigail Adams Felt, wife of Rev. Joseph B. Felt, well 
known for his historical and genealogical researches. 

To Mr. Peabody more than to any other one man 
the academy is indebted for its establishment. He be- 
came personally liable for its debts, and to secure 
funds obtained an -act of the Legislature authorizing 
a lottery, no unusual method in those days of procur- 
ing money for benevolent objects. Application was 
made to the Legislature of Massachusetts for permis- 
sion to sell tickets in that State, as by an. act of the 
Legislature in February, 1801, the sale of lottery 
tickets from other States was forbidden except by 
legislative consent. This permission was refused, 
not from any moral scruples but from a desire to pro- 

tect home industry, a trait carefully handed down in 
the old Bay State. Parson Peabody, or Sir Peabody, 
as he was usually termed, was a pastor of the old 
school, kind and affable, yet always in dress and 
manner preserving the dignity of his profession. 
Every Sunday he announced what families he would 
visit during the week to catechize the children, and 
at the appointed hour with much trembling the little 
ones were gathered by their parents into the best 
room in their Sunday clothes, to pass the trying 
ordeal of an examination in the Westminster Cate- 
chism, happy if successful, covered with unspeakable 
shame if they failed. At the church the whole con- 
gregation rose as the minister and his lady entered, 
and at the close of the services all remained standing 
till they had left, bowing as they passed along the 
aisle and out of the sanctuary. He kept open doors, 
and was known to all the countrymen who from Ver- 
mont and the upper part of New Hampshire passed 
through the village with country produce to exchange 
for groceries. A large fire burned in his sitting-room, 
and often it is said the stranger would enter, warm 
himself by the grateful fire, talk with his host, and 
depart, the face of the guest unseen, and, with the 
courtesy of the old days of chivalry, his name unasked. 
The name of the good pastor is still green in the 
town of his long labors, and a fine monument has 
recently been placed over his remains. Requieacat 
in pace. 

Dr. AVilliam Cogswell was born in Haverhill, 
Mass., July 11, 1760. He was a descendant of John 
Cogswell, who came from London and settled in 
Ipswich, Mass., in 1635. He was appointed surgeon's 
mate at West Point in 1781, and continued in the 
serviqe till the close of the war. In 1784 he was 
promoted to the charge of the hospital at West Point, 
where he remained till Sept. 1, 1785, when he com- 
menced practice in Atkinson. He was active in his 
profession, in the cause of education, and in public 
affairs. An excellent citizen, he was decided in his 
opinions and energetic in every good work ; he tol- 
erated no wrong in the community around him, and 
trained up a large family of children by obedience 
at home to be good men and women. He died Jan. 
1, 1831. 

Rev. Jesse Page was born in Atkinson, N. H., 
Feb. 23, 1805. His great-grandfather was Edmund 
Page, one of the first settlers of the town ; his grand- 
father, Capt. Jesse Page, was a brave soldier in the 
Revolution, and his father. Col. William Page, for 
thirty years a deacon in the Congregational Church. 
His early life was marked by sobriety and applica- 
tion. July 10, 1827, he united with the Congrega- 
tional Church in Atkinson with his younger brother, 
Rev. William Page, for twenty years an earnest and 
successful minister. He was graduated at Dartmouth 
College in 1831, when he was appointed to deliver an 
English oration and public oration before the theo- 
logical society. Immediately after graduation he 



took charge of the academy at Limerick, Me., for 
one year. He then entered Andover Theological 
Seminary, from which he was graduated in 1835, and 
the next week was ordained over the Trinitarian j 
Congregational Church in North Andover, Mass. 
Jan. 14, 1837, he married Ann Poor Little, daughter 
of Ezekiel Little, Esq., many years a teacher of one 
of the public schools of Boston, Mass. They had 
four children, — one daughter, Mary Ann, and tliree 
sons who died in infancy. The mother, a superior 
woman, died Dec. 8, 1846. He was dismissed from 
North Andover, Mass., June 7, 1843, at his request 
in impaired health. He removed to South Andover, 
Mass., and supplied at Litchfield, where a new meeting- 
house was erected and a church reorganized which 
had been disbanded. In June, 1845, he became 
stated supply of the Congregational Church in At- 
kinson, his native place, which continued till the 
spring of 1869, when he was prostrated with the 
pneumonia, which disabled him from constant preach- 
ing. During this time in 1860 he was called to 
preach to a Methodist society in Lynn, Mass., which 
he organized into the Ciiestnut Street Cougregational 
Church, and in 1862 he took charge of the Rutgers 
Female College, New York City, while the president 
went to the army. 

His first care has ever been for the cause of re- 
ligion, to which everything else has been subordinate ; 
earnest and orthodox as a preacher, faithful as a 
pastor, no minister has done so much to strengthen 
the church. His feeling has always been that on 
religion alone must a community depend for its safety 
and prosperity. Far-seeing in his plans, he has been 
wise and persistent in their execution. To but few 
persons has the town been so much indebted, and no 
one has been more anxious to have it known and re- 
spected. During his long life he has not only been 
interested in what relates to the church, but has been 
active in the cause of education, and in all that could 
benefit the town. He has been president of the 
board of trustees of the academy since 1848, and no 
other one has done so much to sustain it. Nor have his 
sympathies been alone with his native town, but he 
has ever been anxious to promote the welfare of his 
abna mater, and other educational and religious in- 
stitutions. He has a large acquaintance, and his ad- 
vice is always much sought and prized. He has been 
foremost in every good work, not only by his counsels 
but by liberal contributions. His interest in young 
men is especially worthy of mention. Fluent in 
speech, with fine conversational powers, social and 
even in his temperament, he is attractive as a host 
and welcome as a guest. He has filled a large space 
in the history of his native town, and when he passes 
away he will leave a large void behind him. 

Host. Greenleaf Clarke, son of Greenleaf 
Clarke, grandson of Dr. William Cogswell, has for 
many years been one of the most influential citizens 
of Atkinson. He was appointed on Governor Hub- 

bard's staff in 1842 with the rank of colonel ; was 
member of the New Hampshire Legislature in 1842- 
43 and 1877 ; was member of Governor's Council 
in 1850-51 ; was member of the Constitutional Con- 
vention of New Hampshire In 1876 ; member of the 
Senate in 1879 ; was appointed by the Governor and 
Council special commissioner on the Boston and 
Maine Railroad from 1846 to 1856, and again in 
1880, which office he still holds. He is treasurer of 
the hoard of trustees of Atkinson Academy. 

Longevity. — The town embraces an area of six 
thousand eight hundred acres, was incorporated as 
late as 1767, and has never contained at one time 
more than six hundred inhabitants. It has ever been 
accounted a remarkably healthy place. During four- 
teen consecutive months there was not a single death. 
For the two years preceding the date of this history 
the death-rate has been only twelve in a thousand, 
and the average age of the deceased has been over 
seventy. No child has died between the ages of one 
and eighteen, and but one child has died in twenty 
years between the ages of one and fifteen. The fol- 
lowing persons lived to the advanced age affixed to 
their respective names : Hannah Belknap, 106 ; Eze- 
kiel Belknap, 100; Elizabeth Jewell, 100 ; Moses Bel- 
knap, 99J ; Moses Belknap, Jr., 99}; William Web- 
ster, 97 ; Benjamin Richards, 96 ; Mary Merrill, 96 ; 
Susannah Grovet, 95J ; Lydia Sawyer, 95 ; Ruth 
Wriglit, 94 ; Joshua Richards, 94 ; Sarah Webster, 
93 ; Sarah Currier, 93 ; Elizabeth L. Page, 93 ; . 
Juditji Cogswell, 93 ; Elizabeth Noyes, 92 ; Betsey 
Atwood, 92 ; Josiah Grover, 92 ; Relief Whittaker, 
92; Samuel Knight, 92; William Johnson, 92; Ste- 
phen Page, 91 ; Abigail Little, 91 ; Eunice Knight, 
91 ; Mary Merrill, 91 ; Moses Greenough, 90 ; Joseph 
Chandler, 90; Joseph Whittaker, 90 ; Hepzibah Green- 
ough, 89; Hannah L. Noyes, 89; Peter Noyes, 89; 
Lydia Clark, 89, and Sally Richards, 89 (twins) ; Ste- 
phen Webster, 89; Jonathan Perere, 89; Ednah 
Greenough, 88 ; Abiah Curriet, 88 ; Sarah Webster, 
88; Ezekiel Little, 88; Anna Webster, 88; Nathaniel 
Foote, 88 ; Susannah Page, 87 ; Hannah Richards, 
87 ; James Noyes, 87 ; James Merrill, 87 ; Jonathan 
Whittaker. 87 ; Samuel Basset, 87 ; Judith Cogswell, 
86; Elizabeth Clement, 86; Betsey Brickett, 86; 
Lydia B. Nourse, 86 ; John Greenough, 86 ; John 
Kelly, 85 ; Sarah Webster, 85 ; Nathan Dons, 85 ; 
Tristram Knight, 85 ; Abigail Knight, 85 ; Betsey 
Richards, 85 ; Abraham Richards, 85 ; Henry Noyes, 
85; Jolin Webster, 84; Hannah Poor, 84; Sarah 
Page, 84 ; Reuben Mills, 84 ; Nathan Page, 84 ; Ju- 
dith Chandler, 84; Hezekiah Merrill, 84; Rosana 
Whittaker, 84 ; Hannah Knight, 84 ; Bethiah Web- 
ster, 83 ; James White, 83 ; Dorothy Little, 83 ; Su- 
sannah Knight, 83 ; Richard Wheeler, 83 ; Silas 
Noyes, 83 ; Jonathan Tilton, 83 ; John Pettingill, 
83 ; Lucy Noyes, 83 ; David M. Wheeler, 83 ; Daniel 
Page, 82; William Page, 82 ; William Webster, 82; 
Tristram Knight, 82 ; Rebecca Jacques, 82 ; Tamar 



Noyes, 82; Sarah Li,ttle, 82; Thomas Knight, 82; 
Kuth Knight, 82; Judith Little, 82; Isaac Hale, 82; 
Caleb Noyes, 81 ; James Dow, 81 ; Anthony Smith, 
81 ; Hannah Wood, 81 ; Job Dow, 81 ; Betsey Mor- 
rison, 81 ; Ellenor Page, 81 ; Elizabeth Knight, 81 ; 
Moses Do\v, 81 ; Isaac B. Hovey, M.P., 81 ; Ruth 
Johnson, 80; Dorcas Page, 80; Jonathan Page, 80; 
Sainuel Little, 80 ; Abigail Little, 80 ; Hannah Web- 
ster, 80 ; Joseph Knight, 80 ; Sarah Knight, 80 ; Anna 
Knight, 80 ; Abigail Knight, 80 ; Susannah Dow, 
80; Jonathan Poor, 80; Sarah Poor, 80; Stephen 
Merrill, 80; James Merrill, 80; Mary White, 80; 
Caleb Richards, 80 ; James Conley, 80 ; James Noyes, 
80 ; John Kelly, 80 ; John Noyes, 80. 

The following persons (1882) still living and resid- 
ing in Atkinson have arrived at the great age affixed 
to their respective names : Prudence Bradley, 90 ; 
LydiaClough, 89; William Noyes, 85; Clarissa Dow, 
85; Sally Little, 84; Abigail Pettingill, 84; Harriet 
W. Roberts, 82; Dorcas Noyes, 81. Three persons 
have died the present year whose ages were 83, 76, 
and 72. 

Miscellaneous Matters.— The first house in the 
town was built by Benjamin Richards, at the end of 
the lane leading from the main street, a little north 
of the buryiug-ground. In this same house Lieut. 
Ezekiel Belknap died, Jan. 5, 1836, aged one hun- 
dred years and forty days. He was a soldier of the 
old French war, afterwards an officer in the Revolu- 
tionary war, and was present at the execution of 

For many years since the incorporation of the 
town, and for several years preceding 1882, there has 
been no pauper maintained by the town. 

A temperance society was formed about 1880, and 
means taken to prosecute all who sold spirits ille- 
gally, and no intoxicating drinks have been sold 
since 1836. 

As a proof of the general good morality, it is said 
no one from the town has ever been imprisoned for 

Of late years much attention has been paid to 
raising milk, some farmers keeping as many as fifty 
cows ; and although the town is one of the smallest 
in the county in area and population, it sells annu- 
ally about thirty thousand dollars' worth of milk. It 
sells, in addition, about eighteen thousand pounds of 
butter and thirteen thousand dozen of eggs. 


18.17. John BiiBsett. 
1838-39. Jolili Greenoiigh. 
1840-41. Henry Knight. 
1842-43. Ureenlenf Clark. 
1844-45. Labaii Sawyer. 
1846. Samuel Noyes. 
1847-48. Enoch Bassett. 
1S4U-50. Jouatliau P. Taylor. 
1850. Richard Greenougli, dele- 
gate Constitutional Convention. 

1851. No choice. 

1852. Amos H. Noyes. 
1853-54. No choice. 
1855-56. Moses H. Johnson. 
1857-58. Pliilip D. Merrill. 

1859. Samuel Noyes. 

1860. Benjamin W. Preson. 

1861. Daniel W. Goodnou. 

1862. Ko choice. 

1863. Dr. Praal B. Hovey. 

1864. John Don. 

1865. No choice. 

1866. Henry D. Moody. 

1867. Moses Dow (2). 

1868. Wm. H. Little. 
1869 Wm. C. Noyes. 

1870. Wm. R. Little. 

1871. J. T. Poor. 

1872. .T.T. Poor was declared elect- 
ed. His seat was contested, and 
no one held a seat that term or i 

I Contributed by S. B. Mason. 

1871. Jeremiah T. Poor. 

1872. Wm. R. Little. 

1873. No choice. 

1874. No choice. 
1875-7B. Albert Little. 

1876. Greenleaf Clarke chosen del- 
egate to Constitutional Conven- 

1877. Greenleaf Clarke. 

1878. Samuel B. Mason. 

1879. Jesse A. Sawyer, 
year. 1880. Herman Noyes. 

The present town clerk is S. B. Mason. 

Edward B. Murray, Co. C, 3d Regt.; enl. Dec. 23, 1S61 ; disch. July 20, 

James Carroll, Co. F, 3d Kegt.; enl. Dec. 6, 1864. 
Jacob Van Dunran, Co. C, 4tli Regt. ; enl. Dec. 9, 1863. 
George W. Heath, Co. E, 4th Regt. ; enl. Sept. 18, 1861 ; re-eul. Feb. 25, 

1864; disch. Jan. 27, 1865. 
Edmund F. McNeil, Co. H, 4th Regt. ; enl. Sept. 18, 1861 ; re-enl. Jan. 1, 

1864, and pro. to 1st sergt. ; killed Aug. 10, 1864. 
John E. Austin, Corp. Co. H, 1st Regt. ; enl. May 3, 1861 ; disch. Aug. 9, 

1861 ; Corp. Co. H, 4th Regt. ; enl. Sept. IS, 1801 ; pro. to 1st sergt. 
. Feb 20, 1864; disch. Aug. 23, 1865. 
George Hopper, Co. G, 6th Regt.; enl. Aug. 17, 1864; disch. June 28, 

John Mulligan, Co. G, 5th Regt.; enl. Aug. 29, 1864. 
John Conley, Co. H, 6th Regt.; enl. Aug. 13, 1864. 

John Heniys, , 5th Regt.; enl. Aug. 9, 1863 

Harry Blake, Co. H, 5th Regt. ; enl. Aug. 13, 1864 ; pro. to Corp. April 

18, 1865 ; disch. June 28, 1866. 
Henry Hall, Co. C, 7tb Regt.; eul. Jan. 3, 1865 ; disch. July 20, 1865. 
John Smith, Co. C, 7th Regt.; enl. Jan. 3, 1865 ; disch. July 20. 1805. 
William Lovell, Co. 0, 7th Regt.; eul. Sept. 12, 1864; died at Jones' 

Landing, Va., date unknown. 
Andrew Mack, Co. K, 7th Regt. ; enl. Sept. 12, 1864 ; pro. to Corp. July 

3, 1865 ; disch. July 20, 1S65. 
Frederick W. Sleeper, Co. C, 7th Regt. ; enl. Not. 20, 1861 ; re-enl. Feb. 

28, 1S64 ; disch. July 20, 1806. 
James Richmond, Co. H, 9th Regt. ; enl. Deo. 9, 1863. 
Manuel Silver, Co. K, 9th Regt.; enl. Dec. 9, 1863. 
Andrew Coleman, Co. K, 9th Regt.; enl. Dec. 9, 1863. 
Lafayette Tebbetts, Co. 0, 10th Regt. ; eul. Aug. 25, 1864 ; disch. June 3, 

James Harper, Co, G, 10th Regt.; enl. Oct. 29, 1863; date of discharge 

Lorenzo Frost, Co. K, loth Regt.; enl. Oct. 16, 1802; disch. Aug. 13, 

Frank P. Ireson, Co. K, 15th Kegt. ; enl. Oct. 16, 1802; disch. Aug. 13, 

A. Noyse, Co. K, 15th Regt. ; eul. Oct. 16, 1862 ; died July 24, 1863. 
Charles G. Perkins, Co. K, 15th Regt.; enl. Oct. 16, 1862; disch. Aug. 13, 

Orrin F. Richards, Co. K, 16th Kegt.; eul. Oct. 16, 1862 ; disch. Aug. 13, 

Arthul- L. Merrick, Co. K, 15th Regt. ; enl. Oct. 16, 1862, sergt. ; discli. 

Aug. 13, 1863. 
Robert King, Co. A, 17th Regt.; eul. Dec. 10, 1862; pro. to Corp.; disch. 

April 10, 1863. 

J. H.Smith, ,17th Regt.; enl. Feb. 4, 1863; date of disch. unknown. 

Patrick Mack, Co. C, 1st Cav.; enl. March 31,1804. 
John Roberts, Co. C, let Cav. ; enl. March 31, 1864. 
EbeuezerBuck,V. R. C. ;enl. Nov. 10,1863; date of disch. unknown. 

Patrick Dunn, ; enl. July 29, 1864; date of disch. unknown. 

Patrick K. Norton, ; enl. July 3, 1863 ; date of disch. unknown. 

Philip G. Lord, ; enl. July 3, 1863 ; date ol disch. unknown. 

Andrew M. Dunning, ; enl. July 3, 1863 ; date of disch. unknown. 

Joseph Vedo, , enl. July 3, 1863 ; date of disch. unknown. 

George Hughes, ; enl. Aug. 29, 1804; date of disch. unknown. 

Marcus M. Merrick, Co. H, Ist Regt.; enl. May 3, 1861 ; disch. Aug. 9, 

Gilraan Noyes, Co. H, 1st Regt.; enl. May 3, 1861; disch. Aug. 9, 1861. 
David 0. Clarke, sergt. Co. K, 5th Regt.; enl. Oct 12, 1861; disch. 

March 10, 1863. 



Joseph A. Carlton, Co. K, 5th Kegt. ; enl. Oct. 12, 1861; disch. Feb. 7, 

James Hahir, Co. G, 10th Regt. ; enl. Dec. 29, 1863 ; trans. 2d N. H. 

Regt. June 21, 1865. 
.lohn C. Ryan, Co. K, 5th Regt..; enl. Oct. 12, 1861 ; disch. Jan. 7, 1863. 
Samuel B. Mason, sergt. Co. H, 4th Kegt.: enl. Sept. IS, 1861; disch. 

Sept. 27, 1864. 
Byron Noyes, sergt. Co. H,4th Begt.; enl, Sept. 18, 1861 ; disch. Sept. 

27, 1S64. 
Nathaniel G. Scott, marine; enl. March 15, 1864; date of discharge un- 

Lorin Heath, 

nl. Aug. 11, 1864; date of discharge unknown. 



Geographical— Topographical— First Settlers— Ecclesiastical— First Con- 
gregational Church— Methodist Episcopal Church— Civil and Military 
History— Petition for Incorporation—" West Chester"— The Opposition 
—The To\vn Incorporated— The First Town-Meeting— Moderatora— 
Town Clerks— Representatives-Military History. 

Auburn lies in the western part of the county, 
and is bounded as follows : On the north by Candia 
and Hoopsett, on the east by Chester, on the south 
by Derry and Londonderry, and on the west by 
Hillsborough and Merrimack Counties. The surface 
is broken but the soil is fertile. 

Lake Ma.ssabesic, the largest body of water in 
Rockingham County, is rapidly gaining in popular 
favor, and is one of the most enchanting summer 
resorts within the bounds of the "Granite State." 
The first settler in Auburn was John Smith. 

First Congregational Church.— For some reason 
it was deemed expedient to dissolve the Presbyterian 
parish and church, and organize a Congregational one. 
Accordingly, agreeably to an act passed July 3, 1827, 
"The Second Congregational Society in Chester" 
was organized June 11, 1842, and a code of by-laws 
adopted, one article of which was that all moneys 
should be raised by voluntary subscription. The 
condition of membership was signing the by-laws 
and paying one dollar annually. On the 1st day of 
January, 1843, sixteen members of -the Presbyterian 
Church adopted articles of faith and a covenant, and 
were organized into a church by the Rev. Samuel 
Ordway, and assumed the name of The Second Con- 
gregational Church in Chester. After the town of 
Auburn was incorporated, in 1845, the name of the 
society and church was altered to the First in Auburn. 
Rev. Samuel Ordway remained until 1846. Subse- 
quent pastors have been James Holmes, Josiah L. 
Jones, J. S. Guy, Charles E. Houghton, Theodore C. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church.— Methodism 
began to make its appearance in what is now Auburn 
about the year 1800. The first Methodist sermon be- 
lieved to have been preached in Chester was in 1807 by 
Rev. George Pickering. Upon the erection of the new 

1 Condensed from Rev. Benjamin Chase's History of Auburn. 

school-house in 1827, on the site of the present one, 
near the bridge across the Blanchard mill-pond, the 
Methodists had services in it until it failed to'accom- 
modate the rapidly increasing congregation, and in 
1836 a house of worship was erected. Among the 
ministers who have labored here are mentioned the 
names of Revs. Fales, Quimby, Stearns, Smith, Joseph 
Scott, Marsh, Spencer, Dr. Ferrest, H. B. Copp, R. G. 
Donaldson, A. Folsom, Nathaniel L. Chase, Jarvis 
Adams, James Adams, Henry V. Hartwells, Joseph 
W. Bisby, Isaac G. Price, Simon B. Heath, Frederick 
E. Whertwell, Henry B. Copp, Nelson M. Bailey, A. 
R. Lunt. 

Civil History. — A petition by John Clark and 
others having been presented to the Legislature in 
1844 to have the town of Chester divided, the west 
part to be named " West Chester," and an order of 
notice having been served on the town, there was a 
committee, consisting of John White, Jacob Chase, 
David Currier, Stephen Palmer, Abel G. Quigg, and 
James Brown, chosen to rejjort a line for the division 
at an adjournment. The question was taken by ayes 
and noes whether the meeting would consent to a di- 
vision provided the committee should report a satis- 
factory line : ayes, one hundred and forty-eight ; noes, 
eighty-three. There seem to have been two reports, 
and the one made by that part of the committee from 
the westerly part of the town was adopted : ayes, two 
hundred and ten ; noes, fifty-nine. 

There was a strong opposition from individuals in 
the west part, headed by Jesse Patten and Pike Chase, 
a remonsti'ance sent in and counsel employed before the 
committee, but the petitioners prevailed, and the act 
passed June 23, 1845. Samuel D. Bell, of Manches- 
ter, Nathaniel Parker and William Choate, of Derry, 
were named in the act to divide the property and 
debts. Auburn was to pay two dollars and twenty- 
six cents, aud Chester four dollars and two cents, of 
State tax. 

The first meeting of Auburn was notified by John 
Clark, David Currier, and Stephen Palmer, and holden 
July 28th, and officers chosen at an adjournment. 

Auburn was incorporated June 25, 1845. It was 
originally that part of Chester known as " Long 

Samuel Anderson, 1846-49; Harrison Buruham, 1850-54, 186:i-67; John 
Lufkir, 1855; Nathaniel Brown, 1856-58 ; John Moore, 1859; Sam- 
uel Dame, 1860-61; Luther Brown, 1862; E. G. Preston, 1863-69, 
1868-69; Henry Osgood, 1870 ; George B. Edwards, 1871-74; Simeon 
G. Prescott, 1875-82. 

1846-47, Samuel Anderson ; 1848-49, Franklin Crombie; 1860-51, Hid- 
den Brown ; 1852-53, Andrew F. Fox ; 1854, Elisha Heath ; 1865, Vol- 
taire E. Lary ; 1856-57, Hugh Crornbie ; 1858, William W. Leighton ; 
1859, John Clark ; 1860^61, George P. Clark ; 1862-63, WUliara 
Vincent; 1864-65, Paschal Preston; 1866, Samuel F. Murray; 1867, 
Pike Chase ; 1868, Kev. James Holmes ; 1869-70, Jacob Luf kin ; 1871, 
EbonezerLeavet; 1873-74, H. C. Canney; 1S75-76, Edwin Phimraer; 
1877, Charles Gienit; 1878-79, Wells C. Underbill; 1880, Frank F.- 




First Reoiment, Three Months. 

Muxlfred in May, 1861. 

Second Reglm 

Theee Years. 

Mustered June, 1861. 

Co. C, Juhii Chase, pro. Corp. ; wounded at Gettysburg. 

Co. C, John Davis, pro. Corp. 

Co. C, Hazen Davis, Jr., wounded slightly July, 1863. 

Co. C, Edwin Plunimer, wounded slightly July, 1863. 

Co. C, Alfred J. Sanborn, disch. for dis. July, 1861 ; re.-enl. November, 

Co. D, John D. Wood, recruited September, 1861 ; died in hospital No- 
vember, 1862. 

Co.F, Felix C. Hackney, recruit, died October, 1865. 

Third Regiment, Three Years. 

Mustered August, 1861. 

Co. A, John C". Hagan, appointed wagoner; must, out August, 1864; since 

Co. H, Lanson Blake, re-enlisted. 
Co. H, AUinzo D. Emery, disch. December, 1861. 
Co. H, Leroy McDuffee, pro. sergt. ; re-enl, January, 1864. 

Fourth Regiment, Three Years. 

[Mmlered September, 1861. 

Co. C, Henry C. GriiBn, pro. corp. ; re-enl. February, 1864 ; wounded; 

captured at Drury's Bluff; died in Libby Prison Sept. 10, 1864. 
Co. E, Ebenezer S. Emory, disch. dis. Oclober, 1862. 
Co. E, Carlton C. Richardson, re-enl. January, 1864. 
Co. G, William Gunston, re-enl. February, 1864; killed at Drury's 

Bluff May 16, 1864. 
Co. G, Amos W. Brown, re-enl. February, 1864. 
Co. K, Thomas B. Platts, re-enl. February, 1864. 

FiFT-H Regiment, Three Years. 
Mustered Ocloler, 1861. 
Co. C, Isaac Boxall, recruit, 
Co. F, John Whitehouse, recruit. 
Co. F, Thomas Darty, recruit. 
Co. F, Murtz Sullivan, recruit. 

Sixth Regiment, Three Years. 
Mustered November, 1861. 
Co. I, Frederick Shaeffer, recruit. 

Seventh Regiment, Three Years. 

Mustered October, 1861. 

Co. A, Thornton Hazen, wounded at Fort Wagner July, 1863 ; died of 

wounds Aug. 29, 1803. 
Co. I, Otis F. Butrick, disch. for dis. August, 1862. 
Co. H, John Walton, recruit. 

Eighth Regiment, Three Years. 

Mustered Deceihber, 1861. 

Co. D, Frank C. Wood, dish, for dis. at Camp Parapet, La., July, 1862. 

Ninth Regiment, Three Years. 
Mustered July, 1862. 
Co. A, Eben Dean, died at Washington December, 1862. 
Co. A, George W. Goodwin. 

Co. A, Moses Reed, died at Richmond, Ky., April, 1863. 
Co. A, Alonzo D. Emery, trans, to Bat. E, U. S. Art, September, 1862. 
Co. A, John D. Neller, recruit, December, 1863 ; captured ; died in rebel 

prison at Salisbury, N. C, February, 1865. 
Co. A, James R. Preston, trans, to Sixth New Hampshire Vols., June, 

Co. B, Charles F. Shaw, disch. for dis. at Fredericksburg, Va., Jan. 15, 

Co. K, Charles Delos, recruited December, 1863 ; deserted January, 1864. 

Tenth Regiment, Three Years. 

Mustered August, 1862. 

Co. A, Albert Plummet, hoep. steward; pro. asst. surg. Jan. 3, 1865. 

Co. A, Luciau Holmes, Corp., pro. sergt. ; captured at Fair Oaks, Va., 

October, 1864; died in rebel prison at Salisbury, Jan. 4, 1865. 

Co. A, John T. Demeritt, died at Washington Jan. 5, 1863. 

Co. A, Jacob P. Buswell. 

Co. A, Charles H. Buswell, trans, to U. S. Signal Corps. 

Co. A, Joseph L. Davis, died of wounds received June 3, 1864. 

Co. A, Charles H. Grant, pro. to corp. ; captured at Fair Oaks, Va., Oc- 
tober, 1864; died in rebel prison at Salisbury Feb. 14, 1865. 

Co. A, Edward M. Melvin, disch. for dis. December, 1864. 

Co. A, Henry C. Moore, wounded June, 1864 ; died at De Camp Hospital, 
New York, Sept. 8, 1S64. 

Co. A, George B. Sanford. 

Co. H, Franklin Shannon, died of wounds June 16, 1864. 

Co. A, Charles Pingree, pro. to 2d lieut. of Co. I, 23d U. S. Col. Vols. ; 
killed before Petersburg July 3, 1864. • 

Eleventh Regiment, Three Years. 
Mufitered August, 1862. 
Co. B, John Cole, recruited December, 1863. 
Co. K, William Clark, recruited December, 1863. 

Twelfth Regiment, Three Years. 
Mustered August, 1862. 

Co. I, Felix C. Hackney, recruited December, 1863. 

Co. E, James Krotzer, recruited December, 1863. 

Co. H, James Murray, recruited December, 1863; killed at Cold Har- 
bor June, 1864. 

Co. E, William Moll, recruited December, 1863; deserted November, 

Co. H, Oliver Kiuker, recruited December, 1863; trans, to 2d New 
Hampshire Vols. 

Fourteenth Regiment, Three Years. 
Mustered September, 1862. 
Co. D, Stephen C. Coult. 

Fifteenth Keoisient, Nine Months. 

Mustered October, 1862. 
Co. E, Moses B. Davis. 
Co. E, Daniel C. Abbott. 
Co. E, Willis H. Brown. 
Co. E, Jesse Woods, died. 

Co. E, Frank C. Woods, disch. for disability ; died at Auburn. 
Co. E, Jonathau Ballon, must, out .\ugust, 1863. 

Eighteenth Regiment. 

Mustered September, 1864. 
Co. H, Alexander M. Ballou. 
Co. H, Jonathan Ballou. 
Co. K, Sylvester E. Emery. 
Co. K, Carlton Emery. 
Co. K, Alfred D. Emery. 
Co, K, Alonzo D. Emery. 
Co. K, George A. Wood. 

First Regiment Cavalry. 

Mustered December, 1861. 
Troop L, John S. Coffin, re-enl. January, 1864. 

Troop I, Warren J. Davis, captured June, 1864 ; paroled March, 1865. 
Troop K, Chester C. Smith, disch. June, 1862. 

First Light Battery, Three Years. 
Mustered September, 1861. 
David H. Bean, bugler, re-enl. December, 1863. 
Robinson Brown, bugler. 
James M. Buswell. 

John H. Goodwin, dropped from rolls October, 1864. 
James M. Preston. 
William Preston. 

Benjamin S. Stewart, recruited December, 1863. 
Hugh B. Cochran, drafted. 

First Regiment Heavy Artillery. 
Mustered September, 1864. 
Co. C, Edwin Coleman. 
Co. C, George Coult. 
Co. C, George E. Edmunds. • 
Co. C, Benjamin Eaton. 
Co. C, Jacob Lufkin. 



Co. C, Henry M. Preaton. 

Co. C, Stephen Pingree. 

Co. G, Charles H. Lyman, disch. for dis. January, 1865. 

Co. K, Joseph P.Brown. 

Co. K, William G. Brown. 

Co. K, Dennis Donovan. 

Co. K, Lvither Preston. 

Co. K, Harrison Prescott. 

Co. K, Robert T. Plummer. 

Co. K, Simon G. Prescott. 

Co. K, Benjamin F. Sherburne. 

Co. K, John B. White. 

Co. M, George C. Kiilball. 

Second Keoijient Sharpshooters. 
Mustered November^ 1861. 
Samuel F. Hurry, Ist lieut., 2d lieut., pro. to capt. September, 1863. 
Co. F. Alfred J. Sanborn, wounded May, 1864; must, out November, 

Those who Ftjrnished Voionteer Shbstitdtes. 

Wells C. Underbill. 
Andrew F. Fox. 
Daniel Webster. 

Evander G. Preston. 
John N. Claflin. 
George W. Hall. 
Alexander M. Philip. 
W. I. Gilbert. 

August Shafler. 
James McKew. 
Edward Haley. 
William Warren 
Henry Cole. 

Harrison Burnham. 
Joseph Underbill. 

Benjamin D, Emery. 
Edward 0. Prescott. 
Charles H. Patient. 
Charles H. Merrill. 

Isaac Powell. 
Patrick O'Niel. 
Charles Bond. 
Charles A. Varnham. 

Commutation fee of three hundred dollars paid by Arthur Dinsmo 


Charles Cummings Grant was born in Greenfield, 
N. H.. Feb. 15, 1822. His grandfather, John Grant, 
lived in Greenfield ; was a farmer, and reared a fam- 
ily of seven children, — Charles, John, James, Philip, 
Joseph, and Polly, and one other daughter, who mar- 
ried one AUcock. He died in Greenfield at an advanced 
age. Charles Grant, father of Charles C, was born 
Aug. 18, 1783 ; had a common-school education, and 
became a representative farmer of Greenfield. On 
Nov. 22, 1809, he married Mary Ballard, who was 
born Dec. 1, 1788. Their children were Mary, born 
Sept. 25, 1810 (married David Abbott, of Andover, 
Mass.) ; Eliza, born June 26, 1812; Hannah B., born 
Sept. 19, 1815 (married Nathan C. Abbott, of An- 
dover, Mass.) ; Margaret, born July 26, 1818 (married 
Aaron N. Luscomb, of Andover, Mass.) ; Charles C. 
(1), born July 9, 1820, died in February, 1821 ; Charles 
C. (2d); William B., died in infancy; Phcebe C, 
born July 30, 1826 (married Daniel Trow, of An- 
dover, Mass.) ; and Josiah A., born Feb. 1, 1829, died 
November, 1845. He was constable in Greenfield for 
a number of years, and a member of the Presbyterian 
Church. He removed to Andover, Mass., in 1843, 

whence he removed to Londonderry, N. H., in 1852, 
in which town he died April 12, 1847. His wife sur- 
vived him several years, and died in Andover, Mass., 
April 17, 1864. In politics he was a Whig. He was 
an energetic, hard-working man, quiet in demeanor, 
and respected by all. 

Charles Cummings Grant was reared on a farm, had 
a common-school education, and at the age of fifteen 
went to Andover, Mass., where he worked for his 
brotherin-law, David Abbott, four years, after which 
he worked for George Boutwell, of A'ldover, for three 
years. He married Salome V. Center, daughter of 
Thomas and Lucy (Sawyer) Center, of Hudson, N. 
H., Jan. 19, 1843. They had three children,— Louisa 
C, born Oct. 1, 1843 (married John Y. Demerittin Au- 
gust, 1862. He enlisted in Co. A, Tenth New Hamp- 
shire Volunteers ; died in hospital at Washington, 
December, 1862. She married James M. Preston, of 
Auburn, in November, 1866. They hkd five children, 
—Mabel S., born June 7, 1867 ; Emma F., born Decem- 
ber, 1868 ; Marion P., born July 30, 1874, and two chil- 
dren who died in infancy. She died Feb. 15, 1881) ; 
Charles H., born July 8, 1845 (enlisted in Co. A, Tenth 
New Hampshire Volunteers; promoted to corporal; 
in battles Fredericksburg, Bermuda Hundred, Drury's 
Bluff', Cold Harbor, Fort Harrison, and Fair Oaks ; 
captured at Fair Oaks Oct. 25, 1863; confined in 
rebel prison at Salisbury, N. C, where he died Sept. 
12, 1865) ; and Warren S., born Jan. 10, 1848, died 
April 2, 1848. Mrs. Grant died Feb. 23, 1848. March 
26, 1849, he married Frances M., daughter of Alex- 
ander Anderson, of Londonderry, N. H. She died 
June 29, 1856. Their children were Josiah A., born 
Sept. 17, 1850, died Aug. 19, 1853; Luther A., born 
April 28, 1853, died Aug. 25, 1853 ; Addison M., born 
Sept. 22, 1854, married Mary E. Hall, of Pennsylva- 
nia, have three children, — Herbert A., Carrie L., 
deceased, and Blanche M., and is now in the whole- 
sale meat business in Lawrence, Mass. ; and Irving 
F., born March 25, 1856, married Belle, daughter of 
Ebenezer M. Leavitt, of Auburn, and is now con- 
ducting a farm near his father. He married Ver- 
nelia S., daughter of Jonas Brown, of Cambridge, 
Vt., Nov. 6, 1846. She died June 24, 1871, leaving 
an adopted daughter, Ella V., born Aug. 21, 1866. 
Mr. Grant married Hattie S., daughter of Thomas 
and Betsey (Hall) Coffin, of Auburn, Jan. 16, 1872. 
She was born in Boscawen, N. H., Aug. 27, 1839. 
Their children are Charles H., born June 24, 1873 ; 
Hattie F., born April 6, 1875; Perley C, born Nov. 
28, 1876; Mary B., born Jan. 13, 1879; and George 
E., born Sept. 29, 1880. 

In 1859, Charles C. Grant removed from Andover 
to Auburn, where he purchased one hundred and 
fifteen acres of land, to which by steady perseverance 
and careful management he has added one hundred 
acres more, and is one of the best farmers in the 
town. He has been a consistent church-member 
since thirteen years of age, and has been deacon 

-^iU(.f^t^r(.>^'2Jr^ S ^-^._^^Cyiyt^~^ 



of the First Congregational Church of Auburn since 
April 13, 1864. He stands high in the esteem of his 
fellow-townsmen, and has been honored with the fol- 
lowing positions : selectman five years, town ti^as- 
urer tliree years, representative two years, and a 
member of the convention to revise the Constitution 
of State in 1876. Mr. Grant is a man of strong char- 
acter; of slow and deliberate action, quiet and retiring 
in his nature, accepting positions of trust and honor 
as a duty rather than for personal gratification, and 
his greatest energy is displayed in matters pertaining 
to the welfare of his church. 



Geographical — Topographical — Early Inhabitants — Documentary His- 
tory — Meeting-House — Ecclesiastical History — Coiigregational Church 
— Baptist Church — Military History. 

The town of Brentwood lies near the centre of the 
county, and is bounded as follows: On the north 
by Epping, on the east by Exeter, on the south by 
Kingston, and on the west by Fremont. 

The surface of the town is broken, and the soil is 
fertile and well adapted to the raising of grass and 
grain. It is watered by Exeter, Little, and Deer 
Rivers. There are deposits of iron ore in this town. 
Early Inhabitants. — Tiie following is a list of 
early inhabitants, as shown by a document among the 
State records under date July 11, 1743. It relates 
to the formation of the parish, and is as follows : 

"BRiNT\yooD, July 11, 1743. 
" We the Subscribers Do hereby siguifie that we Realy Expected and 
also Desired to stand by the Act of the General Court in making of ua a 
Parish But yet we perceive that the hon'^i'^ Corte have bin Enlormed by 
Sundry Parsons that the major Part of the Parish are Dissatisfy'd in what 
is done i[i that afair this is to Shew it is not so. 

Nath'i Folsham 
James Dudley j«n 
Joseph Gose 
Benj' Scribner 
Ebenezer Hutchison 
Elisha Sanborn 
James Young 
Benj« Fifleld 
Bridget Smith 
Thomas Scritchet 

' John Roberds 
Josejih Leivett 
Thomas Gorden 
John Marsh 
Boberd Young 
Edward Stevens 
Daniel Giles 
Israel Smith 
John Been 
Nicholas Gorden 

John Folsham 
Ithial Smith 
Moses Fifleld 
David Bean 
Samuel Roberds 
Samuel Jones 
Charles Young 
Benj"^ Vesey 
Jeremiah Bean 
Biley Harvey 
John Giles 
Benj* Roberds 
John Roberds 
David Smith 
Jonathan Smith 
John Smith 
Josiali Moody 
Zackiriah Jude (?) 

Abraham Smith 
Gorg Roberds 
James Dudley 
Joel Judkins 
Roberd Brown 
Joseph Atkinson 
Jacob Smith 
Jabez Clough 
James Gloyd 
Nicholas Doliof 
Alexander Roberds 
William Granby (?) 
Daniel Sanborn 
Jon"^ Roberson 
William Smith 
Jon« Taller 
Nath' Prescott 
Jon"^ Cram 

Jeremiah Row 
Jedediah Prescott 
James Robenson 
Daniel TiHon 
John James 

Joseph Giles 
Henery Marsh 
Job Keni^toiie 
John Mudgit." 

The following is a Petition of the inhabitants of 
the north part of Brentwood about a meeting-house : 

"To his Excell'y Benning Wentworth Esq' Gov & Comand' in Chief in 

& over his MaJ» Province of New Hampshiie And to the Hon"' his 

Maji" Council, & Eepresentativps In Gen" Court assembb'd 

"We the Subscribers Freeholders & Inhabitants ol the Northerly part 

of the pai ish of Brintwood in the Province aforesaid Do HumMy crave 

leave of y Excell'y .t hon'« to lay this our humble Remonstrance of our 

distressed circumstances before your Excell'y & Hon" as lidlows viz. 

" Many of ns Living four or five Miles Distant from Exeter meeting 
House, have attended the Pnblick Worship of God at that House for 
many ycais past, with great Difficulty, & our Familys Encreasing made 
it much more difficult especially in the Winter Spring and fall of the 
yeare Wherefore About eight years ago we with Several of the Southerly 
part of said Parish Erected a House for the Publick Worship of God in 
the most suitabte place as they then tho'tand we now do think to Carry 
on the Pnbliik Worship in And accordingly at our own charge have 
Carryed on the Same in the Winter, Spring & fall of the yeare ever since 
as we had for four years, or thereabouts before Erecting said House car- 
ryd on the Puldick Worship in aPrivate House Standing neare our Pub- 
lick Meeting House 

" And about last February was twelve month, the Freeholders and 
Inhabitants of the Southerly part of Biintwood aforesaid Petitioned the 
Town of Exeter aforesaid to be set off as a Parish contiary to the will 
& desire of most of us, & said Town of Exeter Granted their siiiil Peti- 
tion, notwithstanding many of us Disenled therefrom. And their said 
Petition being Granted, they afterwards applycd to your Excell'y & 
Hon" for a Charter for said Parish, which was granted them Contrary 
to our Dcsier, and greatly to onr hurt. And we also having Earnestly 
Petitioned your Excell'y & Hon" that we niisht be permitted to Con- 
tinue to Carry on the Puldick Worship of God in onr said House, and to 
be set off by sn'ch Bonndaiies as your Excell'y & Hon" Should think 
meet, & to be Exempted from all Charge towards the meeting and min- 
istry in the Southerly p> of Said Parish &c, as by onr Petiliou lying be- 
fore y Excell'y & Hon" in your Honbi' Court may appear. Which Pe- 
tition the HonM« House of Representatives have seen meet to Dismiss 
And also your Excell'y & Hon" having appointed a Committee of four 
GenJ two out of Each House to Prefix the iilace wheie the meeting 
House ought to Stand, Three of said Gen' have been and made Return 
but is accounted voyd by your Excell'y & Hon" For that the Comitee 
did »ot all Joyn in their Return & for which Reason our Petition was 
also Dismist. Wherefore our case at present Seems very hard <& Difficult, 
we having been at such cost to Erect our said House and to maintain 
Preacliing in it hitherto & the Minister also who hatli hitherto preached 
to us being at our Earnest desire willing to Continue with us in the Min- 
istry. If your Excell'y & Hon" will in your great Wisdome take tins 
our Remonstrance of our Difficult Circumstances in our Present Meet- 
ing House not being Established & our aforesaid Petition not being 
Granted & the great Charges and Difficulties we hitherto have and still 
do Labour under, under your Excell'y & Hon" wise Consideration & be 
pleased to grant ns Relief herein as in your Great Wisdom you shall se 
meet And as in Duty Bound we your Excell'ys .fe Hon" most obedient 
Humble servants shall ever Pray &c. 

" Dated at Br iiitwood June ST't Anno Doni 1743. 
Andrew Gillman John George 

Wils..n E.lwl Thirrg 

Edw<l Colcord Dan' Quinrby 

Nich" Dudley Sari-ah Gorden 

Antipas Gilnian John Leavit 

Tim'> Leavitt James Stephens 

Benj" Gillman Joseph Holt 

Sam* Edgr-rly Joshua Bean 

Sami Dudley John Mogridge 

Joni- Thing John Hilton 

Stephen Levit Ithiel Clifford 

Jonsia Thing Sam" Smith 

Jon"^ Wadley Dani Wormal 

Nich» Drrdley J' Martlry Bean 

Jeremk Bean. Haley Stephens 

John Dudley Jer" Gillman Junr" 



" 111 the House of Representatives July l^' 1743. Tlie within Petition 
read & considered on & Voted That Eleazer Russell Esqr Mark Langdou 
Gent & Noah Barker of Stratham be a Committee to Joyn Such as the 
Hoiibit^ tbe Council shuU appt to go to the Parish of Brentwood, and view 
the Situation of said parish and see whether it will be most convanient 
for the Inhabitants thereof to be Divided into two Parishes, or whether 
the whole shall meet at the meeting House already Huilt for some 
Limitfed time, or to Conclude upon some other method that they shall 
think to be for the best good of the said PVli. lu order for their being 
Settled in Peace, and that they make Report t') the Gen" Ass" the third 
day of the Sitting of the Gen" Ass" at their next Sessions and that the 
Petitioners be at the charge of the Comittee and tliat the Petitioners 
Serve the Select men of Brentwood with a copy of this Petition & Votts, 
that they may notife the Parish of these proceedings and that those that 
will dispute ? what is acted may appear at the day above said. 

" James Jeffry de^ Jss™ 

" Eod" Die In Council Read and Cimcurr'd & the above said Comittee 
hereby Established & Impowered for the End above said 

*'Eod™ Die Assented to B. Wi:m 
"Copia Examined 

, Atkinson Secy. 
Theo^ Atkinson Secy. 

" Province of Hamp"^ Sep. ■22'i 174;i. 

"Pursuant to the witliin order we have been to the Parish of Brent- 
wood & viewed the same, & Considered the Circumstances thereof & 
think it best to Continue them at the old meeting House for the tearm 
of four years. 

" Elf..\zer Rvssell 
"Mark Langdon 
"Noah Bakkek 

"In tbe House of Representatives 7^' the 2^*^ 1743 

" The above Return road And Voted That the Return be accepted, and 
that they Continue at the old Meeting House for the Space of four years 
and at the Expiration thereof, the Major Part of the legal Voters in said 
parish at that time Shall set the QTeeting House for Publick Worship 
where they think Proper. 

"James Jeffry Cl^ Ass^. 

"In the House of Representatives Decem' 3'i 1743. 
"Voted That this Petition and all the Proceedings thereon be Dis- 


■ C/"" .^ssm" 

" Petition of Elisha Sanborti about Brenticood 1745. 
' To the Honb'o the House of Representatives for the Province of New 
Hampshire in General assembly conven'd April 2^ 1745. 

" The Petition of Elisha Sanbonie of the Parish of Brintwood Ifi Said 
Province Yeoman as agent for said Parish Humbly Shews 

" That the Said Parish was made & Incorporated by an act of the Gen^ 
Assembly made & passed in ye Sixteenth Year of His Majestys Reign by 
Metea & Bounds Set forth in said act being before part of the old Parish 
or Town of Exeter. That Since the Said Parish was so Incorporated His 
Excellency the Governor has been pleased (by & with the advice of the 
Council) to giant a Charter for Erecting and Incorporating part of the 
aforesd parish of Brintwood Into another Parish by the name of Keene- 
borough whereby great part of the Inhabitants of Brintwood Conceive 
themselves Discharged from paying Taxes & Doing any other Duty within 
the Parish of Brintwood & Claim the powers authoritys & Priviledges of 
a Parish within tbe Limits given by the said Cliarter the consequence of 
which is many persons are doubly taxM & great Debates & Strifes have 
& are likely to arise. Tliat the Parishioners of Brintwood apprehend 
that not only their powers authoritys & priviledges are made null if the 
said Charter be good, but the act of Incorporation aforesaid is also De- 
feated & Superseeded which greatly aflfects the Rights & Priviledges of 
this House & in them all the King's subjects in this province. That the 
said Parishioners foresee a wide Field of Law opening before them hereby 
(one of their Number having been already Imprisoned for Rates made in 
Consequence of the afores^ Charter) which they Should be glad to avoid 
if it could be without giving up their Just Rights Wherefore your Peti- 
tioner in behalf of his principals prays tbe advisement of this Hou^io 
House in the premises that some scheme may be Pui-sued In Conjunction 
with the oiher Branches of the Legislature as may settle these Disputes 
(but just beginning) upon such a foundation as is agreeable to the Con- 
stitution & on which a lasting peace may be built & Your Petitioner In 
behalf of his Constituents Shall Ever pray Ac 

" Elisha Sambobn." 

*^ Jlemonstrance against Keenborough Patent. 
" Province of ^ 
N. Hamp" J 
" To His Exc>y the Gov and the Honbi" the Council 3Uy it Please your 
Ex & Honors 
" On the 2<i Day of the last month Elisha Sanborn of y^ parish of 
Brentwood in s^ prov. Yeoman as agent for said Parish represented to 
this House in way of Petition that the said Parish Ac (here recite the 
Petition at large). . . . 

"Which Petition of the said Elisha in Part above recited we have 
taken into our most mature Consideration together with authenticated 
cupys of the said act and Charter mentioned in said Petition with such 
other Evidence as tlie Petitioner has thought fit to lay before this House 
in support thereof, by which it manifestly appears to us, that there was 
an actor Law made and past by the Gov Council and representt^^of this 
Province dated the day of 17 by which a Part of the Town of 

Exeter was incorporated into a Parish named of Bnntwood by metes and 
Bounds, and that the Inliabitants within said Bounds, were io duty Parish 
Ditty, f and receive parish privileges in said Brentwood, and were exon- 
erated from parish Duty in tbe Parishes whereto they belonged before 
tlie Date of said Law; That Discontent soon arose among the Parishion- 
ers of s"* Brentwood about the Place of fixing theirnieeting House, which 
occasioned a new Petition to the Governor Council and Gen. assembly 
dated the day of 17 , fur a minor Part of said Parishioners 

prayer, to have the said Parish divided into two Parishes but that which 
was offered in support thereof appearing frivolous to the General assem- 
bly, the said Petition was by them ordered to he dismissed : That after- 
wards (viz) on the day of 17 The discontented Party petitioned 
anew to His Exc'J and Council regardless of the Geneial assembly (one 
Branch of the Legislature) praying again for a Division of a^ Brentwood 
into Two Parishes, which your Ex. and Council (without the Gen* assem- 
bly) were pleased to take Cognizance of, and on the day of 17 
to grant a Charter under the Province Seal to the said Petitioners, in- 
corporating another Parish luiuied Keenborougli by metes and Bounds 
and exonerating the Inhabitants of said Iveenborough from tlu-ir Parish 
Duty in Brentwood which they were obliged to do and perfornt there by 
Law, which charter so far This House looks upon as an attempt to ab- 
rogate and supereede a Law in Part, ami thereby an open Usuipatiuu of 
a Power appertaining to the Gen assy in Conjunction with the Gov aud 
Coun. and a manifest invasion of the Just rights and Privileges of the 
People whom we represent, and an Infringem't un the rights of the Par- 
ishioners of Brentwood, and an oppression of them in particular, which 
we think ourselves obliged to take notice of in Duty to His Majesty, in 
faithfulness to our Constituents and in Justice & Honour to ourselves 
and to remonstrate against it. We do therefore earnestly request your 
Ex«.^ aud Honours, seriou-ly to reconsider this matter, and to recall the 
Keenborough Grant and thereby put an eiul to the Striles already com- 
menced, and a stop to others ready to break out in consequence thereof 
and also to save tiiis House the Trouble of saying or acting further on 
upon it, for as we are the representatives of a free protestant People and 
as such the Guardians of their Privileges, we esteem ourselves obliged to 
make a stand ag^' every attemptjnade to deprive thoni of their Just 
Rights, and particularly we shall think oni-selves inexcusable in case 
your Ex'" and Hon" should not relieve us if we should not apply to His 
most Excellent majesty who is graciously pleased to esteem his own Pre- 
rogatives and his Subjects Privileges equally dear to him for a remedy, 
and we esteem ourselves more especially obliged to take this step (if your 
Ex & Hon" don't prevent it) as it is not the first Instance wherein your 
ExcelleLicy has attempted to invade our rights Witness yourEndeavours 
to get the provincial Records of Deeds into your Hands, or at least to 
have the Disposal of them, which are no (Hher than the Peoples Evi- 
dences of their Titles to their Land Estates and therefore according to 
the rules of common sense and Reason, ought to be in their own several 
keepings if it could be, but as it can't they ought to be disposed of by 
them whfi are tlie Proprietors of their Evidences as well as of their Es- 
tates. Another Instance was your Excellency's Endeavor to augment 
the number of members of this House by your own mear arbitrary 
Power, without any Law enabling you so to, or any colour of authority 
from His majesty for your so doing that was ever made known to us, to 
which may be added your Excellency's causing a number of men to 
scout on y« west side of merrimack River last summer before A Grant 
was made for their Pay and Subsistence, and which we humbly appre- 
hend your Excellency could not rationally expect ever would be and the 
scouters remain to this Day without wages and those that subsisted them 
without their pay for it whether tliis is not oppressive we leave to the 
wisest Judges to determine. Proceedings of this nature will cast no ' 
blame on us, hut it gives us Concern, that any office must bear the Rec- 



orde of such Conduct were it possible for ns to entertain so dishon^e a 
Thought aa tliat a Vote could be past at the Council Board, and the 
Voters not he fully apprised of your directions without maturely delib- 
erating on the materials it was built with we should have at Once con- 
cluded, that the Vote for Keenborough Charter was such an one. May 
it please y Ex and Hon" we crave Leave to repeat our request to you 
for a reconsidei-ation of the Keenborough affair and that you will be 
pleased to do what is just and right therein to qfliet the minds of the 
People to stay the Strifes already begun and to prevent other Divisions 
that are like to arise — we are Zealously concei-ned thHt Love and Peace 
may be cultivated in the Province and a Harmony in the administration, 
that the Prerogative may always rest secure that the Infractions made 
on our Privileges may be healed, and that they may ever hereafter re- 
main safe and invioliite." 

'* Petition of a intmber of the Inhabitants of Brintwood, jirnying to be set oj" 

as a parish. 
" To his Excellency Benning Weutworth Esqr Governor & Commander 
in chief in and over his Majestys Province of New Hampshire the 
honorable his Majesty's Council & House of Representatives in 
General Assembly convenVl 12'i» day of June 1764 
" The Petition of us the Subscribers humbly sheweth that whereas we 
who are of the Parish of Brintwood in said Province are exposed by 
being at a threat distance from Meeting for the public worship of God 
Therefore pray your Honers to take our Ciise into your wise Considera- 
tion and set us off as a Parish with all Parish privileges one half of the 
aforesaid Parish of Brintwood for quantity on tl)e westerly end, Begin- 
ning at the northwesterly Corner of said Parish running easterly on 
Epping Line so far as to contain one half of the length of said Line. 
Tiien beginning at the South westerly Corner of said Parish running 
Easterly on Kingston Line one halfof the Length of the said South Line 
then to run a Straight Line across said Parish of Brintwood so as to con- 
tain full one halfof the Land of said Brintwood agreeable to a Vote of 
said Parish reference hereto being had may make fully appear. And 
your Petitioners in duty bound Shall ever pray 

" John Taylor Zachcus Clougli 

Joshua Kimball John Kimball 

Benj« Kimball Nalhnn Kimball 

Jonathan Brown James llerrill 

Joseph Hoyt James Merrill Jun 

Jonathan King «John [venison 

James Tucker Nathan Brown 

Daniel Brown Enoch Brown 

John Hoyt John Hoyt Jun 

Abel Morrill Samuel Hoyt 

John French Joseph Taylor 

John Glidden Daniel Kimball 

Israel Smith Samuel Clough 

Robert Glidden John Clough 

Ephraim Brown David Kimball 

Benjamin Cram Riibaid Clough 

Abraham Sanborn David Hoyt 

Ellas Swain Samuel Moody 

.lunathiin Hoyt Clement Moody 

Benjamin Hoyt Natli'l Whittier 

Reulion Hoyt . Nathaniel Whittier Jun 

John Prescot Luvren (?) Benjamin Clough 

" Province of \ In the House of Representatives June 14"" 1764 
New Hanips J This petition being read 

" Voted That the prayer thereof be Granted & that the petitioners 
have leave to bring In a Bill accordingly 

" A. Clarkson Clerk 
" In Council June IS" 1764 
Read & Concurred 
T. Atkinson Sec 
"At a Parish Meeting held at the meeting liouse in Brintwood the 
fifteenth Day of May 1764 

"Voted Deacon Jeremiali Beau moderator of said meeting at the same 
meeting it was Put to Vote to see if the Parish would maintain Two 
ministers in said Parish & it Past in the Negative 

"Voted the Inhabitants of the Westerly End of the Parish be set off 
to be a Parish by themselves that is to come one half the way Down on 
Epping Line & Run such a Point a cross to Kingston Line as to contain 
one half y" Land in Sd Parish 

" EL13HA Sanborn CUrk 
" A copy Examd." 

Congregational Church.' — Brentwood was origin- 
ally a part of Exeter, and was incorporated June 26, 
1742. Previous to this a meeting-house had- been 
erected in what is now the easterly part of Brent- 
wood. The first pastor of the Congregational Church 
in Brentwood was Rev. Nathaniel Trask, from Lex- 
ington, Mass. He came to Brentwood in 1747. A 
•church was organized in 1748, and Mr. Trask was 
ordained Dec. 12, 1748. There was a meeting-house 
built near the centre of the town in 1750, where the 
present Congregational meeting-house now stands. 
A church was organized at the Centre July 12th, O. S., 
or July 23, N. S., 1751. These two churches united 
in one, and Rev. Mr. Trask was installed pastor of 
this united church and minister of the town, Jan. 7, 
0. S., or Jan. 18,' N. S., 1756, and Rev. Ward Cotton, 
from Hampton, preached on the occasion from Col. 
iv. 17. Mr. Trask was dismissed from his pastoral 
charge July 30, 1787, on account of inability to 
preach, arising from a disorder in his head. Mr. 
Trask's ministry in the town was about forty years. 
He died in Brentwood, Dec. 12, 1789, aged sixty- 
eight years. During the time between Mr. Trask's 
dismissal and the second pastor's settlement there 
was a large number of candidates employed. Rev. 
Ebenezer Flint, from Methuen, Mass., was the second 
pastor of this church, ordairted May 27, 1801. He 
was a man much respected and beloved by his people. 
He died suddenly, Oct. 12, 1811, aged forty -two years, 
leaving a wife and four small children. Mr. Flint's 
ministry here was some more than ten years. 

On the 21st of July, 1813, Eev. Chester Colton, 
from Hartford, Conn., commenced his labors here, 
and was ordained pastor of this church Jan. 25, 1815. 
Rev. William F. Rowland, from Exeter, preached 
from 1 Cor. i. 21. The meeting-house, which was 
built in 1760, was taken down, and a new one built 
on the same spot in 1815. The Congregational par- 
sonage house, which is now occupied by Rev. W. C. 
Jackson, was also built in 1815. The Sabbath-school 
was organized in the spring of 1817, and Thomas S. 
Robinson was the first superintendent. Mr. Colton 
secured to himself the warmest attachment of his 
people, and his labors were greatly blessed. He was 
dismissed at his own request, on account of inflamma- 
tion of the eyes, March 16, 1825. After regaining the 
use of his eyes, he preached a while in Connecticut, 
and afterwards as a missionary to the West, where 
he died Sept. 15, 1850, aged sixty-six years. The 
fourth pastor of this church was Rev. Luke A. Spof- 
ford, from Gilmanton, N. H., installed Feb. 22, 1826, 
and Rev. Abraham Burnham, from Pembroke, N. H., 
preached from John v. 35. Mr. SpofFord asked and 
received a dismissal, April 1, 1829. He died in Rock- 
ville, Ind., Oct. 10, 1855. After the dismissal of 
Mr. Spofford this people enjoyed the labors of Rev. 
Jonathan Ward, from Plymouth, N. H., as acting 

t Contributed by Mary A. Sanborn. 



pastor, until the autumn of 1833. Rev. Mr. Ward 
died in Brentwood, Feb. 23, 1860. Tlie fifth pastor 
of this church was Rev. Francis Welch, from Hamp- 
stead, N. H. He was ordained Dec. 4, 1833, and 
Rev. John Smith, from Exeter, preached the ser- 
mon. He was dismissed Oct. 4, 1837. The sixth 
pastor of this church was Rev. John Gunnison, from 
New Market, N. H., who began to preach here in- 
October, 1837, and was installed June 12, 1837. Rev. 
Luther F. Dimmick, from the North Church in New- 
buryport, Mass., preached the sermon. His labors 
were greatly blessed here. He was dismissed June 8, 
1841. He died in Rochester, N. Y. The seventh 
pastor of this church was Rev. James Boutwell, from 
Lyndeborough, N. H. Mr. Boutwell commenced his 
labors here July 11, 1841, and was ordained Nov. 4, 
1841, and Rev. John L. Taylor, from Andover, Mass., 
preached the ordination sermon from 1 Pet. i. 12. 
James P., son of Rev. James and Mary P. Boutwell, 
died Oct. 31, 1844, aged four years. In 1847 the in- 
terior of the meeting-house that was built in 1815 
was remodeled. When this meeting-house was first 
built the audience-room was two stories high ; the 
galjery was high three ways round the room ; the 
pulpit was so exceedingly high as to tire the necks and 
eyes of those who sat nearest the pulpit to look at the 
minister; the pews we're square; the seats that kind 
that had hinges, and of course must be turned up 
when the congregation rose for prayers. The second 
story is now a hall, used for town and society busi- 
ness. The pews in the audience-room are long, the 
pulpit low, the gallery small, exclusively for the 
choir. Nov. 11, 1847, this meeting-house was re- 
dedicated to the worship of God, and Rev. Mr. Bout- 
well preached the dedicatory sermon from Exod. xx. 
24. Mr. Boutwell sustained the pastoral office among 
this people for more than ten years. He continued 
during his stay to retain his hold upon their affec- 
tions. He was highly esteemed by them, and his 
departure was deeply regretted. He was dismissed 
May 12, 1852. He died in Sanbornton, N. H., April 
21, 1865, aged fifty years and eleven months. Rev. 
Josiah M. Stearns, from New Ipswich, N. H., sup- 
plied the pulpit as acting pastor from Sept. 26, 1852, 
to June 12, 1853, when his useful life terminated in 
death, aged thirty-four years. Rev. Asa Mann, from 
Exeter, preached his funeral sermon from 2 Cor. iv. 
7. His remains were carried to New Ipswich to be 

The eighth pastor of this church was Rev. Charles 
Dame, from South Berwick, Me., installed May 17, 

1854. Charles, son of Rev. Charles and Nancy J. 
Dame, died Dec. 28, 1854, aged three years. Through 
the efforts of Mr. Dame, a bell was purchased and 
put in the belfry of the meeting-house, April 18, 

1855, and also a chandelier, which was put in the 
meeting-house June 27, 1855. Rev. Mr. Dame was 
dismissed Nov. 12, 1856. Rev. Mr. Allen, from South 
Berwick, Me., preached the sermon at the installation 

of Mr. Dame from 1 Peter iv. 11. The nintli pastor 
of this church was Rev. Hugh McLeod, a native of 
Nova Scotia, came from Springfield, Ohio, to Brent- 
wood, and commenced his labors here Dec. 13, 1857, 
and was installed Feb. 17, 1859, and Rev. Leonard S. 
Parker, from Haverhill, Mass., preached the sermon 
from 2 Cor. iv. 4. His labors here were greatly blessed. 
The reason he gave for asking a dismission was that 
he had a call from the Christian Commission to go and 
labor in the United States service. He was dismissed 
Oct. 16, 1865. Rev. Nathaniel Lassell, from Ames- 
bury, Mass., was the acting pastor from July 29, 1866, 
to Aug. 29, 1869. He died in Amesbury, Mass., Feb. 
4, 1880, aged sixty-six years. Rev. William C. Jack- 
son, a native of Madison, N. H., commenced his labors 
here July 10, 1870, and has been the acting pastor 
of this church for more than eleven years. Abbie 
Isabella, daughter of Rev. William C. and Mary A. 
Jackson, died May 3, 1881, aged twenty-nine years. 

Physicians. — The following is a list of physicians 
who have lived and practiced in Brentwood : Dr. 
Thomas Peabody, died Nov. 28, 1777, aged thirty 
years ; Dr. Thomas Stowe Ranney, moved to New- 
port, Me., and died February, 1830; Dr. Joseph Dal- 
ton came from Deerfield to Brentwood in 1818, and 
was the practicing physician in Brentwood and some 
of the adjoining towns until removed by death Dec. 
25, 1856, aged sixty-six years. Dr. Moses W. Caverly 
came from Gilmanton to Brentwood, Aug. 25, 1857, 
and has been the practicing physician to the present 
time, March, 1882. 

Baptist Church.'''— A meeting-house had been 
erected in the northwest part of the town previous to 
1768. May 2, 1771, a church was organized of thir- 
teen members as follows: William Eastman, Stephen 
Sleeper, Levi Blorrill, Edward Smith, Stephen But- 
ler, Alerdo Carter, John Folsom, Jeremiah Ward, 
Ellis Towle, Martha Marston, Molly Morrill, Abi- 
gail French, and Elizabeth Sleeper. 

Levi Morrill was chosen clerk, and Stephen Sleeper 
deacon. Dr. Samuel Shepard was called May 23d to 
take charge of this church and its branches at Strat- 
ham and Nottingham, and he was ordained at Strat- 
ham the last Wednesday of September of that year. 
Dr. Shepard's pastorate extended over a period of 
forty-four years, when he died Nov. 4, 1815, aged sev- 
enty-six years, four months, and thirteen days, and was 
buried only a short distance from the place where he 
had preached so long. 

After Dr. Shepard's death the pulpit was supplied 
by Rev. Jonathan Thyng, Benjamin Pottle; Henry 
Veasey, Reuben Bell, and Elder Cheny. Rev. Jona- 
than Thyng died in Brentwood Dec. 21, 1840, aged 
eighty years. Rev. Henry Veasey, a native of Brent- 
wood, died in Bow, April 4, 1825, aged thirty-nine 
years and six months. Rev. Samuel Cook commenced 
his labors in Brentwood June 3, 1827. In 1828 the 

1 By D. 0. Waldron. 



old wooden meeting-house was taken down and a 
new brick one erected, but not exactly on the same 
spot, the new one being on the north side of the road 
directly opposite from the old site. The new brick 
church was dedicated Nov. 4, 1828. The first anni- 
versary of the Portsmouth Baptist Association was 
held at the new Baptist meeting-house in Brentwood, 
Oct. 7 and 8, 1829. The parsonage house was built 
in 1832. Mr. Cook was dismissed May 1, 1835. He 
died in Concord, N. H., Feb. 15, 1872, aged eighty- 
one years. 

Rev. James W. Poland was publicly recognized as 
pastor of this church May 11, 1886, Rev. Samuel Cook 
preaching the sermon from Psalms Ixiii. 2. Mr. Po- 
land was dismissed in October, 1838, on account of 
ill health. In April, 1839, Rev. John Holbrook was 
obtained as his successor. In the latter part of 1840 a 
gracious revival was enjoyed. Soon after the pastor 
resigned. He died in Somerville, Mass., Aug. 13, 
1879, aged eighty years. Bro. Horace Eaton, a re- 
cent graduate of New Hampton Institution, supplied 
the desk a while in 1841. 

In April, 1842, Rev. Abel Philbrick became pastor, 
and the next year the Portsmouth Baptist Association 
held its fifteenth anniversary with this church. The 
past year this church has been visited by death, three 
of their valuable members having been called home 
to heaven. 

In October, 1844, Rev. A. M. Swain was the pastor, 
remaining until 1849. He was succeeded by Rev. J. 
H. Learned. In the wiliter of 1853-54 a revival was 
enjoyed ; the pastor was assisted by Rev. John Pea- 
cock in holding a meeting of several days, when many 
were hopefuly converted. Much to the regret of his 
people, Bro. Learned was obliged, on account of ill 
health, to close his labors with this church in the 
spring of 1854. In 1855, Rev. A. M. Swain was again 
called to minister to this people. In 1857 he talks of 
leaving, but it is hoped he will not. He preached his 
farewell sermon Oct. 24, 1858 ; his text was 1 Chron- 
icles xxviii. 9. In the spring of 1859, Rev. William 
H. Jones was settled here as the pastor of this church. 
He closed his labors in February, 1861. June 27, 
1861, Leonard B. Hatch was installed pastor, and 
labored there very acceptably for two years, when he 
resigned, preaching here for the last time May 81, 
1863. Jesse M. Coburn was the next pastor, coming 
here some time in 1863, remaining until July 1, 1866. 
Rev. H. G. Hubbard was his successor; was here for 
two years, and preached his farewell sermon Nov. 8, 
1868. His departure was deeply regretted by his 

During the next year somewhat extensive repairs 
were made on the inside of the church building, and 
on their completion, in August, 1869, the Rev. Charles 
D. Swett received and accepted a call to become pas- 
tor of this church. He remained here four years. 
During his ministry the church celebrated their cen- 
tennial, he preaching a sermon on the occasion. He 

delivered this sermon Oct. 19, 1871, the church being 
one hundred years old February 2d previous. 

In October, 1873, Rev. J. H. Learned received 
and accepted a call to become pastor again for the 
second time, which position he held for three years, 
and resigned again in the fall of 1876 on account 
of ill health. Dec. 10, 1876, E. L. Scott accepted a 
call to this church, and was ordained here March 6, 
1877, and closed his labors Oct. 14, 1877. Rev. C. H. 
Newhall succeeded him, and was pastor for three 
years, when he resigned. Oct. 81, 1880, Rev. George 
Ober was given a ve^^y unanimous call to become 
pastor of this old church and accepted ; he began his 
labors Feb. 6, 1881, and is the present pastor. 

This church is now (May, 1882) one hundred and 
eleven years old. Its Great Head has thus far pre- 
served it through its changes. Its present member- 
ship is ninety-eight. 

In the old records it is not ascertained when the 
first deacon (Deacon Sleeper) died, but of later ones 
the following is the record: Deacon Jonathan 
Veasey died Nov. 9, 1833, aged seventy-five ; Deacon 
Edward Tuck died April 30, 1843, aged seventy- 
nine ; Deacon Benjamin Veasey died March 16, 1868, 
aged seventy-nine ; Deacon Israel S. Tuck died Sept. 
25, 1872, aged seventy-one ; Deacon Benjamin Veasey, 
Jr., died April 16, 1870, aged fifty-one. Present dea- 
cons, William T. Bean and Ira Thyng. Present 
clerk, D. 0. Waldron. 

Military Record. — The following is a list of those, 
who enlisted from this town during the late rebel- 
lion : 

.Joseph Geebo, Co. C, 5th Begt.; enl. Aug. 23, 1864 ; disch. June 28, 1865. 

Thomas Morrison, , 11th Regt. ; enl. Bee. 23, 1863. 

Allen Turkey, Co. H, 6lh Regt.; enl. Sept. 7, 1R64 ; (lisch. June 28, 1866. 

Reuben C. Gaines, , 11th Regt.; enl. Dec. 19, 1863. 

William M. Locke, Co. 0, 6th Begt. ; enl, Nov. 27, 1861 ; re-enl. Dec. 27, 

1863, and credited to town of Chester. 
James \V. Mclutire, Co. 0, 6th Regt.; enl. Nov. 27, 1861 ; disch. March 

4, 1862. 
William H. Hook, Co. A, 9th Regt. ; enl. Aug. 28, 1862 ; disch. April 27, 

Daniel Riley, Co. C, 6th Regt. ; enl. Nov. 27, 1861 ; killed Aug. 29, 1862. 
Charles A. Glidden, Co. A, Uth Regt.; enl. Aug. 28, 1862; disch. June 

4, 1866. 
Freeman Stockman, Co. C, 6th Regt. ; enl. Nov. 27, 1861 ; disch. May 18, 

Nathaniel B.Collins, 1st sergt. Co. A, lltli Regt.; enl. Aug. 28, 1862; 

disch. June 4, 1866. 
John S. Rowell, sergt. Co. C, 6th Begt. ; enl. Nov. 27, 1861 ; re-enl. and 

pro. 1st lieut. Dec. 24, 1863 ; pro. capt. Jan. 7, 1865; disch. July 17, 

Isaac N. Morse, corp. Co. C, 6th Regt. ; enl, Nov. 27, 1861 ; disch. March 

4, 1862. 
John W. Clark, Co. H, 7th Begt. ; enl. April 13, 1864; absent, sick, July 

20, 1865 ; no discharge furnished. 
James W. Marshall, Co. B, 7th Begt. ; enl. Nov, 18, 1861 ; re-enl. and 

pro. to sergt. Feb. 27, 1864 ; disch, July 28, 1864. 
Bernard McElroy, Co. A, 7th Regt. ; enl. Oct. 29, 1861 ; re-enl. Feb. 29, 

1864; disch. July 20, 1865. 
John Cadigan, Co. D, 8th Regt.; enl. Aug. 17, 1864; not officially ac- 
counted for. 
Frank Howard, Co. C, 9th Regt. ; enl. Aug. 24, 1864. 
Benjamin F. LaBue, Corp. Co. A, 11th Regt. ; enl. Aug. 28, 1862; disch. 

June 4, 1865. 
Blbridge C. Brackett, Co. A, 11th Begt. ; enl. Aug. 28, 1862 ; pro. to Corp.; 

disch. June 4, 1865. 



George W. Brackett, Co. A, llth Regt.; enl. Aug. 28, 1862; diech. June 

4, 1866. 
John L. Oilman, Co. A, llth Regt. ; enl. Aug. 28, 1862 ; tliscb. for dis- 

abilitv Dec. 13, 1862. 
Joshua W. Lane, Co. A, llth Regt.; enl. Aug. 28, 1862; disch. June i, 

Edward Nickett, Co. A, llth Regt.; enl. Aug. 28, 1862; pro. to Corp.; 

trans, to Inv. Corps Sept. 1, 1863. 
Dudley H.Robinson, Co. A, lltb Regt.; enl. Aug. 28,1862; died Jan. 

9, 1863. 
Jonathan W. Robertson, Co. A, lltb Regt.; enl. Aug. 28, 1862; pro. to 

sergt.; disch. June 4, 1866. 
George 0. Sanborn, Co. A, llth Regt.; enl. Aug. 28, 1862; pro. to 

sergt.; disch. June 4, 186S. 
Charles G. Thing, Co. A, llth Regt.; enl. Aug. 28, 1862; died Jan. 31, 

Herman W. Veazey, Co. A, llth Regt; enl. Aug. 28, 1862; trans, to 

Vet. Res. Corps; disch. June 28, 1865. 
George A. Miles, Co. A, llth Regt.; enl. Aug. 28, 1862; trans, to Vet. 

Res. Corps; disch. Aug. 28, 1865. 
John F. Worthen, Co. A, llth Regt.; enl. Aug. 28, 1862; trans, to Bait. 

B, 1st U. S. A., Oct. 14, 1862. 
Charles Davis, Co. A, llth Regt. ; enl. Aug. 28, 1862 ; trans, to Vet. Res. 

Corps, Sept. 30, 18G3. 
John P. Bean, Co. C, llth Regt.; enl. Aug. 28, 1862; disch. June 4, 1865. 
John N. Kimball, Co. I, llth Begt. ; enl. Sept. 2, 1862; disch. March 27, 

Marcena W. Lane, Co. I, llth Regt. ; enl. Sept. 2, 1862; disch. June 4, 

John Campbell, Co. A, llth Regt. ; enl. July 29, 1864 ; trans, to 6th 

N. H. Vol. June 1, 1865. 
George Sawyer, Co. G, llth Regt.; enl. Dec. 19, 18G3; trans, to 6th N. 

H. V. June 1, 1865 ; disch. July 17, 1865. 
Oliver Thomas, 14th Regt.; enl. Aug. 5,1864; not officially accounted 

James H. Robinson, Corp., Co. E, 15th Regt.; enl. Oct. 9, 1862; disch. 

Aug. 13,1863. 
George R. Russell, sergt., Co. E, 15th Regt.; enl. Oct. 9, 1862; disch. 

Aug. 13, 1863. 
Josiah Morris, sergt., Co. E, 15th Regt.; enl. Oct. 9, 1862; disch. Aug. 13, 

Lorenzo D. Cate, Co. E, 15th Regt. ; enl. Oct. 9, 1862 ; disch. Aug. 13, 

Frank A. Colby, Co. E, 15th Regt.; enl. Oct. 9, 1862; died, date un- 
Frank W. Gould, Co. E, 15th Regt.; enl. Oct. 9, 1862; disch. Aug. 13, 

James F. Hazeltine, Co. E, 15th Regt. ; enl. Oct. 9, 1862 ; disch. Aug. 13, 

Edward Hemmel, Co. E, 15th Regt.; enl. Oct. 9, 1862; disch. Aug. 13, 

George B. Lane, Co. E, 15th Regt. ; enl. Oct. 17, 1862 ; disch. Aug. 13, 

Lewis W. Sinclair, Co. E, 15th Regt. ; enl. Oct. 9, 1862 ; died July 25, 

Marcus M. Tuttle, Co. E, 15th Regt. ; enl. Oct. 15, 1862 ; deserted, date 

Mark Carr, Co. A, 1st Cav.; enl. April 14,1864; pro. to sergt.; disch. 

March 20, 1866, on account of wounds. 
Joseph W. Chase, Co. B, 1st Cav. ; enl. March 24, 1864; cap. June 29, 

1864 ; no discharge given. 
George Young, Co. B, 1st Cav.; enl. April 14, 1864; deserted April 17, 

David E. Brown, Co. C, Ist Cav. ; enl. April 5, 1864 ; disch. July 15, 1865. 
Horace S. Flanders, 1st Co. H. Art. ; enl. July 22, 1863 ; disch. Sept. 11, 

John H. Carr, 1st U. S. S. S., Co. E, corp. ; enl. Sept. 9, 1861 ; pro. to sergt. 

Jan. 29, 1863; Sept. 20, 1863. 
Charles 0. Copp, Co. C, llth Regt. ; enl. Aug. 21, 1862 ; pro. to corp. May 

1,1865; diech. Jnne 4, 1866. 
Andrew Jackson, , U. S. C. T. ; enl. Aug. 24, 1864 ; no record here of 

William Burrows, enl, Aug. 23, 1864; company and regiment unknown. 
John J. Stallard, enl. Aug. 23, 1864 ; company and regiment unknown. 
John E. Dunbar, enl. Aug. 10, 1864; company and regiment unknown. 
James Miller, enl. Aug. 11, 1864; company and regiment unknown. 
Simon Brown, enl. .\ug. 13, 1864; company and regiment unknown. 

Thomas Morrison, enl. Sept. 1, 1863 ; company and regiment unknown. 
James Tracey, enl. Jan. 4, 1866; company and regiment unknown. 
William Desell, Co. A, 6th Regt. ; enl. Aug. 26, 1864 ; disch. June 28. 

William Barrows, Co. H, 6th Regt. ; enl. Aug. 23, 1864 ; des. gained from 

desertion ; disch , June 14, 1863. 
E. B. W. Stevens, Co. I, 5th Regt.; enl. Sept. 18, 1862; killed July 2, 

Jonathan S. Bowe, Oo. I, 6th Regt.; enl. Sept. 18, 1862; missing Dec. 13, 

James Maloney, Co. F, 2d Begt. ; enl. Oct. 5, 1864); deserted Feb. 4, 1865. 
William Fisher, Co. I 2d Regt.; onl. Dec. 2, 1863; deserted Feb. 3, 1864. 
Ambrose E. Bowell, Co. B, 3d Regt.; enl. Feb. 22, 1864; pro. to sergt.; 

disch. July 20, 18G5. 
George W. Bean, Co. B, 7th Begt. ; enl. Dec. 17, 1861 ; pro. to Corp. June 

12, 1862 ; sergt. Dec. 22, 1S64; disch. July 20, 1865. 
George A. Robinson, Co. B, 7th Regt. : enl. Sept. 17, 1862 ; disch. June 

28, 1865. 
Charles Hall, Co. B, llth Regt.; enl Dec. 18, 1863. 
Nat Wolf, Co. H, llth Begt. ; enl. Deo. 18, 1863. 
James McKee, llth Begt; enl. Dec. 19, 1863. 
Andrew P. White, lltb Begt.; enl. Dec. 19, 1863. 
Henry Harkins, lltli Begt. ; enl. Aug. 19, 1864. 
John F. Brown, Co. I, llth Begt. ; enl. Feb. 14, 1866 ; trans, to 6th N. H. 

v.; disch. July 17, 1865. 
Louis Douche, Co. K, 1st Cav. ; enl. March 8, 1865 ; disch. July 15, 1865. 
John F. Dudley, Co. E, 2d Begt. ; enl. June 3, 1861; pro. to sergt. Aug. 

1, 1862; disch. June 21, 1864. 
Freeman Stockman, Co.C, 6th Regt.; enl. Nov. 27, 1861 ; disch. May 18, 

John W. Clark, Co. H, 7th Begt. ; enl. April 13, 1864; absent sick July 

20, 1865 ; no discharge furnished. 
Josiah Norris, sergt., Co. E, 15tli Regt.: enl. Oct. 9, 1862 ; disch. Aug. 13, 




Robert Rowe was born in Brentwood, N. H., June 
12, 1810. He is descended from one Robert Rowe, 
who resided in Kensington, N. H., prior to 1739. 
Tliis original Robert was a farmer. He had twelve 
children, ten sons and two daughters ; he was a cap- 
tain of militia, and it may be mentioned as a remark- 
able fact that at one time all of his ten sons were 
members of his militia company. One of his sons 
was named Robert, born in Kensington in 1726, mar- 
ried in 1749 a Miss Abigail Tilton. They had two 
sons and two daughters, — Robert and Simon, Lovey 
and Aphia. He also was a farmer, and came to 
Brentwood between 1739 and 1749, and settled on the 
farm which the present Robert now owns. He was 
many year.s deacon of the Congregational Church, and 
was very rigid in his behavior and deportment, par- 
ticularly so in his observance of the Sabbath. He 
was selectman of his town, and held various other 
town offices. Simon, his son, was born in Brentwood 
1751, and in 1776 married Mary Morrison, of Haver- 
hill, Mass. Their children were Jonathan, Simon, 
David, Benjamin, Anna, and Miriam. The last 
named of the sons is still living in Gilford, N. H. 
He (Simon) was a farmer, and died in the prime of 
life. Jonathan, his eldest son, was born in Brent- 
wood, 1777 ; he married, in 180-5, Anna Robinson, 

^^/-^y^^ ^^^'y'-e^ 




daughter of Joseph Robinson, of Brentwood. They 
had tlii^e sons, — Robert, whose portrait appears in 
connection with this slcetch ; Simon, born March 28, 
1806 ; and Joseph, born Aug. 6, 1813. Jonathan was 
a farmer and surveyor ; he was also a teacher of 
music, and for many years a teacher in the common 
schools. He led the choir in the Baptist Church 
forty consecutive years. In politics he was a Fed- 
eralist and Whig, was selectman many years, and 
was one of the prominent local men of his day. He 
died 1845, his widow surviving him. The present 
Robert Rowe received whatever educational advan- 
tages the district schools of his town could furnish, 
and in addition to this private instruction from his 
fatlier, under whose tutelage he learned surveying and 
other branches not then taught in the common schools. 
He resided on the farm with his father until his seven- 
teenth year, when he apprenticed himself to one John 
Fifield to learn carpentering. This apprenticeship 
continued three years, when young Rowe went to 
Ijynn, Mass., where he worked at his trade three 
summers, returijing home during the winter months 
and manufacturing clap-boards, having introduced 
the first machine for that purpose ever used in the 
town of Brentwood. He continued this business 
winters and carpentering summers a few years, when 
lie started business where he now continues. He 
began by manufacturing clap-boards, shingles, doors, 
sash, and blinds ; this he followed several years, when 
he added the manufacture of wheels. The business 
has now grown to large proportions, and under the 
flrnijuame of Robert Rowe & Sons they manufacture 
wheels, bodies, seats, and gears. They employ from 
fifteen to twenty workmen, and their sales amount to 
twenty-five or thirty thousand dollars per year. He 
married, Dec. 25, 1834, Sally T., daughter of Henry 
Sinclair, of Brentwood ; she was born Sept. 18, 1813. 
Their children are Harriet E. (deceased), wife of 
Aaron Brown, of Fremont ; she died leaving one 
daughter named Nellie. Jonathan S., who enlisted 
in Company I, Fifth New Hampshire Volunteers, 
and lost his life at the battle of Fredericksburg, Va. ; 
James H., Joseph R., and George R. These three 
sons are in business with their father, and as an evi- 
dence of the standing of the family in the community, 
it may be stated that the father and each of the three 
sons is an incumbent of some town office. In politics 
Mr. Rowe has always been an outspoken Democrat. 
Belonging to the weaker political party, he has fre- 
quently been chosen as its candidate for county offices, 
and always ran ahead of his ticket, thus showing con- 
clusively the esteem in which he is held by his fellow- 
citizens. He is a trustee of the Swampscot Savings- 
Bank of Exeter, and has been from its organization. 
He is an attendant and supporter of the Baptist 
Church, and has been through life an enterprising, 
industrious, persevering man, conscientious in his 
dealings, economical in his habits, sincere in his friend- 
ships, unassuming in his manners ; with a justifi- 

able and commendable pride of character and family, 
he stands a representative of the better type of New 
England's worthy manhood. Of his three living sons, 
James H., born Sept. 1, 1844, married, August, 1868, 
Emma P., daughter of David Little. They have two 
children, Annie and John M. Joseph R., born Jan. 
1, 1846, married, Sept. 6, 1871, Abby, daughter of 
John R. Robinson. They have one child, Lillian. 
George R., born Feb. 22, 1849, married, July 3, 1870, 
Betsy J., daughter of Lewis B. Gordon. They have 
two children, George Russell and Robert G. 


Samuel Morrill is descended from one Abram Mor- 
rill, who came from England to Boston, and belonged 
to what was then called the " Honorable Artillery." 
William Morrill, Esq., grandfather of Samuel, was 
born 1735. He was a farmer ; was a Federalist in 
politics. Married Lydia Trask ; they had eight chil- 
dren, viz. : Abram, William, Nathaniel, Jonathan, 

Nancy, Sarah, Eleanor, and . He died Jan. 28, 

1812. William Morrill, his son, was born in 1768 ; 
was reared on farm ; was twice married, first to Mary 
Gordon, born 1768, died May 26, 1799. They had four 
children, — Nathaniel, born July 23, 1791, died Nov. 
3, 1791 ; Dolly,-born April 6, 1794, married Samuel 
Dudley, died July 30, 1832 ; Zebedee, born July 10, 
1796, married Lucy Potter, died Oct. 18, 1854; and 
Mary, born April 25, 1798, married Capt. John Fifield, 
died Oct. 4, 1861. 

Capt. William Morrill married for his second wife 
Elizabeth Dudley, born 1775, died 1865. They had 
seven children, viz. : Sally Dudley, born April 25, 
1798, married Henry Marshall ; Samuel, born March 

29, 1803 ;■ John Dudley, born July 25, 1805, married, 
first, Lavinia Robinson, second, Ruth Stevens, died 
July 10, 1875 ; Anna, born July 20, 1807, died Dec. 

30, 1869; William, born April 2, 1810, married Mary 
Ann Tuck, Dec. 20, 1838, died Nov. 7, 1842; Wash- 
ington, born Jan. 3, 1813 ; Frederick, born Aug. 24, 
1815, married Mrs. Annie Hungerford, died Dec. 29, 

Capt. William Morrill derives his title from having 
been captain of a militia company. In politics he 
was a Whig ; he held the various town offices in his 
time, and was a member -of the Congregational 
Church. He died Aug. 22, 1838. William Morrill, 
Jr., had three children, — Catharine Louisa, born Nov. 
5, 1839; Marietta, born March 31, 1841; William 
Henry, born Oct. 5, 1842, was a member of Company 
E, Second Regiment New Hampshire Volunteers, 
and lost his life in the battle of Williamsburg, Va., 
May 5, 1862, aged nineteen years. 

Samuel Morrill, whose portrait appears herewith, 
grew to manhood on the farm with his father, receiv- 
ing only such educational advantages as the schools 
of his native town afforded. At the age of twenty- 
one he left the paternal home and went to Gilford, 



N. H., and engaged in farming, remaining there about 
twenty years. He married Miss Lydia Sanborn, of 
Brentwood, born December, 1802. They have two 
children, — Chester C, born Aug. 3, 1827, and Caroline 
F., born July, 1831. Chester C. married Arvilla O. 
Robinson, {laughter of Jonathan Robinson, and re- 
sides now in Sparta, Wis. 

Mr. Morrill is a Republican in politics, and was 
representative to Legislature in 1851-52. Has held i 
various town offices, and stands high in the respect 
and esteem of his acquaintances. He is spending 
life's autumn at the old homestead, which has been 
in the possession of the family more than ninety years. 

Jonathan Morrill is eighth in line of descent from 
Abraham Morrill, who emigrated from England and 
settled in the town of Salisbury, Mass., about the year 
1660. He was one of the pioneers of that ancient 
settlement, a man of sterling character, and noted for 
his many virtues. Jonathan Morrill was, born May 
28, 1786, in Brentwood, N. H. He received a fairly 
liberal education for that day, and as he grew up to 
manhood developed in a marked degree the many 
virtues for which his ancestors had been noted. He 
was a farmer, and also for several years was engaged 
in manufacturing carding-machines for carding wool. 
He held the office of selectman thirteen years, between 
the years 1818 and 1845, and also other town offices. 
He represented Brentwood in the Legislature -two 
years, and was elected to the State Senate in 1843 
and 1844. Mr. Morrill was an enterprising and pub- 
lic-spirited citizen, honest and upright in all his deal- 
ings, and highly esteemed for his sterling worth and 
the strict integrity of his character. In politics he 
was a Democrat. He died leaving behind him one 
daughter, Sarah M., born May 27, 1834, died May, 
1880. She was a very intelligent lady, and among 
other effects left at her death quite an interesting 
and extensive cabinet of natural curiosities and an- 
tiquarian specimens. 

Justus J. Bean, who inserts accompanying portrait 
and pays this tribute to the memory of Jonathan 
^ Morrill, was born in Danville, N. H., Jan. 28, 1830. 

He resided there until about six years of age, then 
went to Raymond, where he remained a while ; thence 
to Fremont, where he lived till the age of twenty-one. 
He lived with Albert Brown fifteen years, then came 
to live with Esq. Morrill, and remained with him to 
the time of the old gentleman's demise. Upon the 
death of Mr. Morrill his property descended to his 
daughter, and a few years later she, dying childless, 
rewarded the constancy Mr. Bean had shown to the 
family by bequeathing to him the entire estate, valued 
at several thousand dollars. 


Samuel Prescott was born Nov. 10, 1809. His 
father was Jeremiah Prescott, who was a farmer, and 
who lived and owned the land where the county 
farm is now located. He was twice married, and had 
seven children by first wife and two by latter, whose 
maiden name was Elizabeth Chase. Samuel was one 
of the children by this second marriage. His father 
died when he was about seven years of age, and the 
family being left in poor circumstances, Samuel at 
the tender age of eight years stepped from under the 
ancestral roof to seek and carve his own fortune. ' He 
passed through many vicissitudes and changed his 
home many times before he arrived at the age of man- 
hood. He managed, however, to secure a fair educa- 
tion at the common schools of his town, and on Jan. 
15, 1838, he married Mary E., daughter of Eliphalet 
Robinson, of Brentwood. She was born Dec. 10, 1818, 
and they were married by Rev. John Gunnison. Im- 
mediately after his marriage he went to Newport, Me., 
and engaged in farming. His health became very 
poor, however, and after four or five years he gave up 
farming. He lived in Maine about fourteen years, 
then returned to his native town and engaged in 
farming, milling, and also occasionally worked at 
carriage-building. Their children were as follows : 
James B., born Oct 8, 1838 ; Samuel C, born April 
10, 1843, died Dec. 3, 1854; Mary E., born Oct. 31, 
1849; an infant, born June 16, 1859, died a few weeks 
later ; Howard L., born April 11, 1864. James B. 
married Hannah D. Clifford, in Boston, Dec. 29, 1860. 
They have one child, George B., born Aug. 2, 1862. 
] Mary E. married Charles Snyder, of New York City, 
Nov. 24, 1870, in Brentwood, by Rev. C. D. Sweatt. 
Children- Charles B., born June 19, 1872, and Byron 
j P., born Sept. 27, 1874. Charles Snyder was born 
Oct. 8, 1837, in New York City. When he grew up 
' he learned carpentering, and engaged in business with 
! a partner. They were for a time very successful, 
' but just prior to the civil war, when the great financial 
panic came and nearly all business in New Y'ork was 
1 suspended, he closed out his shop. Nothing better 
I oflering, he enlisted in the Metropolitan police force. 
In about a year he was appointed to the position of 
detective, and shortly after to roundsman. After a 
year or two he was_ appointed sergeant of police, 
j which position he held to the time of his death, 
which occurred very suddenly from paralysis. He 
died in New York City, Nov. 12, 1880, and was brought 
1 to and interred in Brentwood Cemetery. Mr. and 
I Mrs. Prescott reside with their daughter, Mrs. Snyder, 
at the old homestead, and to Mrs. Snyder's credit be 
it said she surrounds them with all the comforts and 
conveniences calculated to make their remaining days as pleasantly as possible. 

She has two promising boys, and is giving them 
the advantages of an education, reasoning rightly that 
it is the best legacy she can bequeath them. 





Geographical — Topographical — Names of Early Settlers — Bounds of the 
Town— Fiist Town Meeting— OtBcers Elected— Documentary History 
—Ecclesiastical History— Free-Will Baptist Church— Methodist Epis- 
copal Church — Educational — Early Roads — College Graduates— Mili- 
tary History. 

The towu of Candia liea in the western part of the 
county, and is bounded as follows: On the north by 
Deei'field ; on the east by Raymond ; on the south by 
Chester and Auburn ; and on the west by Merrimac 
County. The surface of the town is elevated, and 
the soil hard of cultivation. 

The town of Candia was settled in about 1743. 
Among the pioneers were Daniel McClune, William 
Turner, Benjamin Smith, Winthrop Wells, .John, 
Theophilus, and Jacob Sargent, Dr. Samuel Moore, 
Enoch Rowell, and Obededom Hull. William Turner 
purchased his lot in 1741, and there is a tradition that 
his daughter Sarah was the first white child born in 
the town. 

A petition was presented to the General Assembly, 
dated March 22, 1763, praying to be set off as a dis- 
tinct parish, .signed by the following persons, who 
probably constituted most of the voters in town : 
Benjamin Bachelder, Samuel Moores, Jonathan Hills, 
Samuel Towle, Nicklus Smith, Jonathan Towle, Na- 
th' Ingalls, Theophilus Clough, John Karr, Thomas 
Chretchet, Samuel Eastman, John Clay, Moses Baker, 
Theop. Sargent, Stephen Webster, Joseph Smith, 
Jeremiah Bean, Zebedee Berry, Phineas Towle, Wil- 
liam Turner, Winthrop Wells, Abraham Fitts, Sher- 
burn Rowe, Asel Quimby, Gilman Dudley, Zachariah 
Clittbrd, Enoch Colby, Moses Smart, Nath' Emerson, 
John Sargent, Jonathan Bean, Benj. Smith, James 
McClure, Stephen Palmer, Jacob Sargent, Ichabod 
Robie, Elisha Bean, David Hills. 

The prayer was granted and a charter given, dated 
Dec. 17, 1763. The boundaries were as follows : 

" Beginning at the North East Corner of said Parish, ou the Line of 
the Township of Nottingham at a Hemlock tree, at the head of the Old 
Hundred-acre Lotts; then runs South twenty Nine Degrees West, join- 
ing to said lotts as they are Entered on the Proprietors' Records, about 
four miles to a stake and stones; then West North West to a Maple 
Tree, being the North East bounds of the Lott Number forty-three, in 
the Second part of the Second Division, and continuing the same couree 
by towerhill pond to a stake and stones, what completes five miles and 
a half upon this course; then North Twenty Nine Degrees East to a 
Pitcli Pine, which is the South West Boundary of the Eighty acre lott 
in the Third Division, Number one hundred twenty-three; then North 
twenty Nine Degrees East to Nottingham Line, and then on that Line 
to the Hemlock Tree first mentioned." 

Samuel Emerson, Esq., was appointed to call the 
first meeting. The meeting was holden March 13, 

Moderator, Dr. Samuel Moores. 

Parish Clerk, Dr. Samuel Moores. 

Constable, Winthrop Wells. 

^ Condensed from Rev. Benjamii 

Chase's excellent 

Selectmen, Lieut. Benjamin Bachelder, John Sar- 
gent, .Jeremiah Bean. 

Tythingman, John Clay. 

Surveyors of Highways, Lieut. Samuel Towl, Moses 
Baker, Elisha Bean, Zebedee Berry. 

Fence-Viewers, Matthew Ramsey, Stei^hen Web- 

Hawards, Stephen Palmer, Moses Smart. 

Deer Inspectors, Theophilus Clough, Jonathan 

Committee to Examine the Selectmen's Accompts, 
Stephen Webster, Walter Robie, Nathaniel Emerson. 

On the first leaf of the old records is the following: 

" A Parish Book of Records, No. 1, Kept by Samuel Moores, Esq., from 
the Incorporation of said Parish up to October, 1793, and at his Decease 
succeeded by Samuel Moores, Jr., and kept until March, 179S; and then 
by Walter Robie, Esq . until March, 1806; and then by Richard Emer. 
son until the month of October, 1800, when he Deceased ; and then hy 
John Lane until March, 1820; and then by Peter Eaton until March, 
1831; and then by Frederick Fitts until March, 1832; and then by S. A. 
Sargent until March, 1836; and then by Dr. Samuel Sargent until Feb. 

The old book closed in 1807. 

The selectmen the first year charge : "Paid Asahel 
Quimby for a constable's statf, £4." This was old 
tenor, equal to about sixty-seven cents. The staff is 
now in possession of Edmund Hills, Esq. It is of 
hard wood, about eighteen inches long, and an inch 
and a half in diameter, stained black, with a pewter 
ferule about three inches long on one end. It was a 
badge of office. 

The town was formerly called Charmingfare, the first 
visitors being so well pleased with its site as a place of 
residence. It received its present name in honor of 
Governor Benning Wentworth, who was once a pris- 
oner on the Isle of Candia in the Mediterranean Sea. 

Building the Meeting-House.— At a meeting of 
the parish, held Sept. 8, 1766, 

"Voted, to build a meeting House. 

" Voted, that the meeting house Shall be set on or near the North west 
corner of the Parsonage lot, so called. 

** Voted, that the meeting house frame Shall be Begun upon the 22 
Day of this instant September; John Clay, Walter Robie, Esq., Benja. 
Cass, Moses Baker, Jonathan Bean, Nathl. Emerson, and Abraham Fitts, 
a Committee." 

They voted to raise sixty pounds, to be paid in 
work at two shillings and sixpence per day for com- 
mon hands, or in lumber, and to hire workmen, etc., 
the frame to be completed by the last day of October. 
If any did not pay in work or lumber the constable 
was to collect it in money. The house was to be 
forty-five feet wide and fifty-five feet long. Five 
pounds lawful money was voted to be raised, to be 
used by the committee, if needed. 

At a meeting, Oct. 20, 1766, 

" Voted, that the Selectmen shall Assess a Sufficient Sum to finish the 
meeting house Fraim. 

" Voted, That there Be Provided for Raising Sui)per, Codfish, Potatoes, 
and Butter." 

'History of ^^ ^ meeting, Feb. 5, 1767, it was voted to sell the 
pew-ground for the wall pews, and William Baker, 



Dr. Samuel Moores, and William Turner were chosen 
a committee to sell it, and take care that the frame 
be boarded, shingled, and underpinned. The pew- 
ground was sold Feb. 19, 1767. 

Sept. 17, 1767, it was voted "to sell the ground for 
six more pews behind the men's and women's seats, 
in order to finish the outside of the meeting-house this i 
fall as far as said pew-groiind will go." It was sold 
Oct. 1, 1767. The purchase was to be paid in mer- 
chantable pine boards at eighteen shillings per thou- [ 
sand, and shingles at seven shillings per thousand, by 1 
the first day of June. The second sale, the same 
articles at the market price. 

Nov. 23, 1767, it was voted " that the meeting-house 
shall be glazed this fall, as soon as may be conveniently 
done by way of assessment," and liberty was given to 
cut timber on the parsonage and school lots to make 
red-oak hogshead staves to defray the expense, " to 
be three feet eight inches long, and delivered at the 
meeting-house by the tenth day of February next." 

Aug. 28, 1769, voted that the meeting-house com- 
mittee build the men's and women's seats in the meet- 

June 15, 1773, voted that there shall be a pulpit 
built in six months. Jonathan Bagley dissented. 

Feb. 21. 177.'), it was voted to sell ground for pews 
in the gallery to the highest bidder, and the finishing 
the meeting-house to the lowest bidder. 

March 9, 1779, "Voted that the Seats Shall be 
made in the Galleries, and the Brest work lined this 

July 21, 1783, it was voted " that y' Brest work and 
seats in the Galleries in the meeting house be Built 
the Present Year." The committee "Shall Build a 
pew in the front Galleries, from Pillar to Pillar, for 
the use of Singers." 

March 29, 1796, the question was taken about build- 
ing a steeple and porch, and negatived, fifty-two to 
fifty-nine, but a vote was passed to give up the stair- 
way and sell it for pew-ground, to go towards build- 
ing a steeple and porch, provided a sufficient number 
of men can be found to build the rest of the steeple 
and porch. They were built. 

March 9, 1802, it was voted to raise one hundred 
and twenty-five dollars to be annexed to what is sub- 
scribed towards purchasing a bell. It seems that 
Maj. Samuel Moore had purchased a weathercock of 
Mr. Jones, of Newburyport, and had failed to pay 
him ; in 1802 the town voted to pay him. 

The old house was burned Jan. 25, 1828, and the 
present one built the same year. 

Hiring and Settling Ministers. — In the select- 
men's account for 1764 is an item, " Paid John Clay 
for boarding the minister, £4." 

1765. " Paid Mr. Gilman for preaching fourteen 
sabbaths £14. Theophilus Sargent going to Exeter 
after a minister, 5s. Lieut. Bachelder, going to 
Hampton after a minister, 4s. Theo. Clough, for 
going after a minister, 5s." 

1766. Mr. Gilman, preaching twelve Sabbaths. 
Mr. Hillard, preaching four Sabbaths. There were 
some Presbyterians in the parish who probably asked 
not to be rated, and it was voted, " Concerning those 
persons that call themselves Presbyterians, past in 
the negative." 

1767. John Clay, Ichabod Robie, and Moses 
Baker were chosen a committee to hire a minister, 
and Mr. Webster was paid for fifteen Sabbaths, £18. 

1768. The former committee was re-elected, and 
£20 voted to hire preaching, and Mr. Gilman paid 
for fifteen and Mr. Hall two Sabbaths. Mr. Clay is 
paid for boarding Mr. Hall and his horse two weeks, 
and John Clay, Esquire Robie, Moses Baker, Ichabod 
Robie, and Abraham Fitts are paid for going after 

June 8, ns.S. " Voted, that there Shall be a minister Settler! as soon 
as may be Conveniently done. 

"Voted, that the Comte that is appointed to hire Preaching, shall ap- 
point a day of Fasting and Prayer, in order to the Calling of a Gospel 
minister, and hire a minister upon probation or trial. 

" Voted, that the Parish have Pitched upon Mr. Tristram Gilman as a 
minister, that the Committee shall hire upon trial in order to for settle- 

September, 1768, they voted to give Mr. Gilman 
" forty pounds for 1769 ; add two pounds ten shillings 
per ann. until it amounts to sixty pounds; that he 
shall have the improvement of half of the parsonage, 
and to bring more into cultivation, and to build a 
house suitable for a minister as soon as may be (con- 
veniently done) ; afterwards, £5 per ann., till it 
amounts to £70." 

November 7th, they voted him the whole of the 
parsonage. Mr. Gilman declined the call. 

.Tune 29, 1769, voted to raise £20, lawful, to be laid 
out in preaching, and Walter Robie, Dr. Samuel 
Moores, and Benjamin Cass were chosen a committee 
to lay out the money. Voted to make choice of one 
of the three ministers for further trial, and a " uni- 
versal Choice" made of Mr. Jonathan Searle. 

Aug. 28, 1769, the parish gave Mr. Searle a call, 
and offered him £40 and the use of the parsonage, 
and bring thirty acres under improvement and find 
him a convenient dwelling-house. Mr. Searle gave a 
negative answer. 

Mr. Searle is paid for preaching ten Sabbaths, Mr. 
Joseph Currier for two, and Mr. Thomas Lancaster 
for four Sabbaths. 

Nov. 26, 1770, it was voted " to give Mr. David 
Jewett a call to the work of the ministry amongst us, 
and to give him £50, lawful, the first year, and add £5 
per year until it amounts to £65 per year, and that to be 
his stated salary, with the income of the parsonage ; 
to finish the house, build a barn, and dig a well as 
soon as can conveniently be done." Mr. Jewett's 
answer was in the affirmative, and is upon the 

Feb. 5, 1771, it was voted that he be ordained the 
first Wednesday of September next. 
' March 11, 1777, 



"Voted, tliat all those pereons that have heretofore Joined with the 
Baptist Society in Deerfield, bring a Certificate within two mouths from 
this Date, from the assessors of said Baptist Society, that they were rated 
there, then the Selectmen of this parish are to make a Draw back of the 
minister rate the present year." 

In the parish accounts the rates of the following 
persons were abated for 1776, they being Baptists : 
Benjamin Kowel, Benjamin Carr, Capt. John Sargent, 
Ensign Jonathan Bagley, Robert Smart, Jonathan 
Woodman, Edward Critchet, Thomas Critohet, and 
William Turner. 

Feb. 8, 1779, " Voted that the Parish Desires mr. Jewett to ask a Dis- 
mission from this People of the Pastoral Care and Charge he has taken 

A committee was at the same time chosen to tj-eaf 
with Mr. Jewett. Money had depreciated in value, 
and in consequence, probably, Mr. Jewett asked for 
more salary. 

May 27, 1779, "Voted unanimously not to make any addition to mr. 
Jewett's Salary for the Present year." 

" Voted, to Chuse a Committee of seven to Confer with mr. Jewett, 
and see what he will take as to his Civil Contract with this People, and 
ask a Dismission by way of a Council from the Pastoral Care and Charge 
he had taken upon him." 

Mr. Jewett probably made a communication, for 
June 10, 

'* Voted, not to act any thing upon the paper or letter Subscribed to 
the moderator of this, and Signed by mr. Jewet, and read at this meet- 

Another committee was chosen and empowered 
to settle with Mr. Jewett as to the civil contract. 

March 6, 1780, a vote was taken respecting making | 
Mr. Jewett satisfaction by making up his salary. 
Negatived, forty-four to eighteen. 

It appears that Mr. Jewett had made a proposition 
. in writing to submit the matters in controversy to a 
mutual council of five statesmen. The parish chose 
the latter, and raised a committee of five to give and 
take bonds. The referees were chosen, but a part of 
them declined to attend, and Judge Weare advised 
another trial for settlement. Mr. Jewett made a long 
communication, and the parish voted to comply with 
his proposals. The currency had depreciated, and 
Mr. Jewett had built wall on the parsonage, which he 
claimed pay for. He was dismissed, and I have no 
further knowledge of him. 

March 13, 1781, it \Va8 voted not to raise any money 
to hire preaching, but the deacons were chosen a com- 
mittee to lay out tlie money subscribed. 

Jan. 7, 1782, it was voted to empl6y the Rev. Mr. 
Prince for the term of six or seven years "to preach 
amongst us." He was to have the use of the parson- 
age, and a hired hand six months in each year. He 
was blind. He preached seven years. His son Caleb 
resided in Candia, and was a deacon many years. 

May 23, 1789, " Voted to hire Mr. How to preach 
three months." 

July 12, 1790, it was voted, seventy-six to twelve, 
to give the Rev. Jesse Remington a call, and give him 
the use of the parsonage and sixty pounds lawful 
money, and draw him twenty cords of wood yearly, 

with the privilege of cutting on the parsonage what 
should be sufficient in addition to keep his fires. He 
was ordained Oct. 20, 1790; died March 3, 1815. 

Rev. Isaac Jones was ordained Feb. 7, 1816 ; dis- 
missed May 12, 1818. 

Rev. Abraham Wheeler was installed Jan. 13, 1819 ; 
dismissed Oct. 29, 1832. 

Rev. Charles P. Russell, ordained Dec. 25, 1833; 
dismissed May 26, 1841. 

Rev. William Murdoch, ordained Dec. 1, 18-tl ; dis- 
missed July 5, 1854. 

Rev. William T. Herrick, installed July 5, 1854 ; 
dismissed July 2, 1858. 

Rev. E. N. Hidden, installed Nov. 2, 1869; dis- 
missed Dec. 31, 1864. 

Oct. 10, 1865, a call was extended to Rev. Lauren 
Armsby, formerly of Chester. 

The number of church-members in 1816 was twenty- 
eight; in 1822, seventy; in 1823, one hundred and 
eighty-two ; in 1824, two hundred and fifteen ; in 
1857, two hundred and sixty-eight. 

In 1869 a church organ was purchased at an ex- 
pense fif four hundred and fifty dollars. 

Union or Free Will Society and Church.— There 
was quite an interest in religion near the mountain 
in Nottingham in 1799, which extended into the 
neighboring towns, and in 1802 a church was organ- 
ized, the members living in Nottingham, Deerfield, 
Candia, and Raymond. There was another revival 
in 1810, and another in 1815. Moses Bean, a son of 
Reuben Bean, of Candia, was ordained at Deerfield, 
1810. The first marriage solemnized by him on record 
is May 1, 1810. He built the meeting-house at the 
village about 1816, after the revival. In 1818 the 
church was divided, the brothers and sisters in Deer- 
field and Nottingham forming one church, and those 
in Candia and Raymond forming another, but giving 
to every individual liberty to belong to the church he 
or she desired. They entered into covenant and con- 
stituted a church, which is signed in behalf of the 
church by Jeremiah Fullonton. 

There is a catalogue dated 1821 (although some 
were added later), containing about two hundred and 
twenty names, some belonging to Deerfield and some 
to Epping. In the record of a church meeting, Au- 
gust, 1820, it is said that five were baptized and " above 
one hundred spoke in meeting." At a church meet- 
ing May 24, 1824, it was agreed to divide the church 
by the town line, and those near the line have liberty 
to join which church they should desire. Samuel 
Dudley was chosen deacon, and William Turner, 
clerk. Sept. 9, 1830, agreed to a new covenant, and 
sixty-three names are appended. 

The new meeting-house was built in 1847. The 
basement and vestry cost $400, and the superstructure 
cost $1500. The following are among the preachers 
employed : 

Previous to the division the name of Elder David 
Harriman is frequently found. Elder Moses Beau 



was the son of Reuben Bean, and grandson of David 
Bean, and seems to have been in a sense the father of 
the church, as he built the first meetiug-house, and it 
was voted Nov. 17, 1824, " to receive Elder Moses 
Bean as pastor of this church." Nov. 15, 1830, Elder 
Bean resigned and Elder J. Knowles wa-s called ; dis- 
missed, and Elder B. S. Manson chosen ; dismissed 
April 4, 1839, and Elder S. P. Furnald chosen ; dis- 
nussed, and Elder S. Whitney chosen. 

Methodist Episcopal Church and Society .—Moses 
Colby came fnmi Hawke (Danville) in ISOG, and pur- 
chased the John Sargent place. He was the first 
Methodist in Candia, and liis children have ever been 
efficient supporters of that denomination. Others 
moved into town or became Methodists and retained 
theirconnection with or joined the churches of Hawke, 
Poplin, audSandown. When the church was organized 
at Chester, now Auburn, they generally united with 
that and constituted a class. 

A society and church were formed in Candia in 
1859, and they then erected a place of worship, with 
a stone basement for a vestry, at the expense of $1500. 
There is a membership of about forty, and they have 
been regularly supplied with a Conference preacher : 
Henry Nutter, 1859; Lorenzo Draper, 1860-61 ; James 
Adams, 1862-63 ; N. H. Chase, 1864-65; James Adams, 
1866; Silas Green, 1867-69. 

Schools. — At a meeting April 4, 1764, " Voted 
£100, old tenor, to Hire Schooling." The selectmen 
paid Dr. Moore for keeping school, £40. In 1765, 
£200 was voted and paid Daniel Row for keeping 
school ; £9 3s. 6d. to Zachariah Clifford or his wife 
for keeping .school. In 1766 they voted to raise £250, 
old tenor, or £12 10s. lawful money, equal thereto, to 
hire schooling. They paid Master Haselton for keep- 
ing school one month, £2 ; paid Isaac Clifford's wife 
■ for keeping school, six weeks and one day, 17s. ; Zach- 
ariah Clifford's wife, 12s. ; Mr. Bowen, for keeping 
school, £1 16s. 9d. 

Money is paid that year to the south quarter, to 
the southeast quarter, to the centre quarter, to the 
west quarter, and to the northeast quarter. In 1767 
Master Shaw is paid for keeping school in the south 
quarter, Esquire Moore and Nathaniel Emerson in 
the centre quarter ; and Israel Oilman's wife in the 
northeast quarter. There was a Paul Jewett who 
kept school several years ; also Richard Clifford's 
wife, Samuel Buswell, and Ezekiel Worthen. In 1773 
a motion was made to hire a grammar school master 
(that is, one to teach the languages) ; negatived. 

" And likewise it is voted that y* Pai'ish Does Except [accept] of a 
Reading and writing School this Present year, and that Each Quarter 
Respectively shall have the Liberty to Choose there own School master 
upon ye Proviso the major Part of Each Quarter Shall be agreed in one 
Person within the Space of ten Days from this Date, and make applica- 
tion to the Selectmen to Employ him." 

In 1744, Abraham Fitts, Master Forsaith, Master 
Otis, Mrs. Hazzard, Mrs. Rendall, and Mrs. Cram are 
teachers. ' 

In 1778, £80 lawful was raised for schooling. 

In 1782, paper money being nearly worthless, it was 
voted to raise one hundred silver dollars for schooling. 

The present division of Candia into thirteen school 
districts was made in 1844, but it does not appear by 
the records what proportion of money each district 
has had. 

Candia has made liberal expenditures for schools ; 
has had, besides the town schools, a high school in 
the fall a large portion of the time ; and the town, as 
will be seen, has furnished a large number of gradu- 
ates and professional men. 

Votes passed by the Parish of Candia respect- 
ing the Revolutionary War.— July 18, 1774, Abra- 
ham Fitts was chosen to meet at Exeter on the 21st 
to join in the choice of delegates to the General 

Jan. 3, 1775, Lieut. Moses Baker was chosen to 
represent the parish in a meeting at Exeter on the 
25th instant. 

Walter Robie, Esq., Capt. Nathaniel Emerson, Dr. 
Samuel Moore, Mr. Benjamin Cass, and Mr. Jacob 
Worthen were chosen a committee to inspect all per- 
sons who do not conform to the advice of the late 
General Congress. 

" Voted, to buy a barrel of powder, flints, and lead, answerable there- 
to as a Parish stock. 

" Voted, Capt. Emerson, Lieut. Baker, and Ens. Bean Desire all the 
males in Candia. from sixteen to sixty years old, to meet at Some Con- 
venient time at the meeting-house in Candia, in order for viewing with 
arms and ammunition. 

" Voted, that tlie People, as above mentioned, shall meet at the meet- 
ing house in Candia this day fortnight, at one of the Clock in the after- 

Feb. 21, 1775,— 

"Voted, that the Parish Do Confirm ye TransactioDS of the last meet- 
ing and approve of what the Committee of Inspection have Drawn up. 
Relating to y* affaii-s of the Present Day, and made an addition to y» 
Committee of inspection of four Persons, (Viz.j Dea. Nath' Burpee, Mr. 
Abrm. Fitts, Lieut. Moses Baker, and mr. Ichabod Robie." 

May 11, 1775, Dr. Samuel Moore was chosen to 
represent the parish in the Provincial Congress, to be 
held at Exeter, May 17th. 
j June 14, 1775, Capt. Nathaniel Emerson, Lieut. 
I Moses Baker, and Dr. Samuel Moores were chosen a 
committee to consult with the several officers, towns, 
parishes, or committees out of the same what way 
or manner shall be thought best to regulate the 
militia in this regiment according to the direction of 

April 3, 1777, ten dollars each year was voted to 
each of those eighteen persons who had enlisted for 
three years, and a committee chosen to collect the 
money (if any) which had been subscribed. 

At an adjournment April 8th ten dollars to each 
was added to the above. A committee was also 
chosen to inquire and see how much time and money 
each person has expended in supporting the war 
since the Concord fight. The committee reported as 
follows, which was accepted: 



" Concord men, Is. per day and extra charges. 

" 8 months men, with Lieut. Emerson, 4 dollars each. 

" 8 montlis men, with Lieut. Duslin, 2 dollars each. 

" Winter Hill men, with Capt. Biiker, 1 dollar each. 

" 1 year's men to York 8 dollars ; those to Delaware, 2 dollars each. 

" Ty men, 13^ dollars each. 

" New Tork men last fall, 2 dollars each. 
" Joseph Bean to Canada, 20 dollars." 

May 19, 1777, Moses Baker, Walter Robie, Abra- 
ham F'itts, I. Rowe, and Benjamin Cass were chosen a 
committee to aflSx and settle the prices of goods and 
articles in the parish of Candia, in pursuance of an 
act in addition to the regulation act. (See in the 
History of Chester for 1779, pp. 142, 143.) 

Jan. 19, 1778, a committee was appointed to« pro- 
cure our quota of Continental soldiers for three years 
or during the war, and at an adjournment in Febru- 
ary another committee of five was chosen to make 
further trial. 

April 20th, the committee was instructed to make 
further trial, and hire money and pursue the business 
without of time. 

Aug. 3, 1778, a committee .was chosen to make in- 
quiries respecting the families of those in the Conti- 
nental service for three years, and supply them with 
the necessaries of life. 

Aug. 19, 1779, it was voted to adopt measures sim- 
ilar to the town of Portsmouth, and use the utmost 
of our power in reducing the prices of the necessaries 
of life, and gain the credit of our currency. Capt. 
Sargent and John Clifibrd were chosen delegates to 
attend a convention at Concord. 

Oct. 26, 1779, it was voted to comply with the 
prices that the late convention stated, and a com- 
mittee of seven was chosen to state prices upon arti- 
cles which the convention did not, and to carry the 
same into execution. 

July 4, 1780, a committee was chosen to hire twelve 
soldiers by way of a parish tax. A committee was 
also chosen to make an average of what every person 
liad done in the war since it commenced. 

July 10, 1780, a committee was chosen to assist the 
selectmen in procuring our quota of beef for the 
Continental army. 

Nov. 14, 1781, it was voted that the selectmen 
make a tax. in Indian corn to pay the six- and three- 
months' men. There had been several votes passed 
respecting raising soldiers, which had proved inef- 

June 17, 1782, it was voted to divide the parish into 
as many classes as will supply the deficiency, and if 
any class or person refuse to pay their proportion for 
hiring a soldier they shall pay double, to be assessed 
by the selectmen. 

College Graduates. — The following were graduates 
of Dartmouth; David Pillsbury, 1827; Frederick 
Parker, 1828; John H. Quimby, 1829; Williani H. { 
Duncan, 1830 ; Moses H. Fitts, 1831 ; Ephraim Eaton, 
Jesse Eaton Pillsbury, 1833 ; Richard E. Lane, 1841 ; ! 
Lorenzo Clay, 1843; Moses Patten, 1850; John D. i 

Emersou, 1863 ; Jonathan C. Brown, 1853 ; Daniel 
D. Patten, 1855; Samuel C. Bean, 1858; Joseph F. 
Dudley, 1858; Albert Palmer, 1858 ;, C. C. Sargent, 
Samuel F. French. Wilson Palmer, and Alanson 
Palmer, 1860; William R. Patten, 1861; Luther W. 
Emerson, 1862 ; George H. French, 1863 ; and Charles 
Hubbard, 1865. 

The following are graduates of other colleges: 
James P. Lane, Amherst; Alvah Smith, Michigan 
University ; and Henry R. Morrill, Wesleyan Uni- 

The following is a list of professional men natives 
of Candia not graduates of colleges: Moses Palmer, 
minister; Moses Bagley, Isaiah Lane, Thomas Wheat, 
Franklin Fitts, J. W. Robie, J. F. Fitts, physician; 
Jacob Read and J. T. Moore, lawyers ; and James H. 

There are living in this town 104 persons who are 
over 70 years of age : 70 between 70 and 80 years ; 
31 between 80 and 90 years, and three over 90 years ; 
one has arrived at the age of 100 years ; 49 of the 
above are males, 55 are females. In the above are 14 
widowers and 31 widows, and three who were never 
married, two females and one male. There are 
living in this town 24 persons who have represented 
the town in the State Legislature. There were 26 
deaths in this town in 1881, 15 males and 11 females; 
8 were over Sli years, and ■'> between 70 and 80. 

Military Record, 1861-65.— The following en- 
listed prior to any bounty being paid by the town : 

J. Lane Fitts. Charles Turner. 

Stephen Dearborn, killed at James Horace Dearborn. 

Island. Albert Harlow. 

George Emerson, killed at Freder- Chester C. Smith. 

icksburg. J. Henry Worthen. 

Wells C. Haines, wounded at Bull John Sullivan. 

Kun, taken prisoner, and died at Stephen Filield. 

Richmond. William Robinson. 

John G. Bnrbeck. James Gannon. 

David Bedee. George Robinson. 

William Bedee. William Daniels. 

Richard B. Bi-own. George A. Turner. 

John Brennard. . Guilford Batchelder. 

Francis Fifield. E. Morrill. 

Edmund J. Langley. David R. Daniels, died in army. 

Lewis B. Carr. David Dudley, died in Maryland. 

Edwin J. Godfrey. John Hall. 

George W. Clay. William Roberts. 

Rufus Ward. Charles B. Carr. 

Henry Buzzell. E. Matthews. 

Lorenzo Fifield. Charles Robinson. 

William Norton. David Norton, Jr. 

Richard Norton. Henry Norton. 

Lucien Carr. Reuben Batchelder. 

The following is a list of names of those who re- 
ceived a bounty of three hundred dollars each at the 
time Capt. W. R. Patten enlisted his company. Here 
is the receipt: 

" We severally acknowledge to have received from the town of Candia 
the sums set to our names, agreeable to the vote of the town passed 
August 14tli, 1862, to encourage volunteer enlistments into the service 
of the United States for the term of three years." 
William R. Patten, captain. Robert Clark. 

William Clark, sickened in the Ansell Emerson. 

army, returned to Concord and R. Baxter Brown, 1st lieut. 

died. Henry W. Rowe. 



Lewellyn Wallace, died in army. 

Charles R, Rowe. 

George W. Hartford. 

Edwin Haines. 

Frank Sovaine. 

Edward B. Ruliiiison. 

Thomas C. Runnella. 

Oliver Haynes, 

George Mead, died. 

Dexter Read. 

Woodbury Hartford. 

Joel P. Bean, returned, died. 

Jesse D. Bean. 

N. F. Brown. 

Daniel Brown, Jr., died. 

E. W. Fosa. 

C. R. Stacy. 

Charles E. Wason. 

Hanson M. Bricket. 

Levi Barker, Jr. 

Frederick F. Emerson. 

Charles M. Lane. 

Nathaniel Hardy, died. 

Charles C. Page. 

Leonard F. Dearborn. 
George W. Griffin. 
Heman 0. Mathews. 
CharloB 0. Brown. 
E. F. Brown, died. 
N. J. Dearliorn. 
Rufus Ward. 
Ezekiel Shurtleff, 
John H. Harrison. 
Thomas J. Morrill. 
Joseph L. Gleason. 
Albert M. Morrill. 
Augustus B. Gile. 
James H. Morrill. 
Charles A. Jones. 
Hiram G. Gleason. 
George C. Fifleld. 
Asa E. Buswell. 
John A. Gile 
Daniel C. Davis. 
Woodbury D. Dearborn. 
Reuben H. Dunn. 
George W. Brown, Jr. 
William Collins. 

The following is a list of volunteers for nine mouths, who were paid 
a bounty of one hundred and flfty dollars each : Levi Barker, Andrew 
J. Mead, Daniel B. Langley, Edward P. Lane, died at New Orleans, 
HenryT. Eaton, Walter W. Bean, Franklin Clay, John H. Bean, Samuel 
C. Nay, P. Gerrish Robinson, Daniel Hall, died at New Orleans, Fred- 
erick Clay, Joseph Avery, George W. Taylor, Charles W. Hoit, John A. 


17, 1863. 

Patrick Donnelly. 
Augustus Archer. 
Charles Smith. 
Edward Black. 
John Wilson. 
John Brown. 
Horace Colburn. 
Nelson Hard. 


James O'Donuel. 
Carlz Fitzrun, 
James Sullivan. 

Carl Neagle. 
George Smith. 
George C. Brown. 
John Nelson. 
Martin Rapee. 
Frederick McPhei 
James Webber. 
Charles Fifleld. 

Thomas Marks. 
John Stevens. 

The above were paid three hundred dollars each by 
the town. 

The following is a list of those enlisted in 1864 who 
were paid a bounty of four hundred dollars : 

James Thomas. 
James Wright. 
George Bower. 
Charles Dearborn. 
William Robinson. 
Alexander White. 
Nicholas Johnson. 
Willie F. Eaton. 
A. Frank Patten. 
Reuben H. Fitts. 

Thomas Harvey. 
Edward Bailor. 
Malcolm McKinr 
George A. Turnel 
Richard Howard. 
Robert Field. 
Cyrus W. Tmel. 
John H, Brown. 
Orlando Brown. 
Samuel 0. Nay. 

The following enlisted under the vote to pay six 
hundred dollars bounty : 

Johu C. Fifleld. 
Lewis H. Gate. 
George L. Merrifield. 
Lewis D. Moore. 
John H. Wears. 

Orestes J. Bean. 
William G. Fitts. 
John L. Quimby. 
Samuel L. Carr. 
Frank G. Bui-siel. 

The following is a list of substitutes furnished by 
enrolled men, to each of which the town paid a bounty 
of three hundred dollars : 

Joseph B. Quimby. 
Thomas Smith. 
John Logan. 
Frank Rogers. 
James Cheney. 
James Green. 
Edmund Boyle, 

Charles Fuller. 
John Curdines. 
Frank Stanton. 
James Webb. 
William H. Williams. 
John Haynes. 
Jacob Shenan. 



Geographical — Topographical — Proprietors — Early Votes — Petition for 
Grant of the Town — Names of Petitions — The Royal Charter — Names 
of (^iginal Grantees— Early Families — Pioneer Mills — Pitmeer Schools 
— College Graduates — Physicians — Attorneys — Ecclesiastical History 
—The Presbyterian Church— The Congregational Church— Baptist 
Church — The Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Chester lies in the western part of the county and 
is bounded as follows : On the north by Candia and 
Raymond, on the east by Fremont and Sandown, on 
the south by Sandow-n and Derry, and on the west by 

This town was granted to a number of residents of 
the towns of Portsmouth and Hampton. They were 
known as " The Society for Settling the Chestnut 
Country," as this section was then called. 

At a meeting of the proprietors, held Oct. 15, 1819, 
the following votes were passed : 

"1«, Voted, That Capt. Henry Sherburne be Moderator. 

•• 2'"J, Voted, That Joseph Tilton be Clerk of the Society. 

" SJ'J, Voted, That Capt. Henry Sherburne be Receiver. 

"It'll, Voted, That Joseph Tilton, Ichabod Rohie, Caleb Tole, Clement 
Hughes, Capt. Henry Sherburne, Epli. Dennet and Jacob Stanyon, be a 
Committee to manage the alfairs of the Society; And That the s"* Com- 
mittee Shall have power to Call meetings of the Society as often as they 
Shall Think Necessary, and to act in all other matters that they Shall 
Think proper for the good of the whole Society. 

" 5"''J, Voted, That Ichabod Robie, Jacob Stanyan, Caleb Tole & Mich- 
ael Whidden be a Committee to Lay out the Lotts. 

"G'*"'?, Voted, That all priviledges of Streams shall be Reserved for y« 
Use of the Society. 

" 7<ii'.', Voted, That the Number of the Society for the settling Shall 
not Exceed ninety persons. 

" S'tij, Voted, That the Committee Shall have power to admit Such as 
they Shall Think proper til! the afore"** number of ninety he Completed. 

" gthlj^ Voted, That Three meu Shall be kept upon the spot at the charge 
of the Society." 

At a meeting of the Society for Settling the Chest- 
nut Country, held at Hampton, the 20th of December, 

"Voted, That in case of a warr with the Indians before the Three 
years Limited for the Settling of the Chesnut Country he Expired, the 
Same Time of Tliree years shall be allowed after a conclusion of a Peace 
with the Indians for tliesil settlement." 

" At the Same Time the Propri" drew their home Lotts." 

Petition for the Grant. — The petition for the 
grant for a township in " y" Chestnutt Country" was 
presented "to his Excellency Samuel Shute, Esq., 
Cap. Gen" & Comman'*"' in Chief in and over His 
Majesty's Province of New Hampshire, &c., and the 

1 Condensed by permission from Rev. Benjamin Chase's 
'• History of Chester." We also acknowedge our iudebtedn 
I Chase for additional data. 

iss to Mr. 



Hon"'' the Council, now sitting in Council at Ports- 
mouth," Sept. 24, 1719, and was signed by the follow- 
ing persons : Thomas Phipps, Henry Shurburne, Jo- 
seph Pierce, Benjamin Gambling, Thomas Packer, 
Joseph Sherburne, Joseph Tilton, Clement Hughes, 
Nathaniel Batchelder, Jr., Samuel Plaisted, John 
Cram, Eleazer Eussell, Philemon Blake, Samuel 
Hart, Jacob Stanyan, Ephraim Dennett, Robert 
Row, Sr., John Preston, David Tilton, Benjamin 
Sanborn, Reuben Sanborn, Joseph Sanborn, John 
Morrison, James Prescott, Samuel Bhike, Jr., Jona- 
than Prescott, Jr., Nathaniel Healey, Richard San- 
born, Nathaniel Sanborn, Richard Clifford, Joseph 
Batchelder, George Veazi, Jr., John Sealy, Jonathan 
Sanborn, Jethro Tilton, Nathan Longfellow, Ichabod 
Robie, Samuel Sanborn, Edward Sanborn, Jacob 
Green, John Prescott, Jr., Henry Dyea, Zachariah 
Clifibrd, Benjamin Field, Jose))h Batchelder, Jr., 
•Sherburne Tilton, Samuel Blake, Sr., Benjamin 
Fogg, Edward Gilman, Joseph Love, John Searll, 
Jacob Gilman, William Godfree, Joseph Young, Ne- 
hemiah Leavitt, Ephraim Hoit, John Morrison, Abra- 
ham Sanborn, Samuel Elkins, Israel Blake, Robert 
Wade, Jr., William Healey, Jeremiah Sanborn, 
Charles Stuart, Daniel Tilton, Enoch Sanborn, 
Thomas Veazi, Daniel Lovering, Joshua Prescott, 
Ebenezer Lovering, John Cass, Jonathan Robinson, 
Daniel Ladd, Reuben Smith, Abner Herriman, 
Thomas Veazi, Jr., Samuel Prescott, Nathaniel Ste- 
vens, Jr., Nathaniel Bachelder, Sr., James Leavit, 
John Ladd, William Stevens, Porch"'., Oliver Smith, 
Jonathan Plummer, Edward Fifield, John Smith, 
John Gilman, Jr., Benjamin Tole, John Knowles, 
Caleb Tole, Samuel Veazi, Abraham Drake, Benja- 
min Veazi, Samuel Smith, Thomas Veazi, Jr., 
Thomas Garton, Nicholas Norris, James Purckins, 
John Norris, Jacob Moulton, Nicholas Seavy, Jona- 
than Nason, Thomas Rollins, Elisha Smith, Joseph 
Lorrane, Jonathan Dearborn, John Roberts, Thomas 
Leavitt, Moses Norris, Sr., James Fogg. 

The Royal Charter. — The charter of the town was 
dated May 8, 1722, as follows: 

f Provincf |_ " George by the of God of Great Britain, France, 
t Seal. J and Irelau.l, King, Defend' of the Faith, etc.: 

" To all People to whom these p'esents Shall come, Greeting. Know 
}'« That we of oui- Especial Knowledge and nieer motion, for the due en- 
couragement of Settling a new plantation, by and with the advice of our 
Council, have given and granted and by these p'sents as farr as in us 
lies do give and Grant, in Equall Shares unto Sundry of our beloved Sub- 
jects, whose names are Entered in a Schedule hereunto annexed, That 
Inhabit or Shall Inhabit within the said Grant within our Province of 
New Hamp', all That Tract of Land within the following bounds: (Viz. 
to begin at Exeter Southerly Corner bounds and from thence run upon 
a West and by North point two miles along Kingston northerly Line to 
Kingston North Corner bounds, then upon a South point three miles 
along Kingston head Line to Kingston South Corner bounds, then 
upon a West Northwest point Ten miles into the counti-y, Then to begin 
again at the aforesaid Exeter Southwardly Corner bounds and run 
seven miles upon Exeter lipad Line upon a Northeast point half a point 
more Northerly, Then fourteen miles into the Country upon a west 
Northwest point to the river Merrimack, and from thence upon a Straright 
Line to the End of the afores-i Ten-Mile line ; and that the same be a 

Town Corphrated by the name of Chester to the persona afores"!, for ever 
To have and to hold the said Land, to the Grantees and their Heirs and 
assigns forever, and to Such associates aa they Shall admit upon the Fol- 
lowing Conditions: 

"1. That Every proprietor build a Dwelling House within Tliree years 
and Settle a Familley Therein, breack up Three acres of Ground and 
plant or Sow y* same within four years, and pay his proptn-tion of the 
Town Charge when and so often as Occasion shall require the same. 

"2. That a meeting House be built for the Public worship of God 
within the said Term of four years. 

"3. That upon default of any particular Proprietor in Complying with 
the Conditions of this Charter upon his part, Such Delinquent proprietor 
Shall forfeit his Share to the other Proprietors, which Shall be Disposed 
according to ye major vote of the Said Comoners at a Legall meeting. 

" 4tl'lT. That a Proprietor's Share be reserved for a Parsonage ; another 
for the first minister of the Gospell ; another for the Benefit of a School. 

" Provided nevertheless that the Peace with the Indians Continue 
during tiie aforesaid Term of Tliree years; but^if it should so happen 
a warr witli the Indians Should commence before the Expiration of the 
afores* Term of Three years, the aforesaid Term of three years Shall be 
allowed to the Proprietors after the Expiration of the warr for the per- 
formance of the aforesaid Conditions, Rendering and paying therefor to 
us, our Heirs and Successors, or Such oilier officer or oflScers as shall be 
appointed to receive the same, The aunual quit rent of acknowledgem' of 
one pound of Good mercht"'" Hemp in the said Town on the Twentieth of 
Decen'ber yearly forever; reserving also unto us, our Heirs and Siuces- 
sors, all mast Trees growing on said Land — according to acts of Parlia- 
ment in that behalf made and provided, and for the better order. Rule, 
and Government of the said Town we do by these p'sents Grant for ua, 
our Heirs, and Successors, unto the s.iid men >t Inhabitants, or those 
that shall Inhabit the Said Town, That yearly & every year upon the 
last Thursday in march forever, they shall meet to Elect and Chuse by 
the major part of them Constables, Selectmen, and all other Town officers, 
according to the Laws and usage of our afors'' Province, for the year en- 
suing, with Such Power, priviledges and authority as other Town officers 
within our aforesaid Province have and Enjoy. 

" In VVittnesB whereof we have Caused the seal of our Said Province 
to be hereunto annexed. Wittnesa, SaniH Shute, Esq', our Governour & 
Command'-in-Chief of our Said Province, at our Town of Portsmouth 
the 8tt> day of may in the Eighth year of our reign, annoq. Domini 1722. 

" By His Excellency's Comand 

" wtti advice of the Council. "S.\mH Shute. 

" R. Waldron, Cler. Con." 

A Schedule of the Proprietors' Names of 
the town of Chester.— Capt. Henry Sherburne, 
Benjamin Gambling, Esq., Thomas Phipps, Esq., Capt. 
Joshua Pierce, Jethro Tilton, Amos Cass, James Per- 
kins, Susanna Small, Col. Peter Wear, Rev. Nathaniel 
Rogers, Clement Hughes, Capt. Thomas Pierce, Capt. 
Joseph Sherburne, Capt. Archibald Macpheadris, 
Ephraim Dennet, Benning Wentworth, Capt. Ebene- 
zer Wentworth, Capt. Rickard Kent, George Pierce, 
Eleazer Russell, Ichabod Roby, Rev. Thomas Simms, 
Samuel Shackford, John Shackford, William White, 
Samuel Ingalls, Michael Whidden, William Rymes, 
William Godfrey, Ebenezer Dearbon, John Cram, 
John Present, Jr., Abrara Browne, John Present, Sr., 
Joseph Bachelder, John Packer, John Silly, Thomas 
Levit, Samuel Page, Nathaniel Sanborn, James Pres- 
ent, Nathaniel Bachelder, Sr., David Tilton, Jonathan 
Emerson, Elijah Smith, Samuel Smith, Jonathan 
Dearborn, Abrain Drake, Capt. Joshua Winget, 
Samuel Blacke, Joseph Sanburne, Reuben Sanburne, 
George Brownell, William Hally, Zach. Clifford, 
Enoch Sanborn, Josiah Bachelder, Samuel Prescot, 
Nathaniel Bachelder, Jr., Benoni Fogg, Richard Clif- 
ford, James Fogg, Ebenezer Easman, Ebenezer Lover- 
ell, Robert Row, Philip Tole, Edward Sanborn, Henry 



Works, Jery Sanborn, Caleb Tole, Jonathan Plum- 
mer, Benjamin Tole, Benjamin Smith, Capt. Jona- 
than Sanburn, Moses Blacke, Jacob Basford, Jacob 
Garland, Sr., Jonathan Brown, Philemon Blake, 
Stephen Sweat, John Sanburn, Samuel Marston, Jr., 
Nathaniel Drake, Henry Sloper, Thomas Smith, Wil- 
liam Crosswait, James Bold, Joseph Young, Clement 
Mesharvy, Luther Morgan, Richard Hazleton, Jacob 
Gilman, Samuel Sherburne, Edward Oilman, Thomas 
Dean, Samuel Shaw, John Calf, Jonathan Clough, 
Benjamin Sanburne, Maj. John Gillman, Samuel 
Thompson, Stephen Webster, Edward Emerson, 
Thomas Silver, Thomas Whiting, John Littlehale, 
Ephraim Guile, Jonathan Kimball, Robert Ford, 
John Jaquish, William Daniel, Stephen Johnson, Na- 
thaniel Webster, Richard Jaquish, James Fales, John 
Cutt, and Benjamin Ackerman, one proprietor's share. 

"Province N. Hamps May lO'ii, 1722. 
" His Excellency the Govern^ and the Honi^ie Lieut. Govern^ and Coun- 
cil Entered associate vvitli the within persons, (viz.)— 
" His Excellency a Farm of Ave Hundred acres and a home Lott. 
"The Lieu' Govern' the same. 

" Sam" Penhallow, Esq', a proprietor's Share, 
Mark Hunldng, Esq', ditto, 

George Jaffrey, E^q', ditto, 

Shad" Walton, Esq', ditto, 

Rich-l Wihird, Esq', ditto, 

Tho> Packer. Esq', ditto, 

Tlio» Westbrook, Esq', ditto. 

** A True Copy of Chester Charter and the Schedule annexed to it. 
" Compared P' Kich^ Waldron, Cler. Con." 


, Sr. 

Philemon Blake. 
. James Boyd. 
Abraham Brown. 
George Brownell. 
Nathaniel Bachelde 
Jonathan Brown. 
Moses Blake. 
Samuel Bhike. 
Josiah Batchelder. 
Nathaniel Bachelder, Jr. 
Joseph Batchelder. 
Jacob Basford. 
John Calfe. 
Amos Cass. 
Richard Clifford. 
Zachaiiah Clifford. 
Jonathan Clough. 
Rev. Theophilus Cotton. 
John Cram. 
William Crosswait. 
Cutts & Akerman. 
William Daniels. 
Thomas Dean. 
Jonathan Dearborn. 
Ebenezer Dearborn. 
Ephraim Denuet. 
Abraham Drake. 
Nathaniel Drake. 
Ebenezer Eastman. 
Edward Emerson. 
Jonathan Emerson. 
James Failes. 
Bev. Ebenezip 
James Fogg. 
Benoni Fogg. 
Robert Ford. 

Benjamin Gambling, Esq. 
Jacob Garland. 

r Flagg. 

Jacob Gilman. 
Maj. Jolin Gilman. 
Edward Gilman. 
William Godfrey. 
Ephraim Guile. 
Richard Haseltine. 
William Healey. 
Rev. Moses Hale. 
Clement Hughes. 
Col, Mark Hunking. 
Samuel IngallSi 
George Jaffrey, Esq. 
John Jaquish. 
Richard Jaquish. 
Stephen Johnson. 
Capt. Richaid Kent. 
Jonatlian Kimball. 
Thomas Leavitt. 
John Littlehale. 
Ebenezer Loverell. 
Samuel Marston. 
Capt. Arcliibald McPhedrii 
Clement Messervy. 
Luther Morgan. 
Col. Tliomas Packer. 
Samuel Page. 
Jolin Packer. 
Parsonage lots. 
Samuel Penhallow, Esq. 
James Perkins. 
Thomas Phipps, Esq. 
Capt. Joshua Pierce. 
Capt. Thomas Pierce. 
George Pierce. 
Jonathan Plummer. 
Jolin Prescutt. 
John Pi'escutt, Jr. 
James Prescutt. 

Samurf Prescutt. 
Ichabod Roliy. 
Rev. Nathaniel Rogers. 
Robert Row. 
Eleazer Russell. 
Capt. William Rymes. 
Joseph Sanborn. 
Nathaniel Sanborn. 
Benjamin Sanborn. 
Reuben Sanborn. 
Jolin Sanborn. 
Enoch Sanborn. 
Edward Sanborn. 
Capt. Jonathan Sanborn. 
Jerry Sanborn. 
School lots. 
John Shackford. 
Samuel Shackford. 
Capt. Henry Sherburne. 
Samuel Sherburne. 
Capt. Joseph Sherburne. 
Dea. Samuel Shaw. 
John Silly. 
Rev. Thomas Simms. 



Susannali Small. 
Tliomas Smith. 
Benjamin Smith. 

Elisha Smith. 
Samuel Smith. 
Capt. Henry Sloper. 
Jacob Staniau. 
Stephen Sweat. 
Capt. Josepli Tilton. 
David Tilton. 
Jethro Tilton. 
Samuel Thompson. 
Philip Towle. 
Benjamin Towle. 
. Caleb Towle. 
Col. Shadrack Walton. 
Col. Peter Weare. 
Nathan Webster. 
Stephen Webster. 
Capt. Ebenezer Wentwor 
Benning Wentworth. 
John Wentwortli, Esq. 
Michael Whiddeu. 
Thomas Wliiting. 
William White. 
Capt. Richard Wibird. 
Capt. Joshua Wingate. 
Col. Thomas Westbrook. 
Henry Works. 
Joseph Young. 

Early Families. — The following are names of the 
early t'amilies whose genealogies are given in Chase's 
"History of Chester": Aiken, Ambrose, Anderson, 
Arnin, Badger, Basford, Bartlett, Bachelder, Bean, 
Bell, Barry, Blake, Blanchard, Blasdell, Bold, Bradley, 
Bradshaw, Bradstreet, Blunt. Brown, Bricket, Butter- 
field, Burley, Burpee, Burwell, Calfe, Campbell, Carr, 
Chase, Clark, Clay, Clifford, Colby, Craige, Crawford, 
Critcher, Crombie, Crossatt, Currier, Davis, Dal ton, 
Dickey, Dearborn, Dexter, Dinsmore, Dolby, Dudley, 
Dunlap, Dustan, Eaton, Elliot, Emerson, Emery, 
Field, Pitts, Flag, Folson, Forsaith, Foss, Fowler, 
French, Fullerton, Fulton, Gage, Gamble, Gault, Gil- 
christ, Glyn, Goodhue, Glidden, Gordon, Graham, 
Greenough, Griffen, Hall, Harriman, Haseltine, Head, 
Healey, Heath, Hills, Hoit, Hodgkins, Ingalls, Jack, 
Kelly, Kimball, Kent, Kittridge, Knowles, Lane, 
Leatch, Lunt, Locke, Long, Lufkin, Martin, Maiden, 
Marshall, McClenta, McClalbin, McClure, McDufTee, 
McFarland, McFerson, McFarten, McGee, McMas- 
ter, McMurphy, McKinley, Melvin, Merril, Miller, 
Mills, Morse, Moore, Morrill, Moulton, Murray, Nor- 
ton, Nutt, Orr, Otterson, Patten, Pearce, Pierce, Poor, 
Powel, Pillsbury, Prescott, Presom, Quanton, 
Quimby, Rand, Richardson, Robie, Rowe, Rowel, 
Russel, Sanborn, Sargent, Scribner, Seavey, Sever- 
ance, Shannon, Shackford, Shaw, Shirley, Silsby, 
Silver, Sleeper, Smith, Stickney, Sweetser, Templeton, 
Townsend, True, Turner, Tyler, Underbill, Variium, 
Waddel, Wason, Webster, Weeks, Wells, West, White, 
Whittier, Wilson, Witherspoon, Wood, and Worthen. 

Pioneer Mills. — The first reference to mills found 
on the proprietors' records is under date Jan. 11, 
1720-21, viz. : 

At a general meeting of the proprietors of " Che-," held at Hampton the 11th day of January, 



" Voted, To Coll» Packer, ColI» Winr, Caleb Towle, and Sam" Ingalls, 
the whole Priviletlge upon the upper Falls of the great Brook forever, 
to build a yaw mill or mills on, and also ten acres of Land Gratis, ou 
Each Side s'' falls for the s'' mills Couveniency, with Condition That the 
si mills shall be fitt to Cutt boards in a Twelvemonth from this Time; 
and that they Shall Saw at halves the Proprs. Loggs, So much as they 
shall have occasion for Building. And those props, that Shall have Oc- 
casion to buy boards shall be Supplyed with So many as they Shall have 
occasion for, at the Rate of thirty shillings per Thousand at tlie mill. 
And if the making a pond or ponds for s^ mill damnifies any of the 
proprs., the society shall make good the damages." 

At a meeting at Hampton, March 16, 1720-21, 

"Voted, That the four persons to whom the Stream is granted. Shall 
give each a bond of Fifty pounds to the Committee, to perform the Con- 
ditions of sd Grant, and if any of them Refuse to do it, the Committee is 
Impowered to admitt others." 

At a meeting of tlie committee, Sept. 29, 1721, 

'* Voted, That the proprietors of the upper Falls on the great Brook 
have the priviledge of the Lower falls also, for their further Incouragen*, 
to build a mill according to a vote of the Society, at a publick meeting 
held Jan. ll", 1720-21, and in consideration of which Additional Privi- 
lege they are to build a Grist mill as Soon as the Town will need it." 

James Basford at one time owned most of the mill. 
In 1731 he sold Ebenezer Dearborn one-fourth of the 
" old saw-mill." In 1732 he sold to William Wilson 
one-eighth of the " old saw-mill." In 1734 he had 
some difficulty with the proprietors about the mill, 
and they voted to have a reference. 

In 1735 Ebenezer Dearborn deeded to his sons, 
Ebenezer, Jr., Benjamin, Thomas, and Michael, one- 
fourth of the ''old saw-mill." 

In 1743, in consideration of twenty-two pounds, bills 
of credit, Ebenezer Dearborn, Ebenezer Dearborn, Jr., 
Thomas Dearborn, and Michael Dearborn convey to 
Thomas Wells four-sixths of the " old saw-mill." 

We know little more about the mill or its owners 
until about 1780, when Hugh Tolford, Jacob Wells, 
Capt. Clough, Moses Haselton, John Haselton, and 
Benjamin Haselton rebuilt it. It was rebuilt once 
after that, and again iu 1848. 

Jonathan Blunt had a saw-mill previous to 1730. 

At a meeting March 7, 1730, it was 

" Voted, That there be encouragement given for building a Grist mill 
on the middle falls of the Grate Brook, that is to John Aiken's, and four- 
teen or fifteen acres of land to the Eastward of s"! falls, as convenient as 
can be had of 'common land, provided 6'' Aiken build a sufficient Grist 
mill by this time twelvemonth, and keep a'^ mill in good Repair from 
time to time, and at all times hereafter." 

This was jirobably the first grist-mill in the town. 

Pioneer Schools. — The first reference to schools is 
under date Jan. 25, 1720-21, viz. : 

At a meeting of the committee, Jan. 25, 1720-21, 

"Voted, That whereas the number of proprietors is Con . . . and no 
provision made for a School Master, That the next proprietor that Shall 
Forfeit his Lott, the Same Shall be appropriated for a School." 

" This provision was made after the first grant of 
the laud, but before the charter, and there was hardly 
a permanent settler there." 

The next we find on the records is at an adjourned 
meeting, April 7, 1737: 

"Voted, To Eais thirty Pounds to Hier a Schoolmaster this present 

" Voted, That the Selectmen shall Remove the said schoolmaster to Uie 
severall Parts of the town as shall be Conveniant." 

Though there is no evidence that anything had 
been done by the town, it is hardly to be supposed 
that nothing had been done to educate the children 
for about eighteen years. The schools were held at 
private houses, and although removed to different 
parts, all the children in town might follow the 
master into the several quarters. 

At an adjourned meeting, Nov. 2, 1738, 

" Voted, That their Shall be twenty Pounds Raised to Support a School 
in this town." 

At an adjourned meeting April 8, 1740, 

" Voted, That their Shall be a School maintained in the town this year 
throughout ; Partly by School masters, and Partly by School dames, as 
the Selectmen Shall Judge best for the town." 

In the warning, March 9, 1721, is an article 

" To act what may appear needful about building a School house or 

"Put to Vote, Whether to build a School house in the Senter of the 
town or no. Passed in the negative." 

At the annual meeting, March 25, 1742, 

" Voted, That there shall be a school Keept in this town the year 
through out, and that the Select men Shall Remove the Said School into 
the Severall Quarters of said town, so that they Shall have Hieir Equal 
Proportion of the Same, according to what Rates they Pay." 

They probably refused to build a school-house in 
the Centre, because the school might be kept there 
all of the time. 

In the warning for a meeting, March 29, 1744, is 
an article 

" Tusee if the town will build a School house or houseu, or tt^ act and 
do any thing about Keeping a School, or Schools, or building a honso 
or housen, as Shall appear mose for the benelit and advantage of the 

"Voted to Build School Housen. 

"Voted, That a Committee shall be Chosen to Divide the town into 
Severall Parts, in order to acomodate School Housen. 

"Voted, That Capt. Sam" Ingalls, Benjamin Hills, Insin Jacob Sar- 
gent, William Haley and andrew Crage, Shall be the Comitte. 

In the warning for the annual meeting, March 28, 
1745, is an article 

"To See if the town will E.\cept of the return of the Committee that 
was chosen to Divide the town into parts for the Conveniancy of build- 
ing School housen ; or act and do anything that shall be thought needful 
and nessecery about a school or schools, and a school-bouse or housen." 

At an adjournment of the meeting, April 4, 

" Voted, that the Committee's Return that was Chosen to Divide the 
town into parts. In order to accomedate School housen, be Excepted. 

" The Persons undernamed Decents against the foregoing Vote, .... 
John Robie, Sam" Bartlet, Jonathan Blunt, Jonath^in Moulton, Robert 
Eunells, Enoch Colby, David Crage, Isaac Foss, Page Bachelder, Bei^a- 
min Bachelder, Sam" Powell, Francis Towl, Ebenezer Dearborn, Juur. 
Benjamin Hills." 

" We have no meaus of knowing to a certainty into 
how many parts the town was divided, or their bound- 
aries, but there probably were but three ; for if 
there had been one at the Centre, John Robie, Jona- 
than Blunt, and Ebenezer Dearborn, Jr., who lived 



near the Centre, and Benjamin Bachelder and Robert 
Runnels, who lived within about half a mile up the 
street, and others — Jonathan Moulton, Enoch Colby, 
and Samuel Bartlett — within a mile below, would not 
have dissented. I have conversed with people who 
remembered the three. One stood on John San- 
born's, opposite Moses Webster's home lot, No. 21, one 
at Walnut Hill, not tar from Robert Shirley's, and 
the third at the Long Meadows, between Samuel 
Aiken's (Charles C. Grant's) and David Wither- 
spoon's (the Hardy place). Mrs. Whittier, daughter 
of Samuel Aiken, recollects this house, or of hearing 
her parents tell about it." — Chasts. 
In 1746 the selectmen charge: 

£ «. d. 

Paid unto m-Tstcr Wood 66 n 

Paid unto Dec° Ebenezer Derbon, for boarding... 19 9 
Paid unto Ins'' Jacob Sargent, for hording y 

piaster 4 10 

Paid unto Al-el Morse, for bording y master .5 12 

Paid unto John Haiseltine, for bording the mas- 
ter 8 U 

Paid unto Andrew Crag, for bording the master.. 8 2 
Paid to Capt. Morse, for three days, hol-se and 

man, for poing after a Coolmaster 1 15 

1847. Master Wood is paid 80 

and Dea. Dearborn. John Haseltine, and Andrew 

Craige, for boarding 80 

1748. Muster Wood is hired again at 44 

and Capt. Bhiut, Joseph Calf and Dea. Dearborn * 

board I'd. 
John Robie is paid for bringing up the master, 

time and expenses 2 

Master Wood, it seems, lived somewhere down 
country, and is probably the one who was afterwards 
Dr. George Wood. 

£ s. d. 

1749. Paid Doctor Samuel Moores, for schooling.. 108 
Paid to tlie Long meadow Quarter for Schooling.. 31 

The Long Meadows had one quarter of the money 
paid to them. Dr. Moores is said by Eaton ("His- 
tory of Candia," page 91) to have come from Hamp- 

stead. He settled at Candia Corner. * 

£ >. d. 

1760. Paid to m' Henry Herring, for Schooling 112 

Paid to ni' Jolin Hickey, for Schooling 88 

Paid to m' SKmiiel Moores, for Scliooling 40 

for H journey to newbury after a Sclioolmaster 2 

for time and expence hireiug Schoolmaster 3 

1751. Paid to m' John Hickey. for schooling 104 

Paid to m' James Dresler, for schooling 27 10 

Paid to m' nehemiah mc neal, for schooling 32 

Paid to Nathaniel Blaisdell, for bording the masters.... 15 

for three Days, man and horse, after a Schoolmaster.. 4 10 o 
for one day of a man and two horses, bringing up the 

niiister from Bradford 2 

for time and Expen.«e hireing Schoolmasters 1 10 

for time and expense making up with Schoolmas- 
ters 10 

In 1752, Master McNeil is paid £154. Deacon 
Haselton, Andrew Craig, Enoch Colby, Peter Dear- 
born, Mr. Carr, Deacon Dearborn, Mr. Knowles, and 
Mr. Basford are paid for boarding. It seems that this 
year, though they had no school-house, they had a 
school in the north part. 

In 1753, Mr. Hazelton and Mr. McNeale were the 
masters, and Deacon Dearborn, Mr. Craige, Jacob 
Chase, and John Knowles boarded. 

In 1754, " master Heseltine, master mcfarson, and 
master mcneal, at the Longmeadows," were masters, 
and Deacon Dearborn, Jacob Chase, and Thomas 
Haseltine boarded. 

In 1755, " Paid to mr. Hessard, for teaching school, 
£132 ; To mr. Boies, for teaching school, £28." Capt. 

Blunt, Charles Moore, William Tolford, and Bradley 
Carr boarded, and William Graham and Patten, at 
the Long Meadows. 

At the annual meeting, March, 1748, 

" Voted, To Raise two Hundred Pounds, old tenor, 
the present year for Schooling and other necessary 
town Charges." 

In the warning for the annual meeting, March 25, 
1762, was an article, — 

"7'J. To see what method the Town will take in Respect to their 
Sciiool lioHses, whetlier they will tliink iltt to Raise a sum of money of 
tlie whole Town to build and Repare School houses; or what method 
they will take in that Respect." 

At the adjourned meeting, May 4, 1762, — 

" Relating to the sixth and seventh artikells in the warning of this 
meeting, Tliey Were Put to Vote and past in the Neg;ttive." 

The sixth article was respecting building a pound 
at Freetown. 

At the annual meeting, March 31, 1763, — 

" Voted, That it be Left With the selectmen to Inquier into and see 
how much is Justly Due to the North Parish, so Called, for their pro- 
portion of the School money Raised in this Town for three years past, 
and if they have not had their share then to deliver the Same to them; 
Provided they Lay out the Same for Schooling among themselves; and 
also all the other parts of the Town that have not had their proportion 
of the Schooling, nor money as above mentioned, shall be Considered, 
and have their proportion on the same Conditions." 

At the September term of the Superior Court, 1771, 
Andrew Jack, Nathan Webster, and John Robie, the 
selectmen of Chester, were indicted because Chester, 
having more than one hundred families, had no gram- 
mar school. At the March term, 1772, Jack and Web- 
ster were tried and fined £10, and cost, £7 12s. 4(/. 

In the warning for the annual meeting, March 25, 
1773, there was an article, — 

"5'J. To see if the Town wilt Chuse a Committee to appoint places 
Where the school houses shall be Built for the Town's Servis, and to be 
Built by the Town." 

'* Relating to the fifth artikell in the warning about building school 
Houses, put to Vote ; Pa^ed in the Negative." 

£ ». d. 

1757. Master Boys 66 

Master IJow 256 

1758. Mr. Thomas Boies 56 

Ensign Quanton 57 14 

Mrs. Sarah Ingnlls 29 

Mr. William Smith 42 

Dr. Ordway 40 

Mr. Boies' widow 76 

Mrs. Curriour 33 

Likewise neighbors about Bradbury Carr'e 13 11 6 

Likewise neighbors about Beuj. Hills' 22 

Ensign QuKuton G3 16 

Mrs. Dudley 22 10 

17.W. Dr.Ordway loi; 17 6 

Master Scott 141 

Tli.iiiLi- SlinliM- 4{) 

Jl^iMri I, .v.. I 4S 

Mi> hi,, II,.,,,, I iMi, Ilill.0 22 (I 

Wi,l,,n Cmi,,, 2(1 

Dr.Ordway 61 16 

Paid to Charming Fail 28 

Freetown 49 

Northwest part, joining Suncook Ill 

17G0. Master Hazzard 384 

Master Scott 141 1.5 

1761. Mr. Hazzard, 8 months 400 

Mr. John Crombie, 2 months 100 

Ensign James Quenton 6S 

Stephen Webster 30 

Hiring schoolmasters and notifying each quarter to repair 

school-house 8 

1762. John Flagg, 10 months [Mrs. French has the original 

bill] 444 8 11 

Board 10 months 217 10 



James Qimnton, at the Long Meadows lOU 

David Weli!>t.T 50 

Jolin MiNcel 68 

176:i. Mr. BHlch.Snioiiths 155 lU 

Mr FlajiK. f"r lioarding 9(1 12 

Ma6tiTQnanton.7!^Tiioiitlls 375 II 

Mr. Sccilt. 4 niiinths,':i weeks 237 10 

Master Herring, one month 50 

Josinli Flagg, one month 50 

Dr Hand, one week 10 

North part, or Freetown, for three years past 255 11 6 

Upper part, next to Suncuok, three vears 39 

1764. Master Ordway 4.37 

Master Qiianton 268 n 

1765. Master Orclwav, 9 months, Lawful X fl 

At tlie Long Meadows 7 5 

At Tornet Lane's 1 10 

Upper part, 2 years 16 

Henry Herring, the former master, has become a 
paU|ior, and warned (iiit of town. 

College Graduates. — The following is a list of 
those who were natives of Chester, or of those who 
were residents diirinj;; their college course: 

Darfmoufh. — John Webster, 1778; Jonathan Calef, 
1787; Josiah Webster, 1798; Francis Brown, 1805; 
Edmund Flagg, 1806; William White, 1806; Caleb 
Chase, 1811; Samuel Emerson, 1814; John Kogers, 
1816; James White, Thomas Penney, 1825; John S. 
Emerson, Sewell Penney, 1827; Stephen Chase, 1832; 
Charles Penney, 1835; Christopher S. Bell, 1888; 
Daniel Penney, 1841; Amos Lufkin, 1848; John W. 
Ray, 1843; Charles H. Bell, 1844; Rufus J. Kitter- 
edge and Samuel N. Bell, 1847 ; David Bremner, 18.50; 
George Bell, 1851 ; John Bell, 1852; E. N. Kitteredge, 
1854; Nathan S. Hazelton, 1855; C. T. Melvin, 1856; 
M. W. Tewksbury, 1858; David Folsom, 1862; W. W. 
Chase, 1868 ; Albert A. Osgood and Gilman Jenness, 
1871 ; James F. Savage, 1872 ; Charles W. Kimball. 

Harvard. — John Flagg, 1761 ; Samuel D. Bell, 

Union.— John Bell, 1820; Hiram Chase, 1844. 

Boivdoiii.— J nines Bell, 1822; Z. V. Bell, 1822. 

Waterville, j>/e.— Henry J. Hull, 1827. 

Weskyan VniversUy. — John C. Clark, 1848. 

Brown University. — Charles Bell. 

Amherst. — Arthur Folsom, 1857 ; Richard Folsom, 

Frederic Chase, Dartmouth, 1S60, is now treasurer 
Dartmouth College, judge of probate Grafton County, 
and lawyer. He resides at Hanover. 

Professional Men not college graduates natives of 
Chester. — Edward, Cyrus, and Ebenezer Dearborn, 
Jonatiian H. Shaw, John Sargent, Joshua T. Hall, 
Rufus Shackford, H. B. Burnham, M. E. Cox, and 
James F. Brown, all physicians. John J. Bell, law- 
yer in E.xeter. 

Physicians. — Who was the first physician in 
Chester is not known. Tabitha Foss, in her admin- 
istration account, 1747, charges for having paid Drs. 
Rogers and Bond ; and Mary Haselton, in 1759, 
charges as having paid Dr. John Bond, and they 
probably resided in Chester. There was a Master 
Wood who taught school in 1746, 1747, and 1748; and 
there was a Dr. George Wood in Chester, who re- 
moved to Londonderry about 1770, and practiced 

there until about 1785, but there is no certainty that 
they were the same. 

Dr. Samuel Moore was a school-teacher in 1749 
and 1750. He married Mehitabel Ingalls about 17.50. 
He removed to Candia Corner, and was a very promi- 
nent man there, though not as a practicing physician. 
Mrs. Moore was famous as a midwife. He died in 
1793; she died in 1818. 

Dr. John Ordway was a native of Amesbury, came 
to Chester and taught school in 1758; married Sarah, 
daughter of Samuel Robie, in 1760. He died about 

Dr. John Manning is paid for a visit to a pauper 
in 1781, and is taxed in 1785. Nothing further is 
known of him. 

Dr. Benjamin Page was in town, and his family had 
the smallpox in 1778. He was in Chester in 1785 
and 1787. There was a Dr. Page in Raymond, who 
lived on No. 122, Old Hundreds, and Dr. Benjamin 
Page is taxed for the Raymond place several years. 
His buildings in Chester were burned April 5, 1791. 
New buildings were put up, which he sold to Joseph 
Robinson, about 1793, and left town. He died at 
Hallowell, Oct. 28, 1825, aged seventy-eight. 

Dr. Thomas Sargent came to Chester about 1777, 
and practiced until about 1818, and removed to 

Dr. Samuel Foster was born in Bilerica, Mass.; 
studied medicine at Woodstock, Conn. He came to 
Chester and married Mary Colcord, of Brentwood, 
Feb. 19, 1789. He removed to Candia in June of the 
same year, and practiced there until 1812. He died 
at Brentwood, 1826. 

Dr. Benjamin Kittredge came to Chester in 1790, 
and died 1830. 

Dr. Rufus Kittredge, his son, studied with his 
father, and practiced in Candia one year, and in 
Chester until 1849; then removed to Cincinnati, 

Dr. Frederick Mitchell practiced in Chester from 
1815 to 1817 or 1818. 

Dr. Josiah Richards came to Chester, June, 1814; 
M.D., Dartmouth, 1814. He stayed but a short time, 
and went to Claremont. 

Dr. John Rogers graduated at Dartmouth, 1816; 
studied with Dr. Chadborne, of Concord ; M.D., Dart- 
mouth, 1819, when he settled in Chester; removed to 
Boscawen, 1821 or 1822 ; died 1830. 

Dr. Nathan Plunimer, son of Nathan Pliimmer and 
Mary Palmer, born Aug. 16, 1787 ; studied medicine 
with Dr. Robert Bartley, of Londonderry ; practiced 
a short time there; came to the Long Meadows, 1818; 
married, first, Sarah, daughter of Rev. Zaccheus Colby ; 
second, Mehitabel, daughter of Robert Dinsmore ; 
alive 1869, but disabled for practice by the infirmities 
of age. Dr. Albert Plummer, M.D., Bowdoin, now 
of Hamilton, Minn., is his son. 

Dr. Lemuel M. Barker, son of Lemuel and Mary 
Barker, studied medicine with Dr. R. D. Murray ; 



M.D., Dartmouth, 1824; comni.enced practice at 
Chester, 1825; removed to Great Falls, 1831; thence 
to Boston ; has been superintendent and resident 
physician of the Massachusetts State Hospital and 
member of the State Senate ; now resides in Maiden ; 
married Sarah, daughter of Hon. William M. Rich- 
ardson, 1826. 

Dr. Joseph Reynolds, son of Rev. F. Reynolds, born 
at Wilmington, Mass., Aug. 2, 1800 ; studied medicine 
with Dr. James P. Chaplin, of Cambridge ; M.D. at 
Boston, 1828 ; came to Chester, March, 1830 ; thence 
to Gloucester ; thence to Concord, Mass., 1852. 

Dr. William W. Brown, son of Ebenezer Brown 
and Mary Whittier; born in Vermont, Aug. 28, 1804; 
fitted to the senior class of Union College, but was 
prevented by sickness ; studied medicine with Dr. 
John Poole at Bradford, Vt.,and with Professor Mus- 
sey ; M.D., Dartmouth; January, 1831, commenced 
practice at Poplin, had an extensive practice in tliat 
and the neighboring towns ; removed to Chester, 1834, 
and remained until 1845; spent the winter of 1845 
and '46 at the university aud hospitals of New York; 
then settled in Manchester ; was surgeon of the Sev- 
enth New Hampshire Volunteers nearly three years. 
His son, William C, was hospital steward, and died 
soon after his return. His son, Charles L., was lieu- 
tenant in the Fourth New Hampshire Volunteers, 
died at Folly Island, S. C. 

Dr. Darius A. Dow, boru at Sugar Hill, Plaistow, 
came to Chester about 1847 ; removed about 1850 ; 
married a daughter of Abel G. Quigg, and is said now 
to reside at Westford, Mass. 

Dr. Jacob P. Whittemore, son of Jacob Whitte- 
more and Rebecca Bradford, born at Antrim, May 10, 
1810 ; studied medicine with Dr. Gregg, of Hopkin- 
ton, and Professor Dixi Crosby ; M.D., Dartmouth, 
1847 ; practiced at Hartford, Vt., arid Gilmanton ; 
came to Chester, December, 1847 ; removed to Hav- 
erhill, Mass., 1864. 

Dr. James F. Brown, son of James Brown and 
Elizabeth W. Langford, born on the " Neck" in 
Chester, now Auburn, Sept. 6, 1838; studied medicine 
with Professor Crosby ; M.D., Dartmouth, 1864; set- 
tled in Chester, October, 1864, and is yet in active 
practice there. He married Abbie, daughter of Dan- 
iel Scribner and Ann Langford, of Raymond. 

Dr. George W. Manter, son of Francis Manter and 
Harriet Revall, born at Londonderry, Aug. 22, 1824; 
studied medicine with Dr. William H. Martin, of 
Londonderry; M.D. at Castleton (Vt.) Medical Col- 
lege, 1854 ; commenced practice at Auburn, February, 
1855 ; removed to Manchester, May, 1862. 

Dr. Hanson C. Canney, son of Paul Canney and 
Eliza Hanson, born at Strafford, Nov. 17, 1841 ; stu- 
died medicine with John Wheeler, M.D., of Baru- 
stead, and Professor A. B. Crosby ; M.D., Dartmouth, 
1864 ; commenced practice in Auburn, 1865. 

Dr. John Dearborn resided in Chester several years ; 
he was a botanic physician. 

L. Chesley is also a practicing physician in Chester. 
E. L. Wright, eclectic physician. 

The wife of Deacon Matthew Forsaith, the wife of 
Dr. Samuel Moore, and Mary Bradley, the wife of 
Caleb Hall, were noted in .their day as midwives. 
These midwives bore the appellation of " Granny." 
The wife of Joseph Clark bore that appellation and 
probably officiated in that capacity. Likewise Mary, 
the wife of Robert Gordon, and mother of David 
White's wife, who died about 1795 at a very advanced 

Capt. James Shirley, who died 1790, was a seventh 
son, and famous for curing king's evil or scrofula by 
the stroke of the hand. 

Henry West, born 1781, was also a seventh son, 
and people made long journeys to come to him, and 
he made long journeys to visit patients. 

Attorney s-at-Law. — John Porter, son of Asa Por- 
ter and Mehitabel Crocker, was born at Haverhill; 
graduated at Dartmouth in 1787 ; studied law ; was 
introduced into Chester by Toppan Webster to do his 
collecting ; came April 1, 1790 ; removed April 19, 
1793, to Broome County, Canada East ; died there, 
time not known. 

Arthur Livermore came to Chester in 1793, and 
was appointed a justice of Superior Court Dec. 21, 
1799, which oiEce he held until 1810 ; chief justice 
from 1813 to 1816. He afterwards lived in Holder- 
ness, and died there. 

Daniel French immediately succeeded Judge Liver- 
more ; died Oct. 15, 1840. 

Amos Kent came to Chester in 1854. 

Samuel D. Bell came to Chester in 1820 ; removed 
to Exeter in 1830. 

David Pillsbury immediately succeeded Samuel D. 
Bell, and removed to Concord in 1854. 

Henry F. French commenced practice in Chester 
in 1835, and practiced there till 1840. 

John Kelley, son of Simeon Kelley and Elizabeth 
Knight, born at Plaistow, July 22, 1796, graduated at 
Amherst in 1825 ; studied law withStephen Minot, of 
Haverhill, and E. Moore, of Boston, and was ad- 
mittfed to the Suffolk County bar. 

The Presbyterian Cliurch. — In most of the towns 
of New England the congregation of the church was 
co-existent with the settlement of the town. So it 
was in Chester, but, unlike most other towns, the 
church here was of the Presbyterian order instead of 
the Congregational, which in the province history of 
this country might have been truly styled the " State" 
church. The first pastor was Rev. Marks Hall, from 
1730-34. Subsequent pastors were as follows : John 
Wilson, from 1734-79; Rev. Mr. Clark, supply; T. 
Howe, A. S. Stickney, Hutchinson, Pickle, James 
Davis, D. Aman, David McGregore, Z. Colby, Wil- 
liam Harlow, Clement Parker, Abel Manning, Benja- 
roin Sargent, and Rev. Samuel Ordway. In 1843, 
Mr. Ordway organized the Second Congregational 
Church of Chester (now Auburn), and the Presby- 



terian Church of Chester dissolved and passed into 

The Congregational Church.—The meeting which 
called Rev. Ebenezer Flagg, the first pastor of this 
church, was held June 23, 1736. He accepted the 
call, and remained pastor until 1793. His successors 
in the pastoral office have been as follows : Rev. 
Mr. Bradstreet, Leonard, Jewett, Joel R. Arnold, 
Jonathan Clement, L. Armsby, H. O. Howland, J. L. 
Tomlinson, and Rev. Chester Tenney. 

In 1728 the following votes were passed by the town 
concerning the building of a church, etc. : 

"Voted, That there shall be a meeting house built according to these 
Dimensious : Imp", fifty foot in length, and thirty-five foot wide & twenty 
foot post, and finish it completely, both inside & outside, to y» turning of 
y key, and set upon y place appointed and before voted. 

" Voted, That a Committee be chosen to agree w'i> y° Carpenter or Car- 
penters to build a Meeting house accordiTig to y« Dimensions before men- 
tioned, and that Dr.Edmond Toppin,&Sam' Ingalls * Nathaniel Heally, 
be y Committee to agree w" y Carpenters in y= behalf of y" prop" of 

'■ Voted, That there shall be Kaised forty shillings in Money on Every 
full prop" share in Chester to be paid unto ye town treasurer (Jacob Sar- 
gent is chosen), at y next prop" meeting towards y* building of a meet- 
ing house in Chester to be drawn nut by the Committee as there shall be 
Occasion ; viz.. Dr. Edmond Toppin and Sam^^ Ingalls & Nathaniel Haley, 
a Committee. 

"Voted, That there shall he Raised twenty Shillings in money on 
Every full propr" lott in Chester for ye paying the town Debts, to be paid 
unto y" Constable for y town's use at y next prop" Meeting in Chester." 

The Baptist Church. — Although there were indi- 
viduals who were Baptists in Chester, and might have 
been occasional preaching, there was no organized 
church until 1819, when a church was organized by 
the Rev. William Taylor, of Concord, consisting of 
sixteen members, of whom Capt. Pearson Richardson, 
Walter Morse, Jacob Green, and Timothy Smith, of 
Sandown, were prominent. Col. Stephen Clay and 
Josiah Chase united afterwards, and were active 
members. Walter Morse and Josiah Chase were the 
deacons. They worshiped in Capt. Richardson's hall 
until 1823, when a meeting-house was built on the 
west side of the Haverhill road. 

They had for preachers, besides Mr. Taylor, Rev. 
Josiah Davis, of Methuen, and the Rev. Duncan 
Dunbar, a Scotchman, afterwards of New York City. 
Gibbon Williams was installed ; George Kallock and 
John Upton were ordained pastors. A difficulty arose 
about a preacher, a part of the society believing him 
to be corrupt and a part adhering to him, which for'a 
time disorganized the church and society, and they 
had no preaching, and their early records were lost 
and the meeting-house went to decay. 

At a meeting of the Portsmouth Association, held 
at Newton, 1845, a committee, consisting of Brethren 
Ayres, of Dover, Gilbert, of Northwood, Wheeler, of 
Plaistow, and Swain, of Brentwood, were appointed 
to visit the church in Chester and attempt to settle 
their difficulties. The committee met the church 
Jan. 13, 1846, and recommended to disband the ex- 
isting church and organize a new one, which was 
accordingly done, and a church of fifteen members 

was formed and William Bell chosen deacon and 
clerk. The old church was sold and a new building 
was erected near the town-house and dedicated Aug. 
29, 1861. 

Among the ministers who have officiated for this 
church are mentioned the names of H. W. Day, An- 
drew Mitchel, Horace Eaton, Joshua Clement, J. W. 
Merrill, and Daniel Gage. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church.— There was a 
church organized in 1851 by Rev. Elisha Adams, the 
presiding elder for Dover District, and Rev. James 
M. Young, a member of the New Hampshire Confer- 
ence, supplying. The same summer a church edifice 
was erected near the south line of No. 36, 2d P., 2d 
D., on the road from Chester to Candia. It was built 
under the direction of Joseph Smith, Amos South- 
wick, Samuel M. Edwards, John Maynard, Isaac L. 
Seavey, and Simon Haselton, and dedicated in Octo- 
ber. It cost about one thousand dollars. 

The following are the names of the preachers who 
have administered to the church and society : James 
M. Young, Charles U. Dunning, George M. Hamlin, 
Jesse Brown, Henry Nutter, C. Henry Newell, Edwin 
S. Chase, Charles W. Harkins, Joseph T. Hand, John 
Keogan, True Whittier, Ezekiel Stickney, Abraham 
Folsom, Silas Higgin, James Stedman, James G. 
Price, Josiah Higgin, and William H. Stewart. 

The average membership since 1854 has been about 





Incorporation of the Town— Original Bounds— Moderators— Clerks- 
Representatives— Military History— The Heroes of Three Wars- 
War of the Revolution— 1812— War of the Rebellion. 

Chester was incorporated May 8, 1722, under the 
name of Chester, and included within its bounds, in 
addition to its present territory, the present towns of 
Candia, Raymond, Auburn, and portions of Derry 
and Hodksett. 

Town Officers chosen at the first meeting under 
the charter of the town of Chester, held the 28th day 
of March, 1723 : 

Thomas Phipps, Esq., moderator; Clement Hughes, clerk ; Samuel In- 
galls, Clement Hughes, Caleb Tole, selectmen; Zaccheus Clifford, 
constable; Capt. Thomas Phipps, Maj. -lohn Gilman, Col. Peter 
\Viar, or any two of them be a committee to receive and allow the 
accounts ; Benjamin Suiith, Clement Messarvy, Samuel Ingalls, sur- 
veyors of highways. 

At Chester, March 31, 1724. — Edward Emerson, moderator; Clement 
Hughes, town clerk ; Thomas Smith, constable ; Samuel Ingalls, 
Joseph Works, lot-layers; Samuel Ingalls, Joseph Works, Clement 
Hughes, Ensign John Sanliorn, Timothy Kezar, selectmen. 

At eliester, March 25, 1725.— Capt. Henry Sherburne, moderator; Thomas 
Parker, clerk ; Samuel Ingalls, Jno. Sanborne, Thomas Packer, se- 
lectmen ; Samuel Ingalls, Thomas Smith, James Whitney, lot- 
layers and surveyors of highways ; Samuel Ingalls, constable ; Capt. 
Henry Sherburne, auditor. 



At Exeter, March 31, 17-26.— Clement Hughes, moderator; Clement 
Hughes, clerk J John Sanborn, Clement Hughes, Robert Smith, se- 
lectmen ; James Whiling, constable; Samuel Ingalls, Thomas 
Smith, James Whiting, lot-layers ; Samuel Ingalls, surveyorof high- 

1727. TIlis and all future meetings were held at 

Thomas Pierce, moderator ; Clement Hughes, clerk ; John Sanborn, 
• Clement Hughes, Robert Smith, selectmen ; William Powell, con- 
stable; Samuel Ingalls, Thomas Smith, James Whiting, lotrlayera; 
Capt. Joseph Sherburne, Thomas Parker, auditors. 
Uarch 28, 1728.— Samuel Ingalls, moderator; Eldad Ingalls, clerk; 
Samuel Ingalls, Jacob Sargent, Thomas Smith, selectmen ; Jonathan 
Goodhue, constable ; William Powell, snrreyor of highways; Wil- 
liam Wilson, Benjamin Philbrook, fence-viewers; Samuel Ingalls 
Eldad Ingalls, Jacob Sargent, lot-layers : Eldad Ingalls, treasurer. 
Harch 27,1729.- Eldad Ingalls, moderator; Samuel Ingalls, town clerk; 
Ephraim Haselton, constable; Samuel Ingalls, Nathan Webster 
William Wilson, selectmen; Jacob Sargent, Nathan Webster, sur- 
veyors of highways; Thomas Smith, Benaiah Colby, fence-viewers- 
James Wilson, tilhingman; Ephraim Haselton, Siimuel Ingallsj 
Jacob Sargent, lot-layers; Jacob Sargent, treasurer. 
March 7, 1730.— Ebenezer Dearborn, moderator; Samuel Ingalls, town 
clerk; John Tolford, constable; Samuel Ingalls, Nathan Webster, 
Ebenezer Dearborn, selectmen ; Jacob Sargent, William Wilson, 
assessors; Enoch Colby, William Powell, Titus Wells, surveyoi-s of 
highways and fence-viewers; James Whiting, Benaiah Colby, tith- 
Uarch 25, 1731.— Hoses Leavitt, moderator; Samuel Emerson, town 
clerk ;> Jonathan Blunt, constable ; Ebenezer Dearborn ; Samuel 
Emerson, Enoch Colby, Samuel lugalls, Jacob Sargent, selectmen ; 
Isaac Foss, Thomas Wells, Sylvanus Smith, surveyors of highways 
and leuce-viewers ; Thomas Glen, Thomas Haselton, tithingmen. 
Marcli 30, 1732.— Icliabod Roby, moderator ; Ebenezer Dearborn, Jr., 
constable ; Samuel Emerson, Jacob Sargent, Ephraim Haselton, se- 
lectmen ; Nathaniel Ambrose, Titus Wells, Jr., tithingmen ; Isaac 
Foss, Nathan Webster, Thomas Glen, surveyoi-s of highways. 
March 29, 1733.— Capt. Samuel Ingalls, moderator; William Wilson, 
constable ; Capt. Samuel Ingalls, Thomas Wells, Thomas Glen, se- 
lectmen ; Samuel Emereon, Ephraim Haselton, Capt. Samuel Ingllls, 
lot-layers; Ithamar Berry, John Sherilla,- Anthony Tole, Nathan 
Webster, James Wilson, surveyors of highways; Jonas Clay, Joseph 
Clark, tithingmen ; John Tolford, Jonathan Blunt, tence-viewers - 
Enoch Colby, Henry Ambrose,field-driver3; Jonathan Blunt, pound- 
keeper; Lieut. Ebenezer Dearborn, Samuel Emerson, Nathan Web- 
ster, auditors, 
afore* 28, 173-1.— Capt. Ichabod Koby, moderator ; Anthony Towle, con- 
stable ; Jacob Sargent, Samuel Emers.jn, Thomas Glen, selectmen; 
Enoch Colby, William Crawford, tithingmen ; Thomas Wells, Paul 
Smith, Isaac Fobs, Jacob Wells, surveyors of the highway; Moses 
Tyler, John Calfe, John Aiken, auditors ; Jonathan Blunt, Thomas 
Haselton, fence-viewers; Capt. Samuel Ingalls, Samuel Emerson, 
Ephraim Haselton, lot-layers, 
araroi 29, 1735,— John Calfe, moderator; John Karr, constable; John 
Calfe, Samuel Emereon, Mo.sesTyler,selectmen; Isaac Foss, Thomas 
Wells, John Sherrala, Jac.b Wells, surveyors of highways ; Paul 
Smith, James Whiling. tithingmen ; James Norris, Sylvanus .Smith, 
fence-viewers; Capt. Ingalls, Samuel Emerson, Ephraim Haselton, 

1731-87, Samuel Emerson ; 1788-1816, John Emerson ; 1817-23, Lemuel 
W. Blake; 1824-26, William Eaton; 18-27-28, Samuel D. Bell; 
18-29-33, John S. Brown; 1834-13, Isaac Tompkins ; 1844, Benja- 
min Fitts; 1845-48, William Greenough ; 1849-51, Silas F. Learn- 
ard ; 1852, Jacob P. Whittemore ; 1853-54, William Greeuough ; 
18S5-59, Lucien Kent; 1860-65, William F. Robie; 1866, Charles 
S. Wilcomb ; 1867, Clement A. West ; 1868-69, William Greenough ; 
1870-73, C. F. Marston ; 1874-81, Henry Moore ; 1881-82, C. F. Mars- 


1744. Precept sent out by the Gov- 
ernor. Benj. Hill elected, 
but not received by the 

1748. Capt. Abel Morse. 
1752. Sylvanus Smith. 
1755. Samuel Emerson. 
1758. Capt. Abel Morse. 
176.5' John Webster, 
1768. John Webster. 
1771, John Webster. 
1774. John Webster. 
1776-78. Robert Wilson. 

1779. John Webster. 
Robert Wilson. 

1780. Jacob Chase. 
Robert Wilson. 

1781. John Underhill. 
Robert Wilson. 

1782. Jacob Chaae. 
William White. 

1783. Jabez Hoit. 
William White. 

1784. John Underhill. 

1785. William While. 

1786. John Underhill. 
1787-93. Joseph Blanchard. 
1704-95. Arthur Livermore 
1796-98. William White. 
1799-1800. Simon Towle. 
1801. William White. 
1802 Henry Sweetser. 
1803-8. Henry Sweetser. 
181)9-10, John Folsom, 
1811. Henry Sweetser. 
1812-14. .lohn Folsom. 
1815-16. John Folsom. 

William Moore. 
1817-18. William Moore. 

Benjamin Fitts. 
1819-20. John Folsom. 

Charles Goss. 

1821. Samuel Aiken. 
Charles Goss. 

1822. Samuel Aiken. 
William Moore. 

1823-24.. Samuel Aiken. 

William Graham. 
1825-26. Samuel Aiken. 

Samuel D. Bell, 

1827. Samuel Aiken. 
Jesse J. Underhill. 

1828. Jesse J. Underhill. 
John Bryant. 

1829. John Bryant. 
John Folsom. 

1830. John Folsom. 

1830. Samuel Aiken. 

1831. Samuel Aiken. 
John Bryant. 

1832. David Currier, Jr. 
Samuel Aiken. 

1833. David Currier, Jr. 
Stephen Dearborn. 

1834. Stephen Dearborn. 
1836. Jesse J. Underhill. 

Ephraim Orcutt. 

1836. Ephraim Orcutt. 
David Currier, Jr. 

1837. Isaac Thompkins. 
David Currier, Jr. 

1838-39. Isaac Thompkins. 
Joseph Chase. 

1840. David Currier, Jr. 
Isaac Tliompkins. 

1841. John W. Noyes. 
John S. Brown. 

1842. John W, Noyes, 
David Pillsbury. 

1843. Jesse J, Underhill. 
William Brown, Jr. 

1844. David Pillsbury. 
Stephen Dearborn. 

1845. John Folsom. 
Ephraim Orcutt. 

IS46. G. W. Everet, F. S. ■ 

1847-48. Thomas J. Melvin. 

1840. William Greenough. 

1850-51. Thomas J. Melvin. 

1853-54. John W. Noyes. 
j 1855. Edmund Sleeper. 
I 1856. John Lock. 

1857. James M. Kent. 
j 1858. Osgood Richards. 
I 1869. Jacob Chase, 

1860. Parker Morse, 

1861. Daniel Bell. 

1862. Henry Moore. 

1863. Silas F. Learnard. 
1864-65. William Crawford. 
1866. William Tenney. 
1867-68. David L. Bachelder. 

1869. Rufus W. Moore. 

1870. Lucien Kent. 

1871. William P. Underhill. 

1872. Daniel Sanborn. 

1873. Clement A. West. 

1874. No repi-esentative. 
1S75-76. John W. Noyes. 

1877. Charles S. Wilcomb. 

1878. John Underhill. 

1879. James F, Brown. 

1880. Henry H, Lane, 

-e-elected till 17S7. 

Military History.—" The-first military law passed 
in New Hampshire was in 1718. All the means of 
knowing about the military organization in Chester 
is the titles prefixed to the names of the inhabitants. 
The first found on our records was in 1731. Samuel 
Ingalls has the title of captain, Ebenezer Dearborn 
of lieutenant, and Jacob Sargent of ensign, which is 
probably nearly as early as there was any military 
organization. Thomas Smith is lieutenant in 1732 ; 
John Talford is captain, and Thomas Wells lieuten- 
ant in 17-44; Abel Morse is captain in 1746, and 
Thomas Wells in 1748 ; Thomas Craige is lieutenant, 
James Varnum is ensign, and Robert Calfe sergeant 



in 1749 ; Enoch Colby is also ensign, and Eben Dear- 
born, Jr., sergeant, in 1749 ; Silvanus Smitii lieuten- 
ant in 1752, Samuel Eobie in 1753, and Benaiah Colby 
in 1756, and Jonathan Blunt captain the same year. 
John Lane was appointed cornet of the Ninth Troop 
of the First Regiment of cavalry, commanded by Col. 
John Downing, Sept. 17, 1754, by Benning Went- 
worth ; John Tolford is major, and Andrew Jack 
lieutenant in 1757 ; James Shirley is captain, and 
James Quentan ensign in 1759. Henry Hall is en- 
sign in 1761, Samuel Robie captain in 1764, Robert 
Wilson lieutenant in 1765, Capt. Underbill, Lieut. 
Joseph Basford, and Ensign Joseph True in 1765 ; 
Oliver Morse and Henry Moore lieutenants, and 
Samuel HazeJton cornet in 1766; Richard Emery 
major in 1769 ; Andrew Jack captain in 1770 ; Joseph 
True captain, Lieut. Witherspoon in 1775; Maj. 
French (Jabez), 1774; Hugh Shirley, 1775; David 
Witherspoon captain, and James Dunlap lieutenant 
in 1766. Stephen Dearborn had a commission of 
captain under the king. May 3, 1767, and under Con- 
gress, Sept. 5, 1775 ; major, March 25, 1785 ; lieuten- 
ant-colonel, April 5, 1793 ; resigned Sept. 18, 1800. 

" A militia law was passed Sept. 19, 1776, enrolling 
in train-bands all able-bodied men from sixteen to 
fifty years of age ; exempting nearly all officers, min- 
isters, Quakers, negroes, Indians, and mulattoes ; each 
company to be mustered eight times a year. 

" Then there was to be an ' alarm list,' composed 
of all male persons from sixteen to sixty-five years of 
age not included in the train-band, witli some excep- 
tions, if of suflicient ability, to be inspected twice a 
year. The captains of the ' alarm list' by custom had 
a brevet title of colonel. There was to be a military 
watch kept by those belonging to the train-band and 
alarm list, under the direction of the commissioned 
officers of the town. 

" In looking over the rolls of the men in the French 
and Indian wars from 1745 to 1760, in the 'Adjutant- 
General's Report' (vol. ii.), 1866, I find the following 
Chester names, although it is not certain that they 
were all Chester men, and some Chester men may 
have been overlooked : 

" In the winter of 174.5-46, Capt. John Goffe had a 
company of thirty-seven men scouting the woods on 
snow-shoes, of which Samuel Brown was a sergeant ; 
under Jeremiah Clough, Henry Irvine ; under Andrew 
Todd scouting at Canterbury, 1746, Archibald Mil- 
ler, Adam Wilson, William McMaster, John Grimes, 
and James Wilson. Adam Wilson and Archibald 
Miller afterwards lived in Chester, but probably went 
from Londonderry. 

"Capt. Daniel Ladd's company, at Canterbury, 
1746 : Enoch Rowel, Zebedee Berry, Paul Healey, 
Samuel Moore, and John Nutt ; William Presson and 
Henry Ervine, July to December, 1746 ; Samuel 
Moore again in 1747. Daniel Foster (lived near Mar- 
tin's Ferry) was in Eastman's company. Under 
Moses Foster at Suncock, John Moore, John Carr. 

John Webster was lieutenant in John Goffe's scout- 
ing party in 1748; he might have been Col. Webster, 
of Chester. He was afterwards captain, and raised 
a scout of twenty men, and none of them Chester 
men; it is probable that he was not the man. In 
what way these men were raised, whether by voluntary 
enlistment or impressment, or both, I do not know. 

" It has been seen that in 1747 the town voted to 
petition the Governor and pouncil ' to stop, and save 
any more men being sent out of the town into the 
service, and to have a suitable number of men kept 
in the service in our own town.' In 1748 there were 
petitions sent from different parts of the town to the 
captains, and by John Tolford and Thomas Wells to 
the Governor and Council for men ; but probably 
Chester never had any d^irect aid. 

" In the expedition against the French forts, Du 
Quesne, Niagara, and Crown Point, in the winter 
of 1755, New Hampshire furnished a regiment of 
six hundred men, under Col. Joseph Blanchard, in 
which the following Chester names appear : Joseph 
Morril, Daniel Martin, Caleb Dalton, Robert Gor- 
don, John Shackford, Nathan Morse, Samuel Towle, 
Samuel Emerson (son of Samuel Emerson, Esq., 
died at Albany, Nov. 17, 1755), Robert Kennedy, 
John Rowe, John Craig, Samuel Dudley, James 
Eaton, John Hall, clerk (might have been the first 
town clerk of Derryfield), Ithiel Gordon, James Ful- 
erton, Samuel Dalton, Reuben Towl, Curtis Bean, 
John Dalton, Jonas Clay, William Aiken, Robert 
Witherspoon, William Wilson, Daniel Wilson, James 
Aiken, John Gage, Nathaniel Etherage. 

" For the expedition against Crown Point in 1756, 
New Hampshire raised a regiment of seven hundred 
men, under the command of Col. Nathaniel Meserve, 
of Portsmouth, in the roll of which the following 
Chester names appear: Jesse McFarland, William 
McMaster, John Nutt, Robert Gordon, Francis Towle, 
Joseph Dudley, John McClellan, Benj. Fuller, Wil- 
liam Baker, Gideon Rowel, Benj. Bachelder, James 

" In 1757 New Hampshire furnished a regiment of 
five hundred men for the Crown Point expedition. 
Chester names : Robert Kennedy, Hugh Quinton, 
John Carr, Samuel Towle, sergeant ; Paul Healey, 
corporal ; Benjamin Bachelder, Edmund Elliott, Eben- 
ezer Eaton, Samuel Hazeltou, Amos Merril, Jona- 
than Towle, Stephen Dearborn. 

"The Sixth Company was commanded by Richard 
Emery. Richard Emery, of Chester, married Mary 
Blunt, 1765, and is styled major in Chester records in 
1767. The Kennedys might have been Gofistown 
men, and the Chester Daltons did not spell their 
names Daulton. 

" In August, 1757, a reinforcement was sent to 
Charleston No. 4, which served until November. 
Timothy Foss, David Webster, David Hill, Samuel 
Dalton, Isaiah Rowe, Benj. Fuller, and Samuel 
Brown are Chester names. 



" There was a company sent in 1757 to garrison 
Fort William and Heury. Chester names : Benjamin 
Libley, Stephen Harden, and Nathaniel Rand. 

" In 1758 another regiment was sent to Crown 
Point, in which Samuel Towle is second lieutenant, 
and several Chester names before mentioned, and 
James Clay, Benj. Currier, Nath'l Wood, Hugh 
Quinton, Thomas Wason, John Mills, Joseph Linn, 
Matthew Templeton, Hu^h Shirley, Robert McKin- 
ley, Oliver Morse, second lieutenant of the Eighth 
Company, Joshua Prescott, Ezekiel Morse, and John 

"In 17C0 a regiment was raised to invade Canada. 
John Goffee was colonel, and Richard Emory, prob- 
ably of Chester, major. Hugh Quinton, David 
Weatherspoon, James Graham, Archibald McDuffee, 
Robert McKinley, James Quinton, Hugh Shirley, 
Robert Wasson, James Weatherspoon, Samuel Hasel- 
tine, David Webster, Jacob Basford (died), Ebenezer 
Basford, Jonas Clay, David Craige, Jonathan Emer- 
son (son of Samuel Emerson, Esq., died at Crown 
Point, Nov. 7, 1760), John Gage, Samuel Ingalls, 
John Karr, John Seavey, Titus Wells, Jacob Grif- 
fin, Stephen Webster, John Mills, Jacob Quimby, 
Nathaniel Maxfield, and Nathaniel Rand were from 

" Besides the foregoing found on the rolls, it is said 
that Matthew, son of Samuel Gault, was an officer, 
and died at Cape Breton, 1759. His will was proved 
August, 1759. William Otterson, the grandfather of 
the Hooksett Ottersons, is said to have been in the 
army and drowned in crossing Lake Champlain in 
1760. It has also been said that Abraham Morse was 
in the French war, and that Elijah Pillsbury was be- 
fore Quebec when Wolfe was killed. He probably 
enlisted at Newbury. Wells Chase went from New- 
bury a campaign under Governor Shirley to Norridge- 
wock in 1754, and was in the battle of Ticonderoga 
in 1758. Archibald McDuftee was in the French war. 
The king issued a proclamation, dated Feb. 19, 1754, 
offering certain bounties in land to such officers and 
soldiers as should enter his service against the French ; 
and another proclamation, dated Oct. 7, 1763, order- 
ing the land for the New England States to be laid 
off in the State of Virginia, about one hundred miles 
above the mouth of the Ohio River. In 1816, James 
Miltimore, of Windham, came along and procured 
powers of attorney from the Chester soldiers, among 
whom were Wells Chase, Robert McKinley, Matthew 
Templeton, and Archibald McDuffee, empowering him 
to recover and sell the lands, and gave bonds back to 
pay them one-half of all that he should receive. I 
think nothing further was heard about it. 

" The news of the battle of Lexington spread with 
amazing rapidity. Nathaniel Emerson received the 
news at midnight at Candia, and aroused the people, 
and drummer David Hill beat up for recruits, and 
Moses Dustin is said to have been the first to fall in, 
and he served through the war. They soon raised a 

squad, which soon started for the scene of the war. 
Probably more than half the able-bodied men started, 
with such arms as they had and with such conveyance 
as was at hand, and went to Cambridge, the headquar- 
ters of the army. A portion of the men enlisted, and 
the rest returned home. So far as the action of the 
town of Chester is concerned, by votes in town-meet- 
ing, it has been given in the history of those years. 
The army rolls, and other papers relating to the war, 
are contained in eleven large volumes in the Adju- 
tant-General's office. The matter is very voluminous 
and difficult to arrange, and I know of no better way 
than to give the rolls containing Chester men, always 
including Candia and Raymond, designating the re- 
spective towns, Chester A, Candia B, and Raymond 
C, so far as practicable. I will also supply any seem- 
ing deficiencies by documents or tradition." — Chase. 

" According to the Report of the Adjutant-General, 
1866, vol. ii., New Hampshire had three regiments in 
1775, the first commanded by John Stark, the sec- 
ond by Enoch Poor, the third by James Reid. 
Stark's and Reid's were stationed at Medford, and 
were at Bunker Hill ; and Col. Poor remained on 
duty at home. The Tenth Company of the Third 
Regiment was commanded by Hezekiah Hutchins, 
and Amos Emerson, of Chester, was lieutenant ; and 
the names of David Currier, Josiah Morse, Peter 
Severance, Thomas Wilson, and Samuel Moore ap- 
pear on the roll. Capt. David Shaw says that Wil- 
liam Gross, his mother's half-brother, was in the 
Bunker Hill battle, under Emerson. There were 
two other men known to be in the battle whose names 
I have not found, — Caleb Hall, who went down at the 
fime of Lexington battle and enlisted, and Dea. .John 
Hills, of Candia, who, while lying behind the rail 
fence stuffed .with hay, had a ball strike his foot, 
which he picked up, and not fitting his gun, he 
brought it home. There is a letter from Parker 
Morse to Dea. Hills extant, directed to him as be- 
longing to Hutchins' company at Mystic. Some of 
the men who went down at that time and stayed might 
have enlisted in Massachusetts regiments before the 
New Hampshire ones were organized. 

'Chester. — Hezekiah Hutchi] 


" Simon Merril, A. Shminon. 
Joseph Smith, A. 
Saml, BrowD, A. 
James Gross, A. 
Peter Severance, A. 
Saml. Morse. 
Reuben Siinborn, A. 
Josiah Morse, Jr., A. 

Joseph SpiUad, A. 
David Currier, A. 
Thomas Wilson, B. 
John Lane, Jr., A. 
John Tucker, C. 
John Lane, 3d, C. 
Simon Norton, A. 
James Randal, C. 
William Randal 


" Those from Chester are marked A, Candia B, and 
Raymond C, and the uncertain are left unmarked. 

" In the selectmen's accounts for the year 1776 there 
are the following items charged : 

"Paid Joseph Linn, Hugh Cromby, Andrew Aiken, John Vance, Al- 
exander Welherspoon, Timothy Lunt, Jeams Craft their wages for ser- 
vice done at Medford. 



"Paid Josejili Longe, Samuel Webster, i 
lone at Medford." 

nd Benj. Long for service 

" In 1775 there is a charge for pork sent to Cam- 
bridge, £6 7s. ad. 

" Paid to Maj. Jabez French money that we iiired to support tlie Dele- 
gates that went to Philadelphia, £9 Ss. M." 

" There are also charges for blankets, and for num- 
bering the people. 

" Pliilip Tilton, captain, Jacob Webster, lieutenant, 
both of Raymond, and John Tilton, second lieuten- 
ant, of Sandown, were the officers of the Third Com- 
pany, Second Regiment, June 12, 1775, and Caleb Rich- 
ardson's name is on the roll. 

"There is a pay-roll of Capt. Nathan Brown's com- 
pany, David Gilman's regiment, April 10, 1776, in 
which are Chester names: Nathaniel Bhisdel, James 
McFarland, John Shannon, John Lane, Reuben Hall, 
Zachariah Butterfield, Jacob Lane, William Shannon, 
Theophilus Lovereign, of Raymond, Hugh Crombie, 
James Aiken. 

"July, 1776. A roll of Capt. Joseph Deaj-born's 
company. No. 6, in Col. Wyman's regiment, in the 
Continental service against Canada, as mustered and 
paid by John Dudley, Esq., muster-master and pay- 
master of said company : 

"Joseph Pearborn, capt., A. 
David Wetherspoon, lieut., A. 
Mattliias Haines, private, C. 
William Leatch, A. 
Samuel Webster, A. 
Jeremiah Richardson, A. 
Jeremiah Towle, A, 
Thomas Wells, A. 
Samuel Dinsniore, A, died. 
Anthony Towle, A. 

Peter Mo 

, B. 


r, A. 

•vies, A. 
Richatd Payne. 
Joseph Knowies, Jr., A. 
Josiah Wells, A. 
John Roberts, C. 
Thomas Wason, B. 
John Wason. 
Nathan Lane, C, d. Sept. 
Israel Griffin. 
Benjamin Cass, B. 
John Prescott. 
Moses Hills, A. 

Joshua Moores, B. 
Enoch Colby, B. 
Jacob Clifford, B. 
Obadiah Hall, A. 
Benjamin Hull, A or 1 
James Aiken, A. 
James Bell. 
Joseph Linn, A. 
Hugh McDuffee, A. 
Moses McFarland, A. 
John McClellan, A. 
David Taylor. 
Joseph Hills, Jr., A. 
Ezekiel Morse, C. 
John Batcbelder. 
John Leavitt, C. 
Ezekiel Knowies, B. 
James Wilson, A. 
James McFarland, A. 
John Vance, A. 
Ebenezer Collins. 
Asa Dearborn, A. 

" Each private received ten pounds, four shillings, 
and nine pence ; sum total, six hundred and twenty- 
nine pounds, nineteen shillings, and three pence. 
Extra wages: paid four sergeants, viz., William 
Leatch, Enoch Rowel, B, Caleb Morril, and Moses 
Sanborn, A, eiglit shillings; four corporals, viz., An- 
thony Towle, A, Benaiah Colby, A, Ezekiel Knowies, 
B, and Asa Heath, at four shillings each ; David Hill, 
B, drummer, four shillings. 

" Muster and pay-roll of men in Capt. Samuel Mc- 
Connel's company, Col. David Gilman's regiment, 
raised out of the regiment commanded by Col. John 
Webster to reinforce the Continental army at New 
York, and mustered and paid by Col. John Webster, 
December, 1776 : 

'Ezekiel Worthen, It., A. 
Ichabod Robie, sergt., B. 
John Clark, corporal, B. 
Timothy Jewel, private. 
Abraham Brown. 
Josiah Forsaith, A. 
Paul Eaton, B. 
Amos Knowies, B. 

John Clay, B. 
David Underhill, A. 
Isaac Blasdel, .\. 
Nathaniel Blasdel, A. 
Eliphalet Gordon, C. 
Peter Severance, A. 
Daniel Moody, C. 
Dearborn Heath, .\. 

"Muster and pay-roll of men raised in Col. Thorn- 
ton's and Col. Webster's regiment, to serve in Capt. 
Runnels' company, Col. Thomas Tasker's regiment, 
September 26, 1776. This company was raised from 
the Londonderry and Chester regiments. Men from 
Londonderry marked L, as far as known : 

" Daniel Runnels, capt., L. 
Samuel Ha8elton,lt., A. 
Samuel Buswell, ens., B. 
Ichabod Robie, B. 
James Sharley, A. 
Jeremiah Conner, A. 
Caleb Smith, C. 
Oilman Dudley, C. 
John Berry, A. 
Jonathan Dearborn, A. 
Nicholas Gilman, C. 
Derbon Heth, A. 
William Anderson, B. 
Moses Turner, B. 
William Wilson, B. 
William Moore, A. 
Samuel Pierce, A. 
Joseph Presby, A. 
William Wilson, A. 
Simon Towle, A. 
Jonathan Underhill, A. 
Jacob Hills, A. 
Henry Campbell, L. 
James Mooreland, L. 
John Morrison, L. 
•Tohn Cocliran, L. 
Thomas Wilson, L. 
George Orr, L. 
Joseph Caldwell, L. 
David Morrison, B. 
John Ferguson, L. 
William Moore, A. 
John Clifford, C. 
John .Sargent, C. 
Peter Haselton, A. 
Shirley, A. 
Daniel Whitcher, C. 
Thomas Archibald, L. 
Thomas Wallace, L. 
James Cambel, L. 

September 26, 

Samuel Hart. 
Benjamin H:iseltine, A 
John Colby, C. 
James Richardson. 
Robert Wason, B. 
Bracket Towle, A. 
John Shirley, A. 
David Mills, A. 
Samuel Morse, L. 
James Hazard, A. 
Samuel Dunlap. 
Josiah Dearborn, A. 
Samuel Thompson, L. 
Pierce Gage, L. 
Richard Hall. 
Zibah Kimball, L. 
John Williams, L. 
John McGown, L. 
John Tarbox, L. 
James Sprague, L. 
Abiel Cross, L. 
Arthur Darrah, L. 
Peter Robinson. 
Samuel Speiir. 
Robert Morrisson, L. 
John Hughes. L. 
William Eayers, L. 
Jonathan Holmes, L. 
John Stuart, L. 
James Ferguson, L. 
Joseph Hobbs, L. 
Andrew Robertson, L, 
John Turner. 
Humphrey Holt, L. 
Nathan Plummer, L. 
Samuel Tasker, L. 
Robert Wilson, B. 
Robert Bold, L. 
Mathew Dickey, L. 
Elijah Town, L. 
Stephen Donald, L. 
1776, by John Webster. 

" Chester and Londonderry probably belonged to 
one regiment up to 1775. 

In Raymond records, June 15, 1775, 

"Voted, To impower John Dudley, Esq., with some other persons, to 
nominate suitable persons for field officers for the regiment that did 
belong to Col. Tliornton's regiment. 

" Voted, unanimously. That they are willing that the said regiment 
should be divided into two regiments." 

" Pay-roll of Capt. Stephen Dearborn's company, 
Thomas Stickney's regiment, in Gen. Stark's brigade, 
which company marched from Chester, in the State 
of New Hampshire, and joined the Northern Conti- 
nental army, 1777, from July 19th to September 18th : 



*' Stephen Dearborn, capt., A, 

Ezekiel Lane, lieiit., C, killed. 

John Lane, Jr., 2ii lieut., A, ail- 
THnced to Ist lient. Aug. 16. 

Robert Wilson, ensign. A, ad- 
vanced to 2d It. Aug. 16. 

Andrew .\ikeu, sergt., A, ad- 
vanced to ensign Aug. 16. 

Nathaniel Maxfield, B. 

Ichabod Kobie, B. 

Ebenezer Dearborn, A. 

David Currier, A. 

Joseph Brown, A. 

JoBiah Gordon, A. 

Sherburne Dearborn, A. 

Bobert Diusmore, A. 

Joseph Cass, sergt., B. 

Bracket Towle, sergt., A. 

Thomas Dearborn, sergt., B. 

John Underbill, sergt,, A; ad- 
vanced to sergt. Aug. 16. 

Benjamin Fellows, corp. 

Levi Swain, Corp., C. 

David Underbill, corp., A. 

Robert Rowe, private, A ; advanced 
to corp. Aug. 16. 

Israel Clifford, private, B. 

Nathaniel Griffin, A. 

Joseph Peavey. 

John Ganimet, B. 

Daniel Allen, A. 

John Blake. 

Moses Leavit, C. 

Moses Web.ster, Jr., A. 

Josiah Hall, A. 

David Perkins. 

Benjamin Smith, B. 

Enoch Osgood, C. 

Samuel Roliie, A. 

Simon Towle, A. ^ 

Anthony Clifford, B. 

John Patten, A. 

James McFarbind, A. 

e, A. 

James Preshy, A. 
Joseph White, A, 
Stephen Fogg, C. 
Jacob Chase, A. 
Samuel Hills, A. 
William Towle. 
Jacob Elliot, A. 
James Richardson, 
David Patten, A. 
Moses Webster, A. 
Benjamin Haseltil 
Isaac Blastlel, A. 
Sinkler Fox. 
William Pattredge Fox. 
Jonathan Bachelor. 
Daniel Todd, C. 
Amos Kimball, A. 
Joseph Rollins. 
Samuel Fogg, C. 
Samuel Moore, B. 
Samuel Dearborn, B. 
Amos Knowles, B. 
James Libliey, B. 
Benjamin Eaton, B. 
Benjamin Wodley, B. 
Philip Morse, C. 
Robert Wilson, Jr. 
Oliver Smith, B. 
.Elisha Thomas. 
Enoch Colby, B. 
John Bagley, B. 
John Clay, B. 
Moses Emerson, B. 
Benjamin Fuller, A. 
John Knowles, A. 
William Brown, A. 
Wilkes West, A. 
Thomas Wilson, B. 
Benjamin Packard. 
John Moore, B; died Aug. 21. 
John Elliott, drummer, A. 
David Hall, A. 

" This regiment served in tlie battle of Bennington, 
August 16th. 

" Pay-roll of Capt. Moses Baker's company of 
volunteers, who marched from Candia, in the State 
of New Hampshire, and joined the Northern Conti- 
nental army at Saratoga, September, 1777. 

" Entered September 27th, discharged November 3d. 

*' Moses Baker, captain, B. 
Abraham Fitts, lieutenant, B. 
Jonathan Bagley, ensign, B. 
Isaiah Row, sergeant, B. 
Joseph Clifford, sergeant, B. 
Sewall Brown, private, B. 
Jonathan Ring, B. 
John Sargent, B. 
Nathaniel Burpee, B. 
Jacob Clifford, B. 
Benjamin Hubbart, B. 
Richard Clough, B. 
Stephen Palmer, I!. 
Enoch Bowell, B. 

James Hazard, A. 
Silas Cammet, B. 
Samuel Bagley, B. 
John Hills, B. 
Jesse Eaton, B. 
Benjamin Whitcher, 
Nathan Fitts, A. 
Samuel Haselton, A. 
John Dearborn, A. 
Josiah Flagg, A, 
Edward Robie, A. 
Moses Haselton, A. 
Stephen Hill, A. 

" Pay-roll of Capt. Joseph Dearborn's company, in 
Col. Moses Nichols' regiment ; marched to Rhode 
Island ; entered August 5th, discharged 28th -j- 2 days' 
travel home. , 

" Joseph Darbon, captain, A. 
Benj. Cass, lieutenant, B. 
J.acoh Worthen, ensign, B. 
Jabesh Hoit, sergeant, A. 
Benj. Bachelder, sergeant, B. 
Samuel Runel, sergeant. 
Ephraim Fitts, corporal, A. 
Zebulon Winslow, corporal, B. 
Aai'on Brown, corporal, B. 
Benj. True, private, A. 
Benj. Currier, A. 
John Lane, A. 
James Whitten, C. 
William Mills, A. 
Asa Dearborn, A. 
John Emerson, A. 
Benj. Haselton, A. 
Joseph Knowles, A. 

Wilks West, A. 
John Wilson, A. 
Caleb Hall, B. 
Philip Morse, C. 
Obed Edom Hall. B. 
Jonathan Camet, B. 
Silas Camet, B. 
Walter Clay, B. 
Henry Clark, B. 
Joseph Bean, B. 


vies, B. 


3 Pie 

Enoch Colby, B. 
Caleb Brown, B. 
Thomas Wilson, B. 
Oliver Smith, B. 
Burleigh Smith, B. 
William Shannon, B. 
Sewel Brown, B. 
Jonathan Pilsbury, B. 

Robert Runnels, A. 

"Allowance for forty horses at £10 each. 

" In the summer of 1778 a brigade was sent from 
New Hampshire to Rhode Island. 

"There was a company attached to Col. Peabody's 
regimept, of which Daniel Reynols, of Londonderry, 
was captain, Bracket Towle first lieutenant, and 
Jacob Elliott second lieutenant, a portion of which 
was from Chester. Entered service June 1, 1778, dis- 
charged Jan. 1, 1779 : 

"William Moore, corporal, A. 
.lames Hazzard, corporal, A. 
Jacob Lane, corporal, C. 
Samuel Robie, dri 
Dearborn Heath, A. 
Isaac Blasilel, A. 
Samuel Robie, Jr., A 
Moses Webster. 

Samuel Shannon, A. 

Pan] Healey, A. 

Jethro Colby, B. 

Thomas Shannon, B. 

John Shannon, B. 

Nath. Griffin, A. 

Isaac Colby, killed August 27th. 

Thomas Morse, C. 

"In James Aiken's company for Rhode Island, 
1778, Thomas Shirley, James Otterson, Samuel Davis, 
and Benj. True went to Rhode Island in Capt. Mars- 
ton's company, 1777. 

" In the early part of the war the soldiers were 
mainly citizens, and enlisted for short terms, and 
many of them appear on several rolls, and with a 
degree of accuracy can be assigned to their respec- 
tive towns, but later many strangers were enlisted, 
who, when their names appear on a roll, cannot be 
assigned to any town with any certainty. There are 
recruits credited to the towns, some without any men- 
tion of what companies they were a.ssigned to or 
what service engaged in. 


Michael Lamey Capt. Richards. 

James Ross, killed..Isaac Farewell. 

Bartho" Stevens Ebenz' Fry. 

Sam' Dolten " " 

Stephen Lovekin Blodgett. 

Jonathi Forsaith, died " 

John Lane " 

Josiah Hills, died Emerson. 

Sanii Hoyt 

Reuben Hall '* 

John Berry, killed " 

Elienez' Berry " 

James Akin " 

John McClennen :.. 

Jerem*» Towle " 

Chester, 1777. 


J.imes Akin, Jr Emerson. 

Wil» White " 

Enos Jewell Robertson. 

Tho" Wells Carr. 

Wil" Furnell McClary. 

Benji" Akin Emerson. 

Sam' Wells Morrill. 

Peter Wells " 

Wii™ Moore Robertson. 

Junatho Karr Fry. 

Daniel Shirlv Emerson. 

Henry True" 

Sam> Akin " 

John Vance Fry. 



"Recruits Sent 'by Col. Wfbsteb, Joly 13, 1Y79. 

Residence. Went for 

Thomaa Whittaker Chester. Chester. 

Reuben Sticknee Raj-moud. " 

Timothy Clay Caudia. ." 

Samuel Nay R. " 

Timothy Ingalls Chester. 

Jacob Elliott " " 

Phiueaa Bean Candia. Candia. 

Joseph Marston Deeifield, 

Josiah Tucker Nottingha; 


' Recruits sent i 


Enlisted for 

Thomas Wells War. 

Sanii Holt " 

George Cooper '* 

Enos Jewell ** 

Samuel Wells " 

Jeremiah GriflRn " 

Giveri np to Meredith. 

Peter Wells War. 

W" Garrison 3 years. 

Richd Flood " 

Lived in Raymond. . 
Stephen Keyes 3 years. 

Enlisted for 
Lived in Plymouth. 

Valentine Sargent 3 years. 

Lived in Londonderry. 

Joseph Davis 3 years. 

Samuel Richardson " 

George Mansfield " 

Sam^ Houston 6 mos. 

Livfid in Bedford. 

Moses Webster 6 mos, 

Sam' Robie " 

Reuben Tule " 

Dan' Parker " 

' Troops Raised in 1769 for Service in Rhode Island. 

Thomas Whittaker. 

Reuben Stickney (Raymond, ei 

listed for Chester). 
Timothy Clay. 
Samuel Nay (Raymond, for Chei 


Timothy Ingalls. 
Jacob Elliott. 

Hardy, July 28, 1779, 2 mos. 

Dearborn Heath, July 28. 1779, 2 

"July 1,1780. 

"Jonathan Wilson. 
William Moore. 
Benjamin True. 
Sami Walker. 
John Knowles. 
John Brown. 
Robert Runuels. 
Isaac Blasdell. 
Moses Webster. 
John Aiken. 
James Rusa. 
Jona. Burrow, Sergt. 
Cha" Hanson. 
Jedediah Knock. 
Sami Akens. 
Barnard Merrill. 
Jon» Rankin. 

I first.) 

Phiueas Stevens. 

(Tamworth hired hin 
Daniel Shirley. 
Samuel Wells. 
Samuel Holt. 
William Moore. 
Stephen Lufkin. 
Robert Hastina. 
Reuben Hall. 
Geo. Cooper. 
James Aken, died. 
Jeremiah Towle. 
Henry True. 
John McClennen. 
Jona. Knock. 
Abiel Stevens. 

(Tamworth hired him first.) 

"Capt. Livermore's Co., Third Regime 
juder, d. John Lane, 

npson. William Furnal. 

Josiah Wells, d. 

Sam' Dalton. 

ThoniHS Wells. 

Jona. Foi-syth. 

William White, d. 

John Vance. 

John Barry. 

Bartho Stevens. 

Eben' Barry. 

"JCLT 1,1781. 

" Parker Morse, sergt. 

Jos. Davis. 

Robert Sliarle. 

Sam' Richardson. 

Daniel Sharle. 

Sam' Houston, mos. 

William Moer. 

Moses Webster, 6 mos. 

Joseph Brown. 

Sam' Robie, 6 mos. 

John Spiller. 

Reuben Tole, 6 moa. 

Bonj. True, Jr. 

Dan' Parker, 6 mos. 

Caleb Richardson. 

Geo. Mansfield, 3 years. 

Gilbord Morse. 

Thomas Wells. 

Theoder Moree. 

Sam' Hoit. 

W°» Garrison. 

Geo. Cooper. 

(Mustered, but claimed by Mass.) 

Enos Jewell, Southampton. 

RichJ Flood. 

Peter Wells. 

Stephen Keyes. 

Joseph Davis. 

Valentine Sargent. 

Valentine Sargent, Londonderry. 

" Adoost 26, 1781. 

"Thomas Wells, war. 

Joseph Davis. 

Samuel lloit. war. 

Sam' Richardson. 

George Cooper, war. 
Enos Jewell, war. 
Jere. Gritfin, war. 

(Given up to Meredith.) 
Peter Mills, 3 years. 
William Garrison, 3 years. 
Richai'd Flood, Raymond. 
Stephen Keyes, Portsmouth. 
Valentine Sargent, Londonderry. 

Geo. Mansfield. 

Sam' Houston. Bedford, 6 I 

Moses Webster. 

Sam' Robie. 

Reuben Tole. 

Daniel Parker. 

Charles Mann. 

Jonathan Conant. 

"John Worth. 
Reuben Stickney. 
Joseph Tucker. 
Daniel Clay. 
Abraham Brown. 
Ed* Hamilton. 
Moses Basford. 

" Apml 12, 1782. 

Thomas Dullof. 
Eben' Currier. 
William Batchelder. 
William Hall. 
Daniel Doyne. 
Rol.t a. Hill. 
Andrew Nelson. 

"There is a history of the First New Hampshire 
Eegiuient, by Frederic Kidder, 1868, containing a roll 
of the enlisted men who served between January, 1777, 
and January, 1782, which contains the names of John 
Knook and David Shirley, of Chester, and of Thomas 
Capron, of Candia, not on the foregoing list. 

" The foregoing is a list of the soldiers furnished by 
Chester, as correct as can be conveniently made from 
the army rolls; but those cover so much ground, and 
so many strange names occur, which are not assigned 
to any particular town, that it is probably very incom- 
plete. There are names of men on the town accounts 
to whom bounties were paid, and the names of others 
to whom notes were paid, probably for bounties, with- 
out being so designated, which mostly, if not all, are 
included in the foregoing rolls, so that it was not 
thought best to spend the time in collecting and space 
in the history to print it. 

" Great exertion had to be used to raise men. The 
town was divided into classes, according to the num- 
ber of men to be raised, and one or more men assigned 
to each class, which they were required to raise. The 
town was also classed to raise beef and corn for the 
army, and also to support the soldiers' families. 

" The following specimen of the requisitions was 
found among the papers of Col. Stephen Dearborn : 

"'To Oapt. Stephen Deabbdhn and Robert Rowk; Agreeably to 
an act of the General Court and a vote of the town, the following per- 
sons who are named, with the amount of their ratable estate, are to pro- 
cure an able-bodied, effective man for th» Continental service three years, 
or during the war, to be ready